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Full text of "First report of the Royal Commission on Opium : with Minutes of evidence and appendices"

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X3NNV 

Ayvyan 



VJSV 







a^atmll ^'l^imxBit^ library 

Stljara, 2Jjni fork 

CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 
COLLECTION 

CHINA AND THE CHINESE 



THE GIFT OF 
CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 
CLASS OF 1876 
1918 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924073053864 



EOYAL COMMISSION ON OPIUM. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE 



TAKEN BEFORE THE Z^, 

7/3 




EOYAL COMMISSION ON OPIUM 



FROM 



29th January to 22nd February 1894, 



WITH 



APPENDICES. 



VOL. IV. 



T^xt^tvxt'a to fiotj^ |i^0U0e0 of Parliament Dp arommatntr of ^tx Mmui^> 




LONDON: 

FEINTED FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 

BY EYEB AND SPOTTISWOODB, 

PBIISTEKS TO THE QUEEn's MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 



And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODB, East Haeding Street, Fleet Stbeet, E.G., and 
32, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W. ; or 

JOHN MENZIES & Co., 12, Hanover Street, Edinburgh, and 
90, West Nile Street, Glasgow; or 

HODGES, FIGGIS, & Co., Limited, 104, Grafton Street, Dublin. 



1894. 

[0.— 7471. J Vrim 4s. M. 






V\fu(pAr 



ROYAL COMMISSION ON OPIUM. 



Minutes of Evidence taken in India between 29th January and 
22nd February 1894, with Appendices. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



LIST OF WITNESSES. 




Janua-EY •29th. Fifty-eighth Day. 
Jeypore. 

Rao Bahadur Kanlee Chunder Mookerjee, 

CLE. 
Surgeon Lieut.-Col. Hendley, CLE. 
Rao Bahadur Thakur Gobind Singh 
Thakur Futteh Singh . - - 

Hakim Abdul GuflFur 
Dhanna Lall Balabun 
Chote Khan Jan Muhammad 
Asgar Ali Hussain 

January 30th. Fifty-ninth Day. 
Ajmere. 

Lieut.-Col. H. B. Abbott 
Mr. J. P. Hewett 

January 31st. Sixtieth Day. 
Ajmere. 

Mehta Bhopal Singh 

Sahiwala Hamir Singh 

Mr. Nathuji Punjawat 

Thakur Manohar Singhji 

Mohun Lai Vishnu Lai Pandia 

Ram Chandra Megraj 

Kirat Singh 

Seth Daulat Ram 

Mir Mahmud Hussain 

Thakur Bahadur Singh 

Govind Ram 

Rao Bahadur Apji Araar Singh 

Chaube Raghunath Das 

Sirdar Mull 

Karan Chand 

February 1st. Sixtt-fikst Day. 
Ajmere. 

Colonel Trevor, CS.I. 
Surgeon-Major Adams, M.D. 
Bohra Meghbaban 
Bohra Rattan Lai 
Patel Sheobuksh 
Pandit Brij Nath 
Thakur Bridhi Singh 
Thakur Bahadur Singh 
Seth Rikab Das 
Seth Milap Chand 
Seth Nemi Chand 

February 2nd. Sixty-second Day. 
Ajmere. 
Surgeon-Major D. Ffreuch-MuUen 
Singhji Surajmal 
Kabiraj Murardan 

I 82588. Wt, P. 2150. 



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Pandit Madho Prasad 

Bhati Raghunath Singh 

Mehta Ratan Lai 

Thakur Bulidana 

Mehta Hamirmall 

Singhji Jowan Mai Sayar 

Raj Prithi Raj - - 

Rao Bahadur Vinayek Rao Ganesli 

Samarth. 
Seth Nand Ram 
Seth Ratan Lai - 
Dr. William Huntly 
The Rev. C H. Plomer 
Brigade Surgeon Lieut.-Col. T. Ffrench- 

Mullen 
Surgeon Captain .Neilson, M.B. 



February 3kd. Sixty-third Day. 
Ajmere. 

The Rev. C W. de Souza - 
Mrs. Louise Dry man 
Lieut.-Col. H. B. Abbott (further exa- 
mined) 
Thakur Sawai Singhji 
Rao Bahadur Siyam Suudar Lai 
Pandit Jeyshunker Nurshee Ram 
Umacharaa Mukhyopadhya 
Munshi Bhola Nath Kamdar 
Sah Badri Lall 

Mr. R. M. Dane (further examined) 
Captain Melvill 
Rao Kesri Singh 
Subadar Dalla 
Seth Sobhag Mull 



February 6th. Sixty -fourth Dat. 
(Section A., ludore.) 

Mr. R. J. Crosthwaite, C.S.I. 

Lieut. Col. Robertson 

Brigade-Surgeon Lieut.-Col. Keegan, 

M.D. 
Surgeon-Major Dane 
Surgeon Lieut. -Colonel Caldecott 

February 7th. Sixty-fifth Day. 
(Section A., Indore.) 

Surgeon Major Gimlette 
Lieut.-Col. Robertson (further examined) 
Santajirao Sahib Temak 
Lieut.-Col. Sir Michael Filose 
Riio Bahadur K. C Bedarkar 
Chintamanrao Vinayak Vaidya, M.A., 
LL.B. 



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a 2 



Name. 




Maharaja Chaiii Singh 

Seva Ram Samantrani 

Vallabha Deva 

Narayan Das 

Sirsubha Sakharam Martand 

Bakshi Khuman Singh, C.S.I. 

Sadashiv Vishwanath Dhurandhar, B.A., 

LL.B. 
Soma Bin Udai Ram Patel 
Ram Chandra Padya 
Mr. R. M. Dane (further examined) 



(Section B., Ahmedabad.) 

Mr, Anant Gangadhar Khotc 

Mr. Ralph Kershaw 

Major W. B. Ferris 

Mr. A. F. Maconochie 

Mr. F. S. P. Lely 

Mr. H. O. Quinn 

Khan Bahadur Bahmanji E. Modi 

R.10 Bahadur Sardar Beohardas Veharidas 

Mr. Motibhai Raghunathji Pandia 

Rao Bahadur Ranchodlal Chota Lai, CLE 

Rao Bahadur Chunilal Venilal 

Darasha Hormasji Baria 

Pi'abhashankar Makariji Bhat 

Mr. Lalubhai Samaldas 

Dr. Shivnath Ramnath 



February 8th. Sixty-sixth 
(Section A., Indorc.) 



Day. 



Mir Munshi Imtiaz AH 

Ram Krishna Mahipat 

Wasudeo Trimbak Kapsy 

Rao Bahadur Vishnu Keshava Kunte, 

B.A, 
Mr. Krishna Rao IMule 
Sayad Nasir Ali 
Lala Ajudhia Pershad 
Khan Bahadur Yar Muhammad Khan 
Khan Bahadur Cursetji Rustamji Thane- 

■walla - 
Kunwar Jasu-ant Singh 
Khan Bahadur N. M. Khory 
Mr. R. M. Dane (further examined) 
The Rev. J. F. Campbell 
The Rev. W, A. Wilson 
Mr. Cyrus P. Anketell 
Mr. A. Harbhajan Das 
Miss O'Hara 
Klian Singh Ramsing 
Mr. Joseph Namaji 
The Rev. J. Wilkie 
Dr. .John Buchanan 
The Rev. Norman H. Russell 
Mr. Edwin J. Drew 
The Rev. J. Wilkie (further examined) 
Mr. J. P. Hewett 

(Section B., Alimedabad.j 

Mr. Bunchordas Jaishankar Bakshi 

Bharot Umlu Vaja 

Mr. Malek Ali Nowrang 

Mr. Mathurbhai Varajbhai 

Mr. Girdharlal Hirabhtii 

Mr. Ajitrai Shivadas - 

Mr. Joseph Benjamin 

Rawal Shri Harisinghiji Rup.singhji 

Khunian Biioj Oghad 

Mr. Dp-aibhai Kalidas 

Mr. .hr.^inghbhai Hatliisingh 

ilr ]M(>ti!aI Khushalji 



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Name. 



Page. 



Mr. Raisinghji Shivsinghji 
Mr. Vajesingh Jinaji Grirasia - 
Mr. Bhosingliiji 
Mr. JSTagji JSJathu 
Rao Bahadur Narsiram 
Mr. Sarangdhar Mulshankar 
Hakim Abdul Razak 
Vaidya Raghunathji [ndraji 
Mr. Devkaram Maoji 
Mr. Lalbhai Morarji Desai 
Mt Waghji Fateh 
Mr. Ladha Damodar 
Mr. Bapumia Shermia 
Mr. Khodidas Vishvanath 

Fbbedary 9th. Sixty-sbvbnth Day. 
(Section B., Ahmedabad.) 

Seth Mayabhai Premabhai 
Mr. Nanabhai Dajibhai 
Dr. Hari Bhikaji 
Assistant Surgeon T. M. Shah 
Mr. Appaji Govindrao Kale 
Mr. Muhammad bin Hadi 
Rao Sahib Narsilal Rewadas 
Parakh Sakaichand Nihalchand 
Seth Hatisingh Gulabchand 
Mir Shri Abhesinghji 
Mr. Chotilal Pranjivandas 
Mr. Ishwarlal Ochavram 
Pandit Ganesh Gopal 
Mr. Jivanlal Chotalal 
Mr. Jatashankar Jagjivan 
Mr. Dayabhai Nathabhai 
Rao Bahadur Duterai Girdharlal 
Rao Sahib Motilal Hirabhai 

Febkdary 10th. Sixty-eighth Day. 
(Section B., Ahmedabad.) 

Mr. VakhatchanJ ITraedchand 

Mr. Asharam Dalechand 

Mr. Chaturbhai Jivabhai 

Mr. Eustomji Hormasji 

Mr. Maganlal Tribhovandas 

Rana Sagranji Khodabhai 

Mr. G. B. Reid 

Kavishwar Dalpatram Dayabhai, CLE. 

Mr. Mavalji Jijibhai 

Mr. Lakshman Rao Gangadhar 

Mr. Leherchand Lalchand 

Sheth Devchand Nagar 

February 12th. Sixty-ninth Day. 
Bombay. 

The Hon. T. D. Mackenzie 

Brigade Surgeon Lieut.-Col. J. Arnott, 
M.D. . 

Brigade Surgeon Lieut.-Col. J. A. Mac- 
onochie, M.D. 

Surgeon Colonel H. Cook, M.D. 

Surgeon Major D. Parakh 

Surgeon Major H. W. Boyd 

Mr. J. M. Campbell, CLE. 

Mr. J. P. Hewett, CLE. 

Surgeon Lieut.-Col. T. Weir 

TJie Hon. C. S. Crole 

Febkuauy 13th. Seventieth Day. 
(Section A., Bombay.) 

The Hon. Javerilal (Jmiashankar Yainik 

Mi-. D. M. Slater 

Mr. Badrudin Abdulla Kur 

Mr. S. A. Natban 



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Name. 




Mr. E. S. Gubbay 

Mr. Dayabhai Tapidas 

Mr. Vrijbhukandas Atmaram 

Mr. Gordhandas Khatao 

Mr. Dbaramsi Sunderdas 

Mr. Tribhovandas Jagjivandas 

Thakar Haridas Maoji 

Mr. Mancharji M. Mulab Firoz - 

Mr. Hormasji Kuvarji Setna 

Mr. Karimbhai Ibrahim 

Mr. Mirza Husain Khan 

Mr. Tribhovandas Varjivandas 

(Section B., Bombay.) 
Surgeon Lieut.-Col. Mayne 
Surgeon Lieut.-Col. W. Browne, M.D. 
Surgeon Major W. King 
Surgeon Major A. Sturmer 
Assistant Surgeon Mohamed Osman Sahib 

Bahadur 
The Hon. C. S. Crole 
Mr. B. V. Ramanarasu Pantulu 
Mr. Dondapati Jangam 
Mr. W. Venkatapiah Pantulu Garu 
The B.ev. W. Curties 
Haji Mirza Mehdi Ispahani 
Mr. G. T. Vurgese 
Colonel C. A. Porteous 

February 14th. Seventy-first Day. 
Bombay. 
Mr. P. P. Home 

Mr. J. M. Campbell, CLE. (further 
examined) - - - 

Dr. E,. N. Khory, M.D. 
Dr. J. Gerson da Cunha 
Mr. V. N. Mehta 
Dr. P. E. Madon 
Dr. J. C. Lisboa 
Dr. Edalji Nassarwanji 
Dr. J. A. Da Gama 
Df. Temulji Bhikaji Nariman 
Mr. Manekji D. Cama - 
Mr. A. J. BocaiTO 
Mr. G. B. Prabhakar 
Khan Bahadur Dossabhai Pestonji 
Mr. B. H. NTanavati 
Dr. Vishram Eamji Ghole 
Mr. Ganesh Krishna Garde 
Mr. R. M. Dane (further examined) 

February 15th. Seventy-second Day. 

Bombay. 

Dr. Eustam N. Eanina - 
The Hon. T. D. Mackenzie (further exa- 
mined) - - - 
Mr. W. Porteous 
The Rev. D. O. Fox 
Dr. Thos. Blauey 

Khan Bahadur Kazi Shahabudin, CLE. - 
The Eev. A. W. Prauteh 
Mr. E. M. Gordon 
Mr. S. C. Kanaga Batnam 
Mr. Mansukh Lai 
Pandit Ganesh Anant Bhide 
Surgeon Major K. R. Kirtikar 
Surgeon Lieut.-Col. Bartholomeusz 

February 16th. Seventy- third Day. 

Bombay. 

Mr. A. H. Plunkett 

Vaid Parbhuram Jivapram t 



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Mr. Geo. Cotton - - - 309 

Mr. W. R. Scroggie - - 310 

Mr. A. J. Dunlop 311 
Rao Bahadur Govindrao Ramchandra 

Garud - 311 

Mr. Dadamia Anwarka - • - 312 

Mr. FazluUah Lutfullah - 312 

Maulvi Hidayat CTlla Sahib - 313 

The Hon. W. K. Macdonnell - 314 

Mr. Gulabrai Durgaram Mancharam - 316 

Mr. R. H. Vincent, CLE. - 318 

Mr. Thakersey Gangaram - 319 

Mr. Shivmukrai Sureka - - 319 
Mr. J. M. Campbell, CLE. (further 

examined) - 320 

The Rev. Thos. Hudson - - 322 



February 17th. Seventy -fourth Day. 

Bombay. 

Mr. A. Wingate, CLE. - 323 

Mr. D. M. Slater (further examined) 325 

Mr. Bustomji Pestonji Jehangir 326 

Dr. C F. Underwood, M.D. - 328 

The Eev. M. B. Fuller - - 330 
Mr. Eustomji Pestonji Jehangir (further 

examined) - 333 

Mr. Dhanjibhai Dorabji Gilder 333 

The Rev. Sumant Vishnu Karmarkar - 335 
Mr. Meruji Dosaji Chudasama and 

Sirdarsinghji Rana - - 336 



February 19th. Seventy-fifth Day. 
Bombay. 

Mr. J. P. Hewett, CLE. - 337 

Dr. R. N. Banina (further examined) - 337 

Mr. J. G. Alexander (further examined) - 337 

Brigade Surgeon Lieut.-Col. J. Gaffney - 338 

Surgeon Major W. Quayle - 340 

Mr. Haridas Chatterji - 340 

Mr. W. J. Gladwin - 342 

Mr. Kalidas Chowdhri - - 344 

Rai Bahadur Raghoba Maliadik - 345 

Lala Nand Ki shore - 346 

Dr. C S. Durand - 346 

Mr. J. P. Marzban - 348 

Dr. F. B. Seervai - - 349 

Mr. AbduUa M. Dharamsi - - 350 

Captain H. S. Blackburne 350 

Mr. John Fritchley - 352 

The Rev. H. Laflamme . . - 353 

Mr. R. M. Ramachendram - 357 

Rao Sahib Rambilas - 358 



February 20th. Seventy-sixth Day. 

Bombay. 

Mr. A. J. Dunlop - - - 359 

Colonel K. Mackenzie, CLE. - 362 

Rao Sahib Deorao Vinayak 363 

Nawab Muhammad Salamullah Khan 364 

Mr. G. S. Khaparde - 365 

Mr. R. M. Dane (further examined) - 366 

Ths Hon. Gangadhar Rao Chiinavis - 367 

Rao Bahadur Tadorao Pande - 367 

Rao Sahib Bihari Lai - 368 

Surgeon Major C Henderson - 36S 

The Rev. W. E. Robbins - 369 



8258 



yi 



Name. 


Page. 


Name. 


Page. 


Mr. Drake Brockmau 

Mr. J. P. Hewett, C.I.B. 


371 
373 


ADDENDUM. 

January 23rd. 




February 22nd. Seventy-seventh Day. 

Bombay. 
Mr. J. P. Hewett, CLE. 


373 


Delhi. 

Eai Bahadur Raghunath Singh 
Rai Bahadur Eamkishan Das 


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375 



LIST OF APPENDICES. 



Name. 



I. — Summary of opinions on opium, &c. 
collected by Surgeon Lieut.-Col. Hendley 

II. — Analysis, made in 1893 by Surgeon 
Lieut.-Col. Hendley, of the cases of 
4,409 opium eateis in Jeypore 

III. — Note on the administration of 
opium to children, by Surgeon Lieut.- 
Col. Hendley 

IV. — Questions issued by Lieut.-Colonel 
Abbott to the Durbars of the Native 
States in Raj pu tana, with connected 
correspondence 

V. — Communications addressed to the 
Commission by the Maharaja of Karauli 
and the Maha Ravval of Bauswara, 
Rajputana 

VI. — Statistics regarding opium in the 
Native States in Rajputana 

VII. — Statistics regarding cost of culti- 
vation of certain crops in Meywar, 
Rajputana 

VIII. — Memorandum on the Opium 
Excise in Ajruere Merwara 

IX. — Data of 100 fuses of opium eating 
recorded by Dr. Huntly 

X. — Questions regarding opium issued by 
Lieut.-Col. D. Robertson to the Durbars 
of ihe Native States in Central India 

XI. — Statistics regarding opium iu the 
Native States in Central India 

XII. — Statement showing retail prices of 
opium in some of the most important 
towns in Central India 

XIII. — Abstracts of evidence of witnesses 
tendered for examination from the 
Native States iu Central India, but not 
examined by the Royal Commission 

XIV. — Statistics regarding production 
and consumption of home-grown opium 
in the Baroda State ... 

XV. — Statement showing transactions in 
Baroda-growu opium, 1879-91 

XVI. — Correspondence regarding the 
opium question in the Bhaunagar 
State 

XVII. — Statistics regarding opium con- 
sumers in the Junagadh gaol 



376 
381 
382 

384 

388 
392 

400 

402 
404 

405 

406 

417 

417 

424 

425 

426 
431 



Name. 



XVIII. — Memorandum on the admini- 
stration of opium revenue in the 
Madras Presidency, by the Hon. 0. S. 
Crole 

XIX. — Abstracts of evidence of wit- 
nesses tendered for examination from 
the Madras Presidency ,but not examined 
by the Royal Commission 

XX. — Note on the system of excise 
management of opium in the Bombay 
Presidency, by the Hon. T. D. Mac- 
kenzie - - 

XXI. — Note by Mr. Home regarding 
signatures to the Petition against the 
use of opium, presented to Parliament 
by certain medical practitioners in 
Bombay 

XXIL— Extract from "The Lives of 
Bombay Opium Smokers," by Mr. 
Rustomji Pestonji Jehangir 

XXIII. — Abstracts of evidence of the 
Hon. W. Lee-Warner and the Hon. 
Pazalbhai Vishram 

XXIV. — Note on children's pills, or Bala- 
goli, by Mr. J. M. Campbell 

XXV. — Letter from the Minister of His 
Highness the Nizam to Mr. Plowden 
the Resident at Hyderabad 

XXVI. — Memorandum on the System of 
Opium Excise in the Hyderabad State, 
by Mr. Dunlop 

XXVII. — Abstracts of evidence of wit- 
nesses tendered for examination at 
Hyderabad from the Hyderabad State, 
but not examined by the Royal Com- 
mission 
XXVIIl. — Statistics regarding the con- 
sumption of opium, and the revenue 
derived from opium in the Hyderabad 
Assigned Districts (Berar) 

XXIX. — Memorandum on the admini- 
stration of the Excise revenue from 
opium iu the Central Provinces 
XXX. — Abstracts of evidence of wit- 
nesses tendered for examination from 
the Central Provinces, but not examined 
by the Royal Commission 



432 

448 
455 

481 

485 

495 
498 

499 

500 

505 

510 
oil 

523 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE, 



VOL. IV, 



At the Albert Hall, Jeypore. 



FIFTY-EIGHTH DAY. 



Monday, 29th January 1894. 



The Eight Hon. LORD BRASSBY, K.C.B,, Chairman, pkesidins. 



Sir Jamus Lyall, G.C.I.E., K.O.S.I. 
Sir "WiLiiAM Roberts, M.D., F.R.S. 
Mr. R. a. 0. MowjsKAY, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fansuawe. 



Mr. Aethue Pease, 

Mr. Haeidas Yehahidas Desai. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Peescott Hewett, O.I.E., Secretary, 



Rao Bauadue Kantee Chundek Mookerjee, O.I.B., called in and examined. 



20,161. (Gliairman.) I believe you aro chief member 
of tho Jcyporo Council and an hereditary village 
grant-holder and Tazimi Sirdar of tbe State ? — Yes. 

20,165. How long have you hold your present high 
ofiioo in Jeypore ? — For the last 10 years ad chief 
member of council. I came here in January 1865, as 
Principal of the Maharaja's CoUefto. After 12 years I 
was promoted to the Maharaja's Council as u, member, 
and afterwards I was nominated as chief member of the 
council. 

20.166. In short, you have had a long service in 
Jeypore in highly responsible positions, and you are, 
therefore, eminently in a position to give us informa- 
tion on the subject j-eferred to this Commission in 
so far as it relates to tho State with which you aro 
connected ? — That is so. 

20.167. I believe you yourself have had some 
experience as an opium-eater ? — Yes. 

20.168. Will you tell us your experience ? — I take 
one and a half grains of opium in the morning, and the 
same dose in the evening. I commenced it 15 years 
ago for chronic diarrhoea. I have got rid of the 
disease. During the whole period I have been eating 
opium I uovor felt the least craving to increase the 
dose. I was so afflicted with bodily infirmities at the 
age of 44, that if I had not used opium I believe either 
my life would have been cut short altogether ur I 
would have been iinable to discharge the duties that 
then devolved on me. I have been so benefited that I 
should recommend it to my friends under similar cir- 
cumstances. I am now olt, and I think I can safely 
say that I am quite equal to my duties. I am a living 
instance of the benefit, of opium in moderation to a 
man physically disabled. The reason which generally 
induces people to commence taking opium is decline of 
health. It is taken especially for dyspepsia, diarrhoea, 
or any other disorder of the stomach or bowels, and 
affections of the lungs, such as bronchitis, asthma, and 
catarrh. The habit is generally formed between 30 
and 40, when in tropical climates health and strength 
have, it is believed, a tendency to decline. Men 
generally begin with a grain a daj' and may go up to 
eight grains. There are rare instances of men going up 
to a tola a day. Instances of women using opium for 
the same purposes are not so frequent as among men, 
nor do they use so much in quantity. 

20.169. Will you give ns your opinion as to the value 
of opium when used in moderate quantities? — Opium 
in m.oderate quantities is a protection against climatic 
influences, which are injurious to health. Conse- 
quently, those who use it moderately are less liable to 
disease than those who do not use it. The moderate 
use of opium improves the general health and protects 
the physical powers from the impairing effects of age. 
Hence, persons who take opium moderately are likely 
to live longer than others. It is often the jiractice here 
1o give very small doses of opium to children for 
alleviating the troubles which arise from teething. 
The practice has been found beneficial. It is generally 
stopped at the fourth or fifth year. The moderate use 
of opium does not often lead to excess, nor does it 

O 82588. 



produce a craving which, in too many instances of 
alcohol drinkers, becomes almost irresistible and can 
with difficulty bo suppressed. The relief which the 
moderate use of opium affords, might sometimes incline 
an opium-eater to increase the dose. There are cases, 
though very rare, in which opium is taken merely as an 
intoxicant, and such use might also lead to excess. 

20,170. Comparing the effect of the use of opium 
even when used immoderately with alcohol, what have 
you to say ? — The immoderate use of opium may make 
one indolent and injure health ; but it never causes 
that sort of degradation and depravity found in cases of 
immoderate drinking. When the excessive use of 
opium so impairs one's capacity for work as to affect 
the earnings, then, of course, poverty and domestic 
misery are the results ; but unlike most other intoxi- 
cants it never makes a man troublesome in the family 
circle or to his neighbours. Sensuality is not a result 
of opium-eating, nor does it cause insanity or make one 
indecent or offensive. It does not lead to crimes. In 
large cities hundreds of cases of crimes due to alcohol 
come before tho mauistrate ; crimes are often traceable 
also to ganja and cEaras ; but during the 30 years of 
my official career I never heard of a single case in which 
an opium-eater was charged with crimes traceable to 
the habitual use of opium. An opium-eater may rob 
and commit other crimes like an ordinary criminal, but 
not because he eats opium. Immoderate opium-eaters, 
if in want of money wherewith to purchase the drug, 
may betake themselves to gambling in expectation of 
giin. HoM'cver. here in Jeypore, opium is so cheap 
that those using the drug even in excess can easily 
afi'ord to pay for it. In the course of my ofl&cial career 
I never came across a case of gambling traceable to the 
habitual use of opium. The evil effects of the excessive 
use of the intoxicants known to the natives of Rajputana 
might be summed up as follows : — 

Free indulgence in alcohol excites people to madness; 
ganja and cliaras tend to make them extremely irri- 
table and quarrelsome ; bhang in excess stupefies and 
often disposes men to court solitude ; while the im- 
moderate use of opium, which is rather a soothing 
anodjme, makes one indolent and ease-seeking. People 
do not use opium in the belief that it increases the 
sexual appetite, nor for the sake of restoring it when 
failing. The general impression rather is that the 
excessive use of opium impairs the sexual powers. 
It has never been known to mcrease the appetite, nor 
does it restoi'e tho power when failing. However, as 
opium in moderation improves the general health, it 
must indirectly have an effect in keeping a man's 
powers in this direction unimpaired. People sometimes 
use bhang in the belief that it increases tho appetite, 
but I do not know whether it does. 

20,171. Is tho habit of taking opium in moderate 
quantities considered disgraeeful? — Hindus, Mahome- 
dans . and .Jains do not consider it disgraceful to take 
opium habitually in moderate quantities. It is only 
ivhen one runs into excess that he may be ashamed of 
the factr of his eating opium, just as a glutton is 
ashamed of his voraciou-^ness, or tho drunkard of hi* 
inebriety. 

A 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Chunder 

Mookerjee, 

CLE. 

(Jeypore 

State.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Chunder 

Mookerjee, 

CLE. 

(^Jeypore 

State.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



20.172. Is opium-eating prohibited by the Hindus, 
Jains, and Mahomedans ? — Opium-eating is not pro- 
hibited by the religion of the Hindus, Jains, and 
Mahomedans. There is also no religious prohibition 
against the use of bhang, charas, and ganja. Bhang 
and ganja are rather looked upon as sacred to Shiva, 
who is said to be very fond of them. Alcohol is strictly 
prohibited by the Hindu religion, except when pre- 
scribed as a medicine and except in the case of the 
worshippers of Sakti or Kali, who use it on certain 
occasions. However, if in the observance of tlieir 
religious rites they give way to excess, this is considered 
discreditable. The Rajputs and other warlike races 
among the Hindus are allowed by their religion to 
take alcohol. It is against the religion of the Mahome- 
dans to take it, while ganja, charas, and bhang are not 
so strictly forbidden to the Mahomedans. 

20.173. What do you say as to the prohibition of 
opium except for purely medical purposes ? — The 
prohibition of opium except for purely medical purposes 
would most certainly lead to an extended use of 
alcoholic liquor, though it is not likely to prove, in this 
country, a suitable substitute for opium. Bhang, 
ganja, and other intoxicating drugs will also take the 
place of opium. Inasmuch as Rajputs, Meenas, .Jats, 
GujarB, and other warlike races among the Hindus 
have no religious scruples to face in the taking of 
alcoholic liquor, it is certain that in their case alcohol 
will take the place of opiu m ; while manj' of the other 
opium-eating Hindus will be under temptation to 
drink alcoholic liquor as a substitute for opium. Those 
who do violate the injunctions of their religion by 
taking alcohol, will have recourse to lies and deception 
of diiferent kinds to conceal the fact from their co- 
religionists. A great majority of the opium-eaters 
among Mahomedans will presumably think of alcohol 
as a substitute for opium, in spite of the perdition with 
which their " Prophet" threatens all alcohol drinkers. 
Jains would mostly use bhang for opium. Apart from 
the religious aspects of the question, the substitution 
of alcohol for opium will prove a source of domestic 
misery, will create evils in society that do not now 
exist, and will, in short, be nothing less than a 
calamity to the Hindu, Jain, and Mahomedan com- 
munities. Again, it would not at all be wise on other 
grounds to limit the use of opium to medical purposes 
only. As far as Jeypore is concerned, I do not see how 
such a measure could be carried into effect in the 
districts, mostly inhabited by the agricultural and 
pastoral classes, of whom no less than 10 per cent, are 
habitual opinm-eaters, and more than 30 per cent, use 
opium occasionally either as a medicine for certain 
diseases or as an antidote against the injurious effects 
of damp and cold to which their occupation unavoidably 
exposes them too often. Moreover, there are hundreds 
of isolated villages in which even the native Vaid is 
unknown. The inhabitants look upon opium as a 
panacea, and to them the drug has, no doubt, proved 
an effectual and at the same time a cheap medicine. 
No sympathetic and humane Government ought to 
impose such a lestriotion on the use of opium in their 
ease, unless it can afford to make ample provision for 
extending to every one of them the benefits of free 
medical advice and proper medicines. This will 
certainly be a difficult and expensive business. Jeypore 
has an area of 14,465 square miles, with a population of 
three millions, while the provision made for their 
medical treatment consists of 19 dispensaries supported 
by the Raj and six by the nobles. Each of these 
dispensaries is looked after by a single hospital assis- 
tant. So there is but one medical officer to .578 square 
miles of the territory and to a population of 120,000 
souls. Under the above circumstances, the prohibition 
in question, if enforced, ivill subject the masses to 
difficulties and inconveniences of which they could not 
possibly be relieved. Even if arrangements could be 
made for placing, free of cost, proper medicines and 
medical advice within their easy reach, it is doubtful 
whether it will satisfy the people. Ignorant as they 
are, they can hardly bo expected to submit to the 
prohibition without a feeling of resentment and a 
bitter sense of injustice. They have unbounded con- 
fidence in the efficacy of opium, and they could not 
easily be induced to accept in lieu of it something else 
of which they know nothing. 

20,174. Do you consider that the use of stimulant in 
some form or other is necessary to a large degree for 
the populations with which you have to deal P — The 
taking of alcoholic liquor by all classes, in its various 
forms, is very common in cold countries ; and when 
taken in moderation, it is allowed by the most eminent 



medical authorities to be, as society is at present con- 
stituted, beneficial, rather than otherwise. I need 
scarcely mention that the trades, arts, and manufactures 
of Europe would suffer greatly if the use of alcohol 
were limited to medical purposes. Here in India tho 
labouring and artisans classes, more especially those 
among them whose occupation requires hard application 
and close attention, feel equally the necessity of some 
stimulant to shake off the ennui or lassitude to which 
the climate of their country subjects them. They have 
practically found opium and tobacco to be the most 
effectual and cheapest stimulants, and they can scarcely 
manage to do without them. The enamel-workers of 
this city afford an illustration of the above remark. 
The best enamel-workers are, with a very few exceptions, 
habitual opium-eaters. Unless stimulated by tho use 
of opium, they find themselves ill prepared for their 
business, which requires close and undivided attention. 
With the permission of the Royal Commission, I can 
produce Goma, the best enamel-worker of Jeypore, who 
is waiting outside at my request. Ho is 70 years old, 
and a habitual opium-eater. He will speak for himself 
and his brother artisans. The prohibition in question 
will, in their case, seriously affect the art, and with it 
the world-wide renown which Jeypore enjoys for the 
exquisite beauty of its enamel work. The prohibition 
must likewise affect more or less the other fine arts for 
which Jeypore is famous. 

20.175. Is the use of opium mixed up closely with 
any religious and social customs of the Rajputs ? — Tho 
prohibition will also affect many of the religious and 
social customs of the Rajputs, to which they attach 
much importance. On occasions of the annual celebra- 
tion of the religious festivals of Akshay Tij, Holi, and 
Dusserah opium-eating is looked upon as highly 
auspicious and conducive to prosperity and happiness. 
Opium is accordingly distributed among relations, as 
well as among friends and dependants, whether Hindus 
or Mahomedans, and the drug is partaken by all con- 
cerned as something sacred. Marriage contracts and 
the celebration of marriage among Rajputs are con- 
sidered neither auspicious nor valid unless opium is 
eaten on such occasions. Opium is also used on 
occasions of funeral ceremonies. Moreover, when two 
inveterate enemies become reconciled, and propose to 
pass the rest of their lives peacefully, they generally 
partake of opium at each other's hands ; and this 
practice is recognised as making the tie of friendship 
inviolable. If either of the two parties decline to take 
opium, it is understood that he is not disposed to abide 
by his promises. It is generally the practice among 
natives of India to offer some refreshments to a friend 
or acquaintance who comes to pay a visit. Pan-siipari 
(betel and betel-nuts), tobacco, and spices are often 
presented, but a Rajput would offer opium as an 
unmistakable token of friendship and attachment. 
Under the above circumstances, I do not see how such 
a prohibitive measure could be carried into effect in 
Rajputana. It will be idle to expect the co-operation 
of the several chiefs who, as Rajputs, must feel 
personally interested in the maintenance of tho 
religious and social customs of their ancestors, and as 
leaders and protectors of their clansmen and subjects 
they must feel it their duty to preserve intact the 
practices which, in the estimation of tho Rajputs, as a 
nation, are sacred. If any chief were to break through 
this double obligation and come forward to assist "in 
enforcing tho said prohibition, his people would, I need 
scarcely mention, look upon him as an apostate. He 
would thus be placed in a very delicate and dan- 
gerous position, which could not possibly be minimised 
even by the protective influence of the Paramount 
Power. 

20.176. Do you consider that oases of the immoderate 
use of opium are becoming less and less frequent 
among the people of whom you speak ?— Tho evils of 
tho immoderate use of opium are daily becoming more 
and more manifest, so much so indeed as to act as a 
deterrent to those inclined to go astray. The excessive 
use of tho drug is accordingly diminishing. The 
traditional accounts we so often hear of immoderate 
opinm-eaters who lived during the 17th and 18th 
centuries, and even in the beginning of the present 
century, are amazing, even when divested of what are 
apparent exaggerations. But at present a single im- 
moderate opium-eater of the type portrayed by tradi- 
tion is nowhere met with or heard of in Rajputana, nor 
are immoderate opium-eaters so numerous now as they 
were formerly. A hundred cases of opium-eating may 
afford but two or three instances of excessive use, which 
even does not exceed one iola a day. The progress of 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCB. 



education and of civilisation discernible in all directions 
should be relied on as the surest means of stamping out 
the evil from Eajputana. It is, therefore, scarcely 
neeossary for the Durbar to adopt special measures 
for chocking the immodei'ate use of opium that still 
prevails. 

20.177. Have you noticed any hereditary tendency to 
the excessive use of opium among the children of 
opium-eaters P — The children of spirit drinkers are 
said to have a hereditary tendency to drink. No such 
tendency over came to my notice anaong children of 
opium-eaters, many of whom I know to be in no way 
different from the children of persons who take no 
opium. ' 

20.178. Wo have heard something of tho use of opium 
for tho purposes of suicide ; does that rarely happen in 
this district ? — Opium is the drag sometimes taken by 
suicides to accomplish their purpose. However, in- 
stances of suicide by opium are very rare in Jeypore. 
On a careful examination of the police records of the 
city, and of the whole territory, I found that during the 
past three years there was only one case of suicide by 
swallowing opium. 

20,179. Are tho medicinal properties of opium very 
highly esteemed in the Pharmacopoeia of tho Hindus P — 
Yes, the medicinal properties of opium are spoken of 
very highly in the Pharmacopojia of the Hindus, as 
will apxjear from the following translations of three 
passages from three dilTerent Sanscrit medical works 
of great reputation : — 

Harlta Niglinnlusar. 
(1 .) Tho milky juice of the poppy is called by six diifer- 
ent names, i.<\, aphena, ahiphena, aphuka, aphenaka, 
nisphena, and apaphena. It improves sexual appetite, 
prLivonts the accumulation of malignant fluids in the 
system and helps secretion of the bile, keeps up anima- 
tion, acts as an astringent, cures cold and cough, 
relieves difficulty of breathing and other constitutional 
disorders, and increases vigour and semen. The poppy 
is of four difEeient kinds (in accordance with the 
diversity of the colour of its flowers), namely, white, 
blaciv, yellow, and grey. Opium is accordingly of four 
kinds. The first kind helps digestion ; the second is a 
poison ; tho third keeps up the stamina of the body ; 
and the fourth removes constipation. Opium, if taken 
in moderate doses, acts as a panacea and imparts energy 
and vigour. 

MaAcmpala Nighantu. 
(■2.) The milk or juice which exudes from the capsules 
of the poppy is called aphenaka, aphena, or saphenaka. 
It keeps the system dry, acts as an astringent, 
cures cold, helps secretion of tho bile, and supports 
animation. 

Rajani^liantu. 
(3.) There are four kinds of opium, namely, white, 
black, yellow, and grey (in accordance with the above- 
mentioned diff'erent colours of the poppy flower). Tho 
white is a digestive, the black is a deadly poison, the 
yellow acts as an astringent, and the grey is a laxative. 
The first helps digestion: the second destroys animal 
life ; the third keeps up vigour ; and the fourth removes 
constipation. 

It is manifest from the above ancient records that 
the use of opium must have prevailed in India from 
time immemorial ; and the manner in which the drug 
has been recommended in tho Pharmacopoeia of the 
Hindus must be the reason why so many seek relief 
from the use of the driig. I have often noticed that the 
poppy flower is o f various colours, but never heard before 
that the capsules from the flowers of different colours 
posspss different medicinal properties. 1 also do not know 
whether any person interested in the use of opium ever 
thought of besting the correctness or otherwise of the 
distinction made in the Pharmacopceia of the Hindus 
by two different authorities, for whom the natives 
entertain the highest regard. They would not presum- 
ably have made such a distinction, without satisfying 
themselves on the point by the results of their own 
experience. However, those who are concerned in the 
production, traffic, 'and consumption of opium, from tho 
poppy cultivator up to the consumer, appear to be totally 
unaware of the distinction. The poppy bearing flowers 
of different colours are grown intermingled in the same 
field ; and when the flowers disappear, the capsules 
look all alike. Juice-opium is collected from the 
capsules without the least regard to the distipotion 
above referred to. If it is true that the capsules from 
the poppy flower of black colour yield nothing but a 



deadly poison, the fact ought to startle all opium con- 
sumers, whether habitual or occasional. As a habitual 
opium-eater, I will promptly arrange preliminaries for 
having the matter fully tested by the kind help of 
of Surgeon Lt. Col. Heudley. The result will be 
published as soon as it known. If the distinction made 
in the Sanscrit medical works is borne out by the 
result, it will, I need scarcely add, be a most important 
contribution to our knowledge of the drug, while it will 
confirm the discovery of the two distinguished Hindu 
Pharmacologists ; and I will ascribe the result to the 
visit of the Royal Commission to Jeypore as having 
indirectly led to it. 

20,180. We have had a good deal of evidence before 
us from other witnesses to the effect that opium- 
smoking, even in moderation, is an evil; do you concur 
in that opinion ? — ^ Yes, opium-smoking, even in modera- 
tion, which almost always tempts to excess, is an evil. 
However, opium-smoking in dens is strictly prohibited 
by the Durbar. Consequently, there are neither any 
chandu or madak shops, nor any opium-smoking dens 
in the city. Of course, it is well known to me that 
opium is smoked in private, although, so far as my 
information goes, not to any extent. An opium smoker 
enjoys his smoke more if he has companions with him, 
and this loads to the formation of smoking parties in 
their own houses ; but, it is patent that it would bo an 
unwarrantable interference with the private rights of 
the people if the Durbar were to stop these. The 
number of opium smokers in the city and its environs, 
with a population of 158,000, does not exceed 200, 
giving an average of 1"2 per thousand. They prepare 
and smoke chandu in their own homes. Chandu and 
madak arc altogether unknown in the districts of 
Jeypore. 

20.181. How would you compare alcohol and opium 
as subjects for restrictive legislation ? — Both alcoholic 
liquor aud opium in moderate quantities are, un- 
doubtedly, efl'ectual helps for supporting nature under 
adverse climatic influences or exhaustion consequent on 
hard work. It would not, therefore, be reasonable to 
restrict the sale of alcohol in cold countries to exclu- 
sively medical purposes because of thci faults of a few ; 
and, seeing that the use of opium in warm countries 
gives rise to far fewer instances of excess, it would be 
more unreasonable to limit its sale to medical purposes 
becaiise of these few. The evil in both the cases lies in 
excess. 

20.182. I will now ask you some subjects which con- 
cern you in Jeypore. Can you give us any facts and 
figures to show the direct and indirect losses which the 
Jeypore Durbar and its subjects are likely to suffer in 
case the production and use of opium for other than 
medical purposes were prohibited in Eajputana ? — The 
cultivation of poppy in the Jeypore territory consists 
of : — (a.) Poppy which yields opium and is also valued 
for its seed. The capsules after yielding opium become 
useless. (5.) Poppy which does not yield opium and is 
valued only for its. seed and capsules. The leaves and 
other parts of poppy plants in either case are of no use. 
Taking the average for the past five years, the total 
area of Khalsa land under cultivation of poppy of the 
first kind appears to have been 2,000 acres, and the area 
of Khalsa land under poppy of the second kind 622 
acres. The total areas of Jagir and other alienated 
lands under poppy of the first kind and under poppy of 
the second kind appear to have been 1,000 acres and 
4,000 acres respectively. The above figures have, in 
the case of Khalsa, been obtained from Tahsil reports, 
showing the areas actually under cultivation of difi'erent 
crops in each Tahsil, and those appertaining to Jagir 
and alienated lands are given by approximate appraise- 
ment. As greater care was employed in obtaining the 
above figures, they do not exactly agree with those 
furnished before by guess. The Eaj rent on land under 
cultivation of poppy of the first kind is Es. 21 per acre, 
and the land under cultivation of poppy of the second 
kind is rented at Es. 7.8a. per acre. The expenses per 
acre of cultivation of poppy are shown below : — 

(re.) Poppy yielding opium : — 

Es. a. p. 

Cost of seed for sowing - 6 

., manure - 3 

preparing the soil 

,, weeding 18 

„ irrigation 6 

labom- for collecting opium 

-720 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Chunder 

Mookerjee, 

CLE. 

{Jeypore 

State.) 

29 .Ian. 1894. 



juice 



Total cost - 



24 
A 2 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Jtao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Chunder 

Mookerjee, 

CLE. 

{Jeypore 

State.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



(h.) Peppy which does not yield opium :— 

Cost of seed for sowing - 

manure - 1 

,. preparing the soil 3 

„ weeding 1 

,, irrigation - 4 



Total 



10 8 



The out-turn per acre of poppy of the first kind :— 

Es. a. p. 

Opium jnlco 221^ soers valued at - 90 
Seed - ' - - 18 



108 



of poppy of the 2nd 



Total 

The total out-turn per 
kind :— 

Poppy heads together witli seed weighing about 12 
mds,, at Es. 5 per md., Es. 60. 

Ket profit which the cultivator derives from poppy 
cultivation : — (a.) The total value of the out-turn per 
acre of poppy yielding opium is Es. 108, and the total 
cost of cultivation per acre, inclusive of the Eaj rent, is 
Es. 45. Deducting the latter from the former, a net 
profit of Es. 63 per acre is left to the cultivator. (6.) 
The total value of the out-turn per acre of poppy which 
does not yield opium is Es. 60, and the total cost of 
cultivation, inclusive of the Eaj rent, ia Es. 18. Deduct- 
ing the latter from the former, a net profit of Es. 42 per 
acre is left to the cultivator. If the cultivation of the 
poppy were prohibited, the irrigated crops of -ivheat 
and barley would most likely be raised in its place. 
The Eaj rents per acre on land under wheat and barley 
are Es. 9 and Es. 4 8a. respectively. The expenses per 
acre of cultivation of the wheat and barley crops are 
shown below : — 

(a.) The wheat crop : — 

Cost of seed for sowing - 
,, manure 
,, preparing the soil 
,, irrigation 
,, weeding 

Total 

(i.) The barlej' crop : — 

Cost of seed for sowing - 
„ manure - 
,, preparing the soil- 
,, irrigation 
„ weeding 

Total - 

The out-turu per acre of — 

(a.) The wheat crop : — 

Es. a. 

Wheat 15 mds., at Hs. 2 a md. - 30 

Khakla (stalks) used as fodder - 4 8 



Es. a. 

. 3 12 

. 1 8 

■ 4 8 

4 8 

1 8 



- 15 12 



Es. a. p. 
3 
1 2 

3 (I 

4 8 
18 



13 







Total 



34 S 



(l.) The barley crop : — 

Er. a. 
P.arley 16 mds. at Es. 1 8a. amd. 22 8 
Kliaklii (stalks) used as fodder - 



P- 
8 (I 




Total 







Net profit per acre which the cultivator derives from 
the wheat and the barley crops :—(«.) The total value 
of the out-turn per acre of the wheat crop is Es. 34 8a., 
and the total cost of cultivation per acre, inclusive of 
the Eaj, rent is Es. 24 12a. Deducting the latter from 
the former a net profit of Es. 9 12a. per acre is left to the 
cultivator, (b.) The total value of the out-i,urn per 
acre of the barley crop is Es 25 Sa., and the total cost 
of cultivation per acre, inclusive of the Raj rent, is 
Es. 17 10a. Deducting the latter from the former a 
net profit of Es. 7 11 a. is left to the cultivator. 

20,183. If poppy cultivation were prohibited what 
would take place ? — If poppy cultivation is prohibited. 



wheat is likely to take its place in the areas now under 
cultivation of the opium-yielding poppy, and barley is 
likely to take the place of the poppy which yields no 
opium. The cultivator will suffer a loss of Es. 53 4a. 
per acre in case wheat takos the place of poppy which 
yields opium, and of Es. 34 2a. per acre in case barley 
takes the place of poppy which yields no opium ; while 
the Eaj land revenue will suffer a diminution of Es. 12 
per acre in the first case, and of Es. 3 per acre in the 
second case. 

20,184. Have you any figui es you can give us with 
regard to the poppy cultivation of Khalsa and other 
lands ? — The total produce of Khalsa land under poppy 
cultivation is as follows : — (a.) 2,000 acres of Khalsa 
land now imder cultivation of poppy of the first kind 
yield 1,125 maunds of juice opium, and 12,000 maunde 
of poppy seed ; (b.) 622 acres of Khalsa land under 
cultivation of Jioppy of the second kind yield 7,464 
maunds of poppj- heads including seed. That of Jagir 
and other alienated lands under poppy cultivation is : — 
(a.) 1,000 acres of alienated lands under cultivation of 
poppy of the first kind yield 562 maunds and 20 seers 
of juice opium, and 6,000 maunds of seed; (5.) 4,000 
acres of Jagir and other alienated lands under cultiva- 
tion of poppy of the second kind yield 48,000 maunds of 
poppy heads including seed. Jagirdai's and other 
grant-holders are not allowed to levy customs duty, but 
they levy viapa or inland customs duty on the produce 
of their respective holdings. The Thekanas of Shek- 
hawati and Torawati levy ::alcat duty on goods exported 
from, imported into, or passing through each Thekana. 
The rates are not uniform. The direct annual losses 
which the Eaj is likely to suffer in the event of pro- 
hibition of poppy cultivation and trade in opium, are 
given below: — 

(a.) Loss of land revenue on 2,000 acres of land under 
cultivation of poppy of the first kind to be replaced by 
the wheat crop at Es. 12 per acre - Es. 2'J.,000 

(5.) The lost of land revenue on 622 acres of land 
under cultivation of poppy of the second kind to be 
replaced by the barley crop at Es. 3 per acre Es. 1,866 

(o.) Loss of customs revenue : — 

Import duties on 64 mds. of juice 

opium, at Es. 25 per mds. 
Import duties on 113 mds. of cake 

opium, at Es. 50 per md. 
Import duties on 12 mds. of juice 

opium at Es. 25 per md. 
Import duties on 1,200 mds. of poppy 

heads, at Es. 1 per md. - 
Mapa or inland ciistoms duty on 694 

mds. of juice opium, at Es. 25 per 

md. - - - . . 

On 78 mds. of cake opium, at Es. 35 

per md. 
On 4,862 mds. of poppy heads, at 

4 ans. per md. 
On 10,000 mds. of poppy seed, at 

8 ans. per md. 
On 5,000 mds. of poppy seed oil, at 

8 ans. per md. 

Total 



20.185. Could any portion of that loss of customs 
revenue be recouped by a revision of the tariff rates F— 
It IS impossible under the existing circumstances to 
recoup any portion of the loss. As no excise duty is 
levied on opium or poppy heads no loss will be suffered 
under this head. 

20.186. What do you calculate to bo the total loss 
whicli the Durbar would suffer under all the heads 
named?— The total loss which the Durbar would 
sulfei- under all the above heads would amount to 
Es. 69,911 8a. 



Es. 


a. 


P- 


1,600 








5,650 








300 








1,200 








14,850 








2,730 








1.215 


8 





5,000 








2,500 








35,045 


8 






20,187. Is there any further 
would be sustained P— Indirectly 
further loss in the revision of rev 
in making a new Jamahandi or 
the districts in which opium 
revenue settlement is likely to 
than Es. 20,000. Direct annual 
Mamlaguzars, and other grant 
suffer in case of prohibition 



loss which you think 

the Durbar will suffer 

enue rates, or virtually 

revenue settlement in 

is grown. The new 

cost the Durbar more 

losses which Jagirdars, 

■holders are likely to 



MINUTES OP EVIDENCE. 



(a.) Total loss of land revenue on 
1,000 acres of Jagir and other 
alienated lands under cultivation 
of poppy of the first kind to be 
replaced by the wheat crop, at 
Kb. 12 per acre - - - 

(6.) Total loss of land revenue on 
4,000 acres of Jagir and other 
alienated lands under cultivation 
of poppy of the second kind to be 
replaced by the barley crop, at 
E,^^. 3 per acre .... 

{(■.) Total loss of Zaieat to the Shek- 
hawati Thekanas and that of Mapa 
levied by Jagirdars are likely to 
amount to 

Total 



Es. 



12,000 



12,000 



15,000 
39,000 



20.188. Are there any indirect losses which you 
consider the landholders might be likely to suffer F — 
Indirectly the grant-holders will suffer heavy loss in 
making new revenue settlement in their respective 
holdings, the aggregate cost of which is likely to be 
twice as much as the Eaj will have to meet for the 
Klialsa Jamabandi operations. 

20.189. At what figure have you put the direct annual 
loss which the cultivators will be likely to suffer ? — 
I estimate the direct aunual loss which the cultivators 
arc likely to suffer as follows : — 



Rs. 



(a.) Cultivatoi'S of 2,000 acres of 
Khalsa land in which poppy of the 
first kind is grown, will suffer at 
the rate of Ks. 53 4a. per acre, an 
aggregate loss of - 

(6.) Cultivators of 622 acres of Khalsa 
land in which poppy of the second 
kind is grown, will suffer at the 
rate of lis. 34 2a. per acre, an 



Total 

(c.) Cultivators of 1,000 acres of Jagir 
and alienated lands in which poppy 
of the first kind is grown, will 
suffer at the rate of Rs. 53 4a. per 
acre, an aggregate loss of 

(d.) Cultivators of 4,000 acres of Jagir 
and other alienated lands in which 
poppy of the second kind is grown, 
will suffer at the rate of Es. 34 2a. 
per acre, an aggregate lo.'^s of 

Total 



a. p. 



1,0G,500 



21,225 12 
1.27,725 12 



5?,2,''.0 



1,36,500 
1,89,750 



Indirectly the cultivator will lose his credit, and it will 
be found beyond his power to make good this loss. 

20.190. What would be the loss to the opium traders P 
— Their direct loss will be in stocks which will remain 
unsaleable. These stocks will most likely amount to 
more than 5,000 maunds, n^hich at the rate of Es. 500 
per maund will be of the value of Es. 25,00,000. The 
above estimate does not include the unsaleable stocks 
of retail dealers, which, taken together, must also be 
considerable. Indii'ectly they will suffer heavily by 
their business being disorganised. j\Ioreover, they 
have to make large money advances to poppy cultiva- 
tors, which, in the event of prohibition of poppy 
cultivation, the cultivators will not be in a position to 
repay regularly or fully. Thus with their capital 
seriously impaired, it will be extremely difficult for the 
opium traders to establish themselves in any other 
business. Their loss in this direction cannot be shown 
by figures, while the loss of credit, which they are sure 
to sustain, will seriously affect their position and stand 
in the way of their retrieving the loss. 

20.191. Have you made any calculation of the direct 
losses to the Eaj, to the grant-holders, as well as to the 
cultivators and the opium traders ? — The following is 
an abstract of the direct losses to the Eaj, to the grant- 
holders, as well as to the cultivators, and to the opium- 
traders ; — 



Direct annual loss to the 
Ea)j in land revenue - 

Direct annual loss to the 
Eaj in customs revenue 

Direct annual loss to the 
grant-holders in land 
revenue 

Direct annual loss to the 
grant-holders in ::aliat 
or mapa ... 



Es. a. p 

25,866 
35,045 8 



Es. 



a. p. 







60,911 8 



24,000 



Jiao Suhadur 
Kantee 
Chunder 
Mookerjee, 
CLE. 
{Jeypore 
State.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



15,000 



39,000 



Direct annual loss to the 
cultivators of Khalsa 
land 

Direct annual loss to the 
cultivators of Jagir 
and other alienated 



1,27,725 12 



lands 



-1,89,750 



-3,17,475 12 



Total direct annual loss 4,17,387 4 

Direct loss which opium traders (exclusive of petty 
dealers) will suffer in their unsaleable stocks, will 
amount to Es. 25,000. 

20.192. Do you think the village money-lenders would 
suffer any loss ? — The Bohras or village money-lenders 
carry on a very lucrative business by lending money to 
poppy cultivators. They as a body are likely to suffer 
a diminiition of incomes amounting to nearly Es. 12,000 
per annum. 

20.193. What do you regard as the special advantages 
which induce the cultivator to prefer the poppy crops 
to all other crops ? — The profit per acre is far greater 
than what could be obtained from any other crop. The 
poppy enables the cultivator to spare a portion of his 
annual gains for the purchase of agricultural imple- 
ments and plough-cattle, and even to pay rent in cash 
for the cereal crops instead of paying in kind, in which 
case he has to give up one-third and sometimes even 
half of the produce. Besides, the village patels, 
patwaris, and others entrusted with the business of 
collecting revenue, often take advantage of the 
cultivator's illiteracy and deceive him for their own 
illicit ends. The poppy crop requires comparatively 
little water. As far as irrigation is concerned, an 
ontlay of Es. 6 secures for the cultivator a net gain of 
Ka. 63 ; while in the case of the wheat crop the same 
result could not be secured for less than Es. 27. Tor 
this reason the poppy crop is particularlj- advantageous 
in years of drought. The poppy crop affords a great 
amount of light work suited to females and children. 
One or two acres of land under poppy gives 
suitable employment and thereby the means of liveli- 
hood not only to the young and old of the cultivator's 
own family, but to many others of the village. It is 
also to be noted here that the collection of revenue in 
cash, if agreeable to the cultivator, aflbrds great 
facilities to the Eaj for the effectual prevention of 
smuggling, which could not be otherwise remedied. It 
is only by the help of the valuable crops of which poppy 
is the most important, that the cultivator is able to 
avoid payment of tribute in kind. If the cultivation of 
poppy were prohibited, the measure will, no doubt, 
seriously affect the system of general cash payment, 
which the Durbar has, with so much care, introduced 
throughout almost the whole territory. 

20.194. Dave you any observations to make to us on 
the risks of smuggling? — The measures adopted for 
the prevention of opium being smuggled into 
British territory make the poppy cultivator liable to 
false charges. This is the reason why the poppy crop, 
notwithstanding its great value, is not cultivated more 
extensively in the districts of Jeypnre. It scarcely 
requires mention that unless the surplus produce finds 
its way to some foreign market the cultivator cannot 
be expected to extend the cultivation of the poppy. It 
is also a noteworthy fact that Jagirdars and holders of 
other alienated lands discourage the cultivation of 
poppy, because they gain more from the cereal crops 
for which rent is generally payable in kind. 

20.195. {Sir James Lyall.) Ton say that the Eaj rent 
on land under cultivation of poppy of the first kind is 
Es. 21 per acre, and on poppy of the second kind, 
Es. 7 8a. per acre ; are these what used to be called 
xa^iti rates ? — Yes, these are called zoyii rates. 

A 3 



6 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantec 

Chunder 

Mookerjee, 

CLE. 

(^Jeupore 

Slate.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



20.196. If the poppy is not cultivated that rate is 
not taken ? — Tho zahti rate obtains for all the valuable 
crops ; for poppy, sugar-cane, cotton, &c. the rent is 
paid in cash, which is called zahti. 

20.197. But supposing that the field is occupied with 
wheat one year, what is then taken ? — Then reut will 
be paid in kind. The food grains are paid in kind, and 
the valuable crops in cash. That is the system that 
prevails here. 

20.198. Again, you said that there would be a loss of 
customs revenue in import duties ; those are import 
duties on foreign opium passing through the State, are 
they not? — If the cultivation of opium is prohibited, 
customs duties on imports, exports, and transits will all 
bo lost. 

20.199. Import duty is only paid by opium grown 
outside Jcypore p — Yes. Opium ^vhich opium traders 
bring in here. 

20.200. That pays import duty ? — Tes. Opium pro- 
duced in Jeypore when taken out of Jeypore pays 
export duty, but not opium passing through J eypore. 
For instance, opium taken from Agra to Ajmere will 
pass through the Jeypore territory, and will have to 
pay transit dui,y, except when it goes by rail. We have 
a treaty with the railway not to charge any transit 
duties on goods passing through the Jeypore territory 
by railway. 

20.201. The transit duty is lighter than tho import 
duty p — Yes. 

20.202. The import duty is payable when opium is 
brought by some merchant into Jeypore P — Yes, then 
we charge import duty. 

20.203. If it is a merchant travelling through it pays 
transit duty P — Yes . 

20,201. Are there any opium scales in Jeypore p — 
There are no scales here ; they take it to Indore or to 
Ajmere. 

20,205. If the opium is taken away after being 
weighed at the scales, and paying the duty to the 
British officer, if it comes through Jeypore again is 
duty paid then p — If it is covered by a license from 
Government, it is no longer dutiable. 

20,20fi. Which Government ?— The British Govern- 
ment. 

20.207. Is there a diiference in the various States on 
that point p — That depends entirely upon the nature 
and conditions of the treaty with the British Government 
and each State. 

20.208. Has there been any fixed cash settlement 
made anywhere in Jeypore with the land revenue P — 
We are gradually introducing it, and it is a better 
system, because it prevents smuggling. 

20.209. Inside the Jagirs of the Thekanas, do they 
levy their own import and export duty or not P — They 
levy duty only when the produce is taken oat of the 
limits of the Jagirs. Ifc is virtually a sort of export 
duty, but there are some Shekhawati States in 
which it is customary to levy not only export duty, but 
also charge something on goods passing through their 
States. 

20.210. Those Shekhawati men are tributary to 
Jeypore P — Yes. 

20.211. You say that jmst is much used in this 
country P — Yes, by the poorer classes. 

20.212. That is composed of capsules of poppy 
squeezed in water p — Steeped, and then squeezed in 
water. 

20.213. The higher classes use amal pani? — Opium 
dissolved and purified and mixed with spices, and 
formed into pills. They take it in that form. I take it 
in that form myself. 

20.214. At what time in the day do Rajputs generally 
drink amal pani P — Generally once in the morning, and 
once in the evening. 

20,216. You said that of the agricultural and pastoral 
classes about 10 per cent, are habitual opium-eaters, 
and more than 30 per cent, use opium occasionally, do 
you mean 10 per cent, of the adult males p — 10 per 
cent, of the whole population. 

20,216. (Mr. Fanshawe.) I understand that the class 
of petty bankers and traders, Mahajans and Banias, 
is a numerically large class in this Jeypore State, is 
that Bo ? — Yes. 



20.217. Can you tell me, generally, what the number 
would be P — I cannot give any idea of the numbers, 
because I never made out any calculation. 

20.218. I find it stated that it is about 200,000 ; 
would that be correct for the whole territory P — It 
may be. 

211,219. Is the habit of taking opium in moderation 
fairly common among that class ? — Yes. 

20.220. You have referred to a special occasion on 
which opium is taken as a social custom, Akshay Tij ; 
will you tell us what that festival is .^^The only 
feature of its celebration is opium-eating. Akshay 
Tij takes place on the third day of the new moon, in 
the month of Baisak, corresiDonding to the month of 
April, and generally friends are invited and retainers 
assemble together. The head of the family distributes 
opium, and also pieces of cocoanut and sugar candy or 
sugar. Then they congratulate one another, and return 
to their homes. 

20.221. Is it a festival that is generally observed 
throughout all classes of the community in Jeypore ? — 
It is a peculiar Rajput festival, in which men of other 
castes, Mahomedans, Kayasths, Brahmins, &c. join, 
being either dependents of the Eajput noble or in his 
employ. 

20.222. I sec you have put the out-turn per acre of 
opium at 22i seers ; is that in the case of land on which 
no other crop is grown in the year except the poppy 
crop p — There is no land on which the poppy crop is 
grown every year. Certain irrigated crops go by rota- 
tion. The field where poppy is grown in the course of 
one year, in the next agricultural season will not be 
found fit for poppy. Some other crop will be substituted 
in place of poppy — some other irrigated crop. 

20.223. What I mean is this : during the same year 
in which the poppy crop is grown, is any other crop 
grown on the same landp — No other crop is grown, 
becauae land yielding poppy will not yield two crops 
in the course of the same year. 

20.224. Then the out-turn per acre is calculated on 
that understanding, that the crop is a crop on good 
poppy land, which is used for no other crop during the 
year p — That is so. 

20,22^. {Mr. Tlaridnn Veharidas.) You have said, 
"persons who take opium moderately arc likely to 
" live longer than others;" and in another place you 
have said that in this district there are no less than 10 
per cent, of the population who are habitual opium- 
eaters and more than 30 per cent, who use opium occa- 
sionally ; are those people whom you first mentioned as 
taking opium moderately included in that 10 or 30 per 
cent, p— The 30 per cent, has nothing to do with the 
people I mentioned who took opium moderately. I was 
referring to the effects of moderate opium-eating. As 
to the 30 per cent.. I w:i,s referring to the occasional 
opium-eaters in the district. That is a general remark 
for the territory including the capital. 

20.226. You have said that Eajputs, Meenas, Jats, 
Gujars, and other warlike races among the Hindus 
have no religious scruples to face in laking alcohol; 
have you met with .nny particular passage of the Shastras 
which allows Hindus to take liquor ? — I cannot quote 
the particular passage, but I can prove it from texts in 
their books. 

20.227. Do you say that an opium-eater lives to a 
great age ?— Yes, he is likely to do so ; but nobody can 
guarantee that an opium-eater will live long. 

20,223. {Mr. Mowbray.) You have referred to the 
cheapness of opium in Jeypore ; could you tell me what 
the retail price of opium is ?~Opium sells here at 
a rate varying from six tolas to ten tolas for the 
rupee. 

20.229. What arrangements have you between the 
cultivator who grows the opium and the person who 
sells it in the bazar ; may anybody sell it in the bazar, 
or does it re(|uire any license P— The cultivator is iree 
to sell the drug to anybody he likes. We always realise 
the rent from the culti^■ato^ of opium, and then he is 
free to sell the produce to anybody. We have no excise 
system here. 

20.230. The cultivator may sell to any person he 
chooses, and any person may retail in any quantity he 
likes ? — Yes, but the transactions must be confined 
within the limits of the Jeypore territory. A cultivator 
cannot sell it to a native of Agra and allow him to take 
it away. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE, 



20,231. When it comes to be exported I undcrBtand it 
has to pay an export duty ? — ^Tes ; and it cannot be 
exported without a license from the British Govern- 
ment, because we are bound by treaty not to allow the 
export of any intoxicating drug from our territory. 

20,23-2. Could you tell mo how much you do export 
from the Jeypore territory ?— I can supplj you with the 
iigures afterwards. I have not got it on record hero 
as to the exact quantity, but wo have a Customs 
Department. 

20,23;i. I think it would be important ? — I will furnish 
you with the figures. 

20,234. The loss of your export revenue is included in 
that Es, 35,000 which you estimate as loss ? — Yes, that 
estimate includes everything. There are no export 
transactions. We arc bound by treaty not to allow the 
export of any intoxicating drugs from Jeypore. 

20,285. Except, of course, under the conditions of the 
treaty with the British Government ? — Yes. 

20.236. That which you do export, I suppose, goes to 
Bombay for export to the China or other foreign 
markets ? — I do not know where they take the opium. 
Our business is concerned with it bo long as it remains 
within the limits of Jeypore, and when it is taken out, 
except by way of smuggling, then, of course, we have 
nothing to do with it afterwards. 

20.237. Where do you import your opium from ? — 
Opium sometimes is imported from Malwa into Jeypore. 

20.238. Is that in any substantial amount ? — I think 
some opium-eaters prefer Kotah opium or Malwa 
opium, and it is on their account that the opium traders 
sometimes bring opium into Jeypore from Kotah or 
Malwa. 

20.239. You say that there are no opium dens in 
Jeypore. I should be very glad if you could tell me 
what practical steps you have taken, and how yon have 
Ijeen able to succeed in putting down opium dens ?-- 
Because we havo made efficient police arrangements to 
see that nobody smokes opium in dens. 

20.240. What do you call a den ?— A den is a iilaco 
frequented by opium smokers. Of course they do 
smoke in their own houses. 

20.241. How do you draw the distinction between 
half a dozen people meeting together in a friend's house 
and smoking privately, and what you call a den ? — If the 
house is known to belong to a private gentleman, and it 
is reported to the magistrate that there are some six or 
eight opium smokers smoking opium there, the magis- 
trate is not allowed to interfere. An opium smoker 
never enjoys a smoke unless he has companions, and it 
is a curious fact that an opium smoker sometimes, 
when there is nobody with him will close his eyes, and 
hold out his pipe, and name a certain friend, and say, 
" Now you take it for a moment and enjoy it." After 
holding it in that way for sometime he ivill again 
smoke himself. I know there are men in this city who 
smoke opium in their own hou.?cs ; but, of course, I do 
no know how such pi-actices could be interfered with 
by the Durbar. 

20.242. Do yon consider there are greater difficulties 
in the way of the British Government interfering with 
social customs than there are in native states ? — What 
the Rajput princes are doing in their respective States 
to remedy social evils cannot, for obvious reasons, be 
done by Government in British territory. The mon- 
ster meetings which met to protest against the " Ago 
of Consent Bill," and the cry of " religion in danger " 
in the same connexion are too well known to require 
mention. The duty of initiating such reforms in 
British territory rather devolves on the enlightened 
natives of the country. 

20.243. {Ml-. Wihon.) Do you thiuk opium is a good 
thing for young men between 20 and 30 years of age, 
who are in perfect health, and ha\'e nothing the matter 
with them ?— Certainly not. 

20.244. Would you like to see the consumption of 
opium in the Jeypore State increase or decrease in 
amount?— I should neither like to see it increase or 
decrease. If excessive opium-eating is decreased it will 
be well for society, but if moderate opium-eating, as it 
exists, is diminished, many of the fine ?.rt?, as I have 
already said, will suffer. 



20.245. Would you like that the total quantity of 
opium consumed in the Jeypore State should increase 
or decrease in future years P — In future years it ought 
to decrease by the quantity which goes under the head 
"Excess." 

20.246. We havo been informed that many of the 
Rajputs both eat opium and drink alcohol ; do you 
think that is correct ? — That is correct, not many 
though ; there are rare instances. 

20.247. Will you be so good as to tell me again what 
steps have been taken in reference to the opium aens in 
this city, because I have been informed that there are a 
good many places where opium is still smoked and 
sold P — Opium is sold everywhere in the city. 

20.248. What about chandu P — Chandu is not sold 
here. Those who smoke chandu buy opium and make 
the preparation in their own homes. 

20.249. Is it your opinion that there are not n^w a 
good many dens in this city where chandu is sold and 
smoked ? — It is a duty incumbent on me to see that 
nobody keeps any chandu shops in the city. 

20.250. I have no doubt that you try to discharge 
your duty ; but do you think you have been successful 
in stopping them? — I have been successful. I thiuk 
there are one or two prisoners in jail at the present 
time who were punished for contravention. 

20,261. We have been told that chandu cannot bo 
conveniently prepared in small quantities, that it 
requires a considerable quantity of opium to be pur- 
chased at one time, I think a, few seers ? — That 
chandu cannot be prepared unless one has a few seers 
of opium is a thing which I hear for the first time. 

20.252. Do you think that two or three tolas could be 
prepared at once P — I do not know. I have never 
prepared any chandu nor had anything to do with it. 

20.253. Whatis meant by Khalsa land? — Land directly 
under the management of the Raj. 

20.254. In reference to all the figures and calculations 
you have given us, may I ask whether you are con- 
versant with the system of poppy cultivation, or whether 
you have obtained these figm-es from other persons ? — -I 
am quite conversant, because the Revenue Department 
is also under my charge. I have to superintend the 
revenue business. 

20.255. You have prepared these figures yourself ? — 
While I am in the capital I have to depend on the 
statistics supplied to me by the district officers. It is 
done in the same way by the British Government. 
These statistics are always supplied by the ^British 
Government, and if I have any doubts I have my own 
way of checking the correctness of these statements. 

20.256. Is the only reason why people do not grow 
opium because they are afraid they may render them- 
selves liable to false accusations P — I have already said 
that by our treaty we are bound to see that no intoxi- 
cating drug is smuggled from Jeypore, and owing to 
this condition in the treaty we have to look after our 
subjects. Our policemen sometimes deceive us. They 
try to involve a man in a false charge, and bring him 
to trouble, and for fear of snob trouble the cultivator is 
not disposed to extend the cultivation of opium. 

20.257. Is there any other reason besides the fear of 
the police which prevents cultivators from getting the 
large profit of Rs. 63 per acre p — Both for the Raj, that 
is for the Durbar, and for holders of alienated laiids it is 
more advantageous to have revenue in kind than in 
cash, and consequently both the Durbar and other 
holders of land in the Jagir have discouraged poppy 
cultivation. 

20.258. In reference to the Raj rents for poppy, for 
wheat, for barley, and for other crops, do I understand 
that the rent depends on the crop that is grown in each 
particular year p — With regard to the value of the 
crops, the rent is fixed at a cash rate every year, and 
the value of the crops is as follows : — the most important 
is poppy, next sugar-cane, and then cotton, for all these 
valuable crops there is a fixed cash rate por acre, and for 
the food grains the cereal crops, whether barley, jowar, 
and bajri, the rent is payable in kind — the cultivator 
has to pay from one-fifth to a half of the produce. This 
is the zaiti rate. 

20.259. Do the various officers of the Jeyjjore State 
measure these lands every year to ascertain how much 

A 4 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Chunder 

Mooherjee, 

CLE. 

(^Jeypore 

State.') 

many 29 Jan. 1894. 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



Rao Bahadur 

Kantee 

Vhuiider 

Mookerjeef 

CLE. 

QJei/pore 

State.) 

29 Jan. 1894. 



is wheat and poppy p — Yos ; the land has to be measured 
every year just at the beginning of the agricultural 



20,260. In some other parts of India we have been 
told that poppy requires a very large quantity of water, 
and you toll us here that it requires comparatively little 



water ; can you explain whether it is owing to difference 
of climate, or in what way it is that poppy requires much 
water in one place and little water in another place .•' — ■ 
The case ought to be the same all over the world. You 
are misinfr.rmed, I think. I can prove by figures that 
the poppy crop requires comparatively less water than 
anj' other irrigated crop. 



The witness withdrt 



Surgcon- 

Lieutenant- 

Colonel 

r.H.Hendley, 

CLE. 



Surgeon -Lieutenant-Ooionel T. H. Hendley, C.I.B., called in and cA-amined. 



20.261. (Sir W. RoberlK.) You are, I believe, Eesidency 
Surgeon at Jeypore ? — Yes. 

20.262. What opportunities have you had of studying 
the opium question? — My service in India dates from 
May 1870, and in Eajputaua from j\pril 1871. I was 
in medical charge of the 4th Bengal Cavalry at Segowlee 
in Behar, where I had some opportunity of seeing the 
cultivation of opium, and for 15 months was medical 
officer of the Meywar Bheel Corps. In a monograph 
on the Bheels (which I contributed to the journal of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society as far back at 1875) I find 
that I noted that after a man had been wounded in a 
quarrel between lival 'jpals or settlements, the Jogis, 
who act as priests, or the Gammaitis or headmen, 
generally have a solemn administration of opium, 
thus securing peace, and a grand feast and debauch on 
mohwa spirit follows. I was afterwards for about 15 
monthsOfficiating Besidenoy Surgeon in Marwar, and for 
a short time did duty with the Erinpura Irregular Joroe, 
and in both oppointments had opportunities of seeing 
something of the use of opium amongst tlie Bahtores 
and aboriginal tribes. In April 1874 I was appointed 
Eesidency Surgeon at Jeypore, and since 1881 have 
been in charge of all the medical institutions of the 
State. Prom 1876 to 1881 1 was Consulting Physician 
to the Mayo Hospital, ,and began my first inquiries 
into the use of opium amongst children in 1877, so that 
my attention was very early directed to Ihe subject. 
I took so much interest in the matter that in 1891 and 
,1892, wlien on furlough in England, I attended most 
of the more important meetings at which discussions 
were held, or papers, read on opium, and in this way 
familiarized myself with the opinions of both those 
who opposed or were in favour of the use of the drug. 
In Older to ascertain the truth, and to be in a position 
to substantiate more clearly by facts the opinion which 
I had already formed, I began a special inquiry on 
my return to Jeypore in the summer of 1892, and in 
August of the same year prepared, and issued to a 
number of my assistants, and to leading men of all 
classes, a series of questions, based in part on a paper 
written by Surgeon-Lieutenant-Coloncl Crombie of 
Calcirtta, but to a considerable extent on my own 
experience. I have received a large number of replies 
from men of all classes in Jej'pore. These include the 
present Minister of the State and his predecessor, the 
Eaja of Khetree, the Eao Eajaof Sikar, Eao Bahadur 
Grovind Singh, the first noble of Jeypore, and other 
members of the council, the President of the Jeypore 
Municipality, the two United Presbyterian Missionaries 
at Jeypore, the Superintendent of the gaols, and my 
two fully qualified assistants (one of whom is a Calcutta 
graduate), 20 hospital assistants, and seven native 
doctors, three Moh.amedan Halcims or practitioners of 
the Yiinani system of medicine ; Brahmans, Eajputs, 
Jains, Kayasths, female medical practitioners, Vaids, 
&c. In all 65 separate opinions have bean obtained, 
of which I submit a carefully compiled precis as well 
as a summary.* In considering these opinious most 
weight must, of course, be attached to those of the 
older and more experienced men, especially amongst 
the hospital assistants, some of whom have only 
recently entered the service. I have given their state- 
ments in full, although in some cases their replies are 
clearly mere guesses, as I wish it to be understood that I 
have in no way made a selection to suit my own views. 
I have for many years past had under my care from 60 
to 90 in-patients at the Mayo Hospital in Jeypore, and 
have also seen the most important cases amongst the 
out-patients. The two large prisons of the State and 
the lunatic asylum, as regurds their medical arrano-e- 
ments, are also under my supervision. There are 27 
dispensaries under me, and the hospital assistants in 



• For list of persons consulted and snmmiry of their replies see 
Appendix I, to this Volume " 



charge of these send copies of all m.edical opinions they 
give in the courts for my information. The whole of the 
men in the Jeypore army, who are supposed to be fit 
for pension, come before me, and, when in camp, I 
have abundant opportunity of meeting men of all classes 
and castes. 

20,263. What opinion hate you come to on the basis 
of this elaborate investigation in regard to the use of 
opium in Eajptttana? — -My deliberate opinion, based 
upon all my investigations and mature experience, is 
that the prohibition of the growth, manufacture, and 
sale of opium in native States would be not only un- 
wise, but an act of cruelty. This is quite apart from 
the economic aspect of the question. Opium, in my 
opinion, is the best, the safest, and, in this part of the 
country, the cheapest drug which is available for the 
relief of pain and of many ailments from which the 
people, especially the poorer classes, suft'er. It is the 
one which is most under control, the one which, even 
when tukeu in excess, is the least injurious, and the 
one to the use of which, even amongst the most strict, 
the least blame (if there be any stigma at all) is attached. 
The inevitable resuit of any attempt to lessen the 
facility with which opium is procurable would be the 
resort to spirits of the strongest and most pernicious 
kinds (these being the cheapest), or to other articles 
which would serve to stimulate or relieve pain, but 
none of which wonld, I believe, answer the purpose so 
well as opium. In India there are very many articles 
which, in emergency, are capable of service as stimu- 
lants and narcotics, and all of them are occasionally 
used. Hindus, and even Brahmans, take hhang with- 
out sense of shame, but rather glory in its use, as it is 
oh'ered to Shiva, or Mahadeo, with whom it is said to 
be a favourite food. Dhatura seeds are used by a few, 
arsenic preparations of the Icuchla nut, or strychnine, 
by others ; many eat zarda or coarse tobacco ; the 
richer classes take pan or betel with cardamoms, 
cloves, lime, nutmeg, &c.. nearly all day long. All 
of these, even^am to some when taken in excess as it 
so often is, are, I consider, in most cases worse than 
opium. Beyond this, however, is the fact that some of 
them are mere luxuries, and all are incapable of exactly 
filling the place of opium. Drugs and stimulants are 
almost necessary if life is not to be a burden to the 
poor vegetarian, whose food in India is notoriously 
insipid to a degree which is hardly realised by 
Europeans. One of my native correspondents says, 
" Without the poppy the poor would be like the dead." 
The use of hhang or other preparations of Indian hemp, 
to which many would resort if deprived of opium, 
would, I think, be a great evil, as it is not unf requently 
the cause of much misery, of deterioiationof health, and 
oven of certain forms of insanity; but there can be no 
question that the general use of alcohol would be a fearful 
calamity. I hiive seen many families ruined by drink. 
In the Jeypore State it is well known that, within 
30 or 40 years, there have been as many as three or 
four Thakurs or nobles who have succeeded one after 
the other to valuable estates, and have all died from 
drink. I have myself seen several young nobles of 
less than 20 years of age who have thus come to a 
premature end. 

20,264. Speaking from your personal experience, do you 
think that the effect of alcohol in Ea jputana is different 

from its efli'ects on the people of Western Europe? 

There seems something in the nature of alcohol which 
the Indian cannot resist. In too many cases nothing 
can stop him until death puts an end to his life. Since 
I came to Jeypore the number of shops for the sale of 
European spirits has enormously increased. In Bengal 
it is well known that alcohol has done fearful mischief 
within the last 30 years. My assistant, Babu Jadonath 
De, refers to this with just dread. He thinks it came 
in with the European Conquest of Bengal, but the ^ioe 
is an old one. The Ain-i-Akbari is full of examples of 
the premature death of great Moghul nobles from 



MINUTES OF KVIDEXCE. 



n 



excessive drinking, and so aic works which relate to the 
history of later monnvchs than Akbar. No ono over 
heard, as fur as my knowlcKlgc goes, in India of opium 
doing such terrible mischief. Even if abused at the 
very worst the opium-eater only does harm or is a 
nuisance lo himself. I should not have the slightest 
hesitation iu substituting opium for alcohol wherever 
possible in the case of a native of India. 

20,265. What objection woald you have to the use of 
opium being prohibited except for medicinal purposes 'i 
— It is asked whether the sale should be prohibited 
except for medical purposes. I reply in the negative, 
because in this country it would be impossible to give 
medical sanction for its use in every village. In 
Jeypore, which is particularly well supplied with 
dispensaries, many people are a day's journey and in 
some oases two or three from those institutions. Many 
villages have neither VaiA nor Hakim, and what regu- 
lations could control a bania or common shopkeeper 'f 
It is the very facility with which a well-known remedy 
like opium is procurable that adds to its value. There 
is another thing, namely, that in Rajputana a poor man 
can get relief from pain or stimulation in weariness for 
a very small sum if he uses opium, whereas alcohol 
would cost much more than he could afford. I have 
dwelt particularly on eating opium, the use of poppy- 
heads, and of opium in solution, because I have most 
knowledge of these modes of using the drug, and opium 
smoking is rare in Jeypore ; but in the districts infusion 
of poppy heads is still cheaper, and, therefore, much 
more resorted to by the poor. 

20,266. Do you think that any further restrictive 
measures are desirable ? — I do not think any restrictive 
measures are desirable ; moi'eover, I feel sure that 
they are impracticable. The Emperor Jahangir in 
India in 1617. and Shah Abbas in Persia, did their 
utmost to check by penal enactments the use of tobacco 
shortly aftsr its introduction into the two countries, 
but without the slightest effect, and so it would be with 
opium. As far as 1 can learn, the Moghuls made no 
such efforts to stop the use of opium, though in the 
Ain-i-Akbari mention is made of its uses, ono man 
going so far as to eat it like cheese fiom his mother. 
A great many men might suffer for a, time by anti- 
opium legislation, but in the end they would have their 
way or resort to one of the substitutes to which I have 
advanced such strong objections. 

20,267. What do you think with regard to the 
disposition of the people of India in regard to 
the use of opium for non-medical purposes, and 
their willingness to bear the cost of prohibitive 
measures P — There are a few men whose minds 
dwell on the abuse rather than on the use of 
opium, of bhang, and particularly of alcohol, who see 
individual oases in which harm has resulted, and who 
are well fed, healthy, and well cared for themselves, 
and have their passions and appetites under control, 
who express a wish that something should be done, 
and also think that prohibition or restriction might be 
useful, but nearly all of them are of opinion that any 
change must be very gradual, otherwise great suffering 
would be caused, and, almost to a man, they fear that 
in putting check on one evil, there is the terrible 
danger of running into another, and that is ihe use of 
alcohol. There is, moreover, a great unanimity of 
opinion that if anything is to be done, the Government 
should do it, as any odium that might be incurred 
would not fall on individuals, but on the broad back of 
the paramount power. The Walter Krit Eajputra Hit 
Karini Sabha or Bajpur. Social Eeform Committee, and, 
I believe, the Kayasth Reform Committee also would 
restrict the use of opium, bhang, &c., but chiefly as a 
part of ceremonial at feasts, &o., but they do not aim, 
I think, at interference with personal freedom in the 
matter. As to the willingness to bear even a part of 
the cost of prohibitive measures, I am sure the general 
attitude would be best and most correctly summed up 
in the words of my friend Rao Bahadur Kantee 
Chunder Mookerjee, that any attempt to make men 
pay for it would be " ::uh(,m '' or oppression. Even 
inquiry almost bears this aspect in the eyes of the 
majority of the people. The Jeypore Durbar aided me 
iu the accumulation of facts regarding the persons who 
use opium, and my subordinates made their inquiries 
with the utmost care and tact, and the people were also 
assured that no tax or interference with them was 
contemplated, yet the opposition and suspicion were so 
great in the city of Jeypore amongst the common 
O 82588. 



people, thiit I felt that it would bo very undesirable t) 
make a similar investigation as to the use of bhanr/, 
and, therefore, refrained from collecting cases, when a 
series of questions was sent to mc to All up for tiic 
Commission on Hemp Drug-!. Even when the object is 
beyond cavil a good one, the common people so dreiid 
the results of minute peisonal inquiries, that I consider 
the frequent making of them a source of political 
danger both to our own and the native Governments. 
I submit a letter* from my friend the Rao Raja of 
Sikar, in which are some important remarks on this 
subject. 

20,268. What information can you give us in regard 
to the consumption of opium by the different races 
and in the different districts of India ? — As regards the 
consumption of opium by the different races and in the 
different districts of India, and the effect of such 
consumption on the moral and physical condition of the 
people. In the Jeypore teiTitory opium is consumed 
by all classes of the population, and, as far as my 
information and in(|uiries go, by about 25 per cent, of 
the adult males among the Hindus generally, by 
perhaps halt as many of the Mohamedans, and by a 
still smaller proportion of the Jains, who are Hindus 
by race, though not orthodox in religion. The last 
named use more bhang. Rao Bahadur Kantee Chunder 
Mookerjee, C.I.E., gives me a curious reascn, but 
probably the true one, for the lesser consumption 
amongst Musalmans here, viz., the fact that they are 
physically stronger than Hindus. Perhaps this is 
because they are meat-eaters. On the other hand, in 
large towns in British territory, with a great number of 
Mohamedan inhabitants, they use the drug much more 
largely than the Hindus. The Rajputs are the greatest 
consumers on the western border and in North Jey- 
pore, or the Shekhawati districts. Ninety per cent, 
of the Shekhawets, who observe some Mohamedan 
customs also, are said by Thakur Hari Singh to 
take opium in old age, while in youth 10 per cent, 
perhaps may do so. Amongst the Rathores of Marwar, 
the tribe of the Maharaja of Jodlipore, with whom the 
great majority of the Kachwahas, the ruling clan of 
Jeypore, are allied in marriage, opium is taken almost 
without exception by all the guests at feasts of betrothal. 
It is also offered at visits of condolence, and thus every 
one personally learns the effects of opium and becomes 
habituated to its use. The Rajput drinks spirit also, 
and takes bhang, but, as a ruling chief once said to me, 
" To take one intoxicant or drug is good, but a man is 
" unwise who habitually uses several." This was with 
reference to a prince who had just died from excess of 
several kinds. Some subsidiary and allied castes take 
opium in the same way. I have already noticed that it 
is given to the Bheel to cement peace after quarrels. 
Rajputs eat it together at the Akha Tij, or anniversary 
of the beginning of the golden age, and it is said to be 
generally given in cases of female infanticide. For 
disease, or as a prophylactic, opium is used to the 
greatest extent in the Jeypore territory near the fort 
of Ranthambhor, and in the district in the south-east 
corner of the State between the rivers Bannas and 
Chamba', which is very malarious. Almost everyone 
uses it in these parts in the belief that it protects 
against the prevailing disease. All through the State, 
accoi ding to my experience, sowars, the Nagas or 
members of a sect of religious military monks peculiar 
to Jeypore who are most reliable soldiers of the State, 
and official servants of all kinds, whose duties necessi- 
tate exposure to all weathers, in most instances, sooner 
or later, use opium. The general history is this : a 
sowar, for example, has to carry messages at all hours 
of the day or night ; he gets wet, and his clothes dry 
upon him ; this happens over and over again ; some- 
times he suffers from fever, sometimes from muscular 
pain, or from chronic rheumatism, or a little diarrhoea, 
and is always sore and stiff; he takes a little ojiium, 
which at once relieves him and enables him to do his 
work. In my inspection tours such men accompany 
me and get through their stage at a rapid pace, pei-baps 
an hour before sunrise, without the slightest difficulty. 
They can always be relied upon to do their work without 
murmuring, but without opium they would have been 
fit for nothing, and would not have been able to earn a 
livelihood for themselves or their families. 

20,269. What have you noticed in regard to the effect 
of opium on old men ? — It is really pitiable to see the 
worn out, crippled old men, who come to me every 
year by the hundred to be examined as to fitness for 
pension, who for jears have worked on under these 



SurgfOH- 

Lieut.-Cul. 

TH.Hendley, 

CLE. 

•29 .Tan. 18!»4. 



See Appendix I. to tWsVclaitiSrf.' 



10 



IXDIAX OPIUM CClAI.MI.SSldN 



Siirijeoii- 

Licid.-Ciil. 

T.lJ.Heud.ey, 

CLE. 

29 Jan. 1894. 



conditions, and ha,\v. been kbpt goiut^ in many cases 
b^' opium alcuc. Tlieir pay may be suCRcieJit tu ker]) 
thrm -WLdl-fed and Avell ckd, and sn protuca them 
against disease, but every one has a family or a num- 
ber of hangers-on to support, who dram him of funds, 
and thus keep him ill-fed. Everywhere the pi lor suffer 
to an enormous extent from malarious fevers, as well 
as from their sequelae, from sciatica, enlarged spleen, 
ulcerated legs, muscular pains, and neur.algia of all 
kinds, also from chronic rheumatism, asthma, chronic 
bronchitis, pleurodynia, chronic dyspepsia (due to 
coarse feeding, exposure, and malaria), dysentery, and 
chronic diarrhoea. In all such cases, and especially 
where they are accompanied by aching and pain, 
opium is the sheet anchor. Everyone knows it, every- 
one can get it without diiKculty, and, in the vast 
majority of instances, the sufferer obtains relief. It 
is not, "therefore, wonderful that a man flies to the 
remedy again and again, and at last cannot li^e without 
it. It is also taken for reeral fistulas and hemorrhoids 
to relieve pain. The rich in the largo cities, especially 
iu Jeypore, suffer often for many years from such 
affections owing to i heir sedentary habits. They fear 
to be rolic\ cd by surgei-y, Bence resort to opium. I 
have lately had a case in which a Seth or banker so 
suffered, without undergoing operation, for six yeai's. 
I remember another case of a great scholar who died 
of jirolapse of the bowel consequent on the presence of 
an enormous number of large hemorrhoids, who for 
some yeai'S took opium to reliev^ fearful suffering 
rather than adopt reasonable treatment which might 
end in a surgical operation. Of course he ought to 
have sought relief and cure in the proper way, but his 
history is that of many people here, and especially in 
the districts where no skilled surgical aid is available. 
Opium, according to most authorities on drugs, cfiecks 
every secretion in the body except that of the skin and 
mammary glands, and, some add, the testicles. It is 
used therefore on this account in certain disorders, as, 
for example, epiphora or excessive discharge of water 
from the eyes. My own khansama, or head table- 
servant, who has been in my employ more than 16 
years, and is a most reliable, respectable, and trust- 
worthy man, has taken opium from his seventh year 
for this cause. He now eats nine and a half ounces of 
opium every month, or about 147 grains a day, without 
ill effects, and has taken a great deal more. He is nearly 
70 years old, and until last year went regularly into 
•camp with me, riding 20 or even 25 miles every night, 
and working several hours in the day. 

20. 270. What further evidence have you had of the 
usefulness of opium in diseases ? — In glaucoma, ulcer- 
ation of the cornea and injuries or acute diseases of the 
e3-e, the pain is very severe, and the onlj- known mode 
of relieving it in the districts i,> by giving a narcotic, 
preferably opium. Opium is the best generally avail- 
able remedy or palliative for diabetes, the curse of well- 
to-do people in Bengal. 

20.271. Is it not the common household remedy 
throughout Rajputana ? — ^Yes. 

20.272. In what way is it used P — The ignorant and 
poor only kno^v one really effectual drug for relieving 
pain in disease and accident, and th;it is opium. The 
aged use it to lessen the feeling of iveakness and to enable 
them to bear the trials and infirmities peculiar to their 
time of life. It is not surprising that a drug, of which 
a great aathority, " Whithi ," writes as follows, should be 
found so valuable in disease in India : " These hypnotic 
" and anodyne qualities of opium rendei' it the most 
" important drug in the P'harmacopceia ; and again, as a 
" ' pain reliever,' opium surpasses all others in certainty 
" of action and safety." 

20,27:1. I understand you have got a very large 
nnmbcr of answers from individuals to whom you 
applied in regard to various points beai-ing on the 
u^e of o]iium. What are some of the i-casons given why 
people begin the opium habit P — My list of the reasons 
for resorting to the habitual use of opium shows a large 
number of ca^es in ivhich grief is stated to be the real 
cause. This full)' bears out my experience. Very many 
poor hardworking peasants, and speei;illy females, have 
assured me that opium alone has given them ease when 
deprived of theii- song or broad-winners, or of their 
means of living in comfort. I do not recollect any case 
in which such persons have abused the drug. Others 
take it when cold and worn out by exposure and hard 
labour, and iind it tides rhein over the difficulty and 
enables them to recurn to their daily tasks witii renewed 



energy. It is taken by a large number of |iersons iu 
tlie same way that m Europe wine or beer is used, viz., 
merely as a. stimulant or a slight exhilaraut al'tei- toil, 
for the temporary alleviation from the petty worries of 
life widcli it atlords. No doubt many begin it in this 
Avay because others use it, and because they learu its 
value in these respects at caste feasts, but I do not 
think that such men often use it in excess. A larger 
dose is gener.iUy used in the wet season than in the dry 
months, and still more in the cold weather. The regular 
opium-eater l;hus becomes indifferent to cold and climatic 
changes, and is protected from many diseases which are 
caused thereby, and, as a consequence, does not, as far 
as my inquiries go, suffer so much as other natives of 
India from visiting Europe or the hills ; of course, it is 
understood that he must be well fed. 

20.274. What is the quantity usually taken by 
habitual opium-eaters in this neighboui'hood p — The 
quantity taken ranges from ,3 to 20 or eveu 30 grains 
a day in ordinary eases up to a tola or 180 grains, or 
even to far larger quantities. Those who take it regu- 
larh" increase the dose, btit slowly ; those who are 
irregular and careless in the end take large quantities. 
In the rains and cold weather, as before stated, the dose 
is increased to produce the same effect as in the hot 
season. The tendencj^ is to increase the dose, but in 
moderation with prudent persons ^\■'b.o have command 
over themselves. Like all drugs and stimulants it is, of 
course, liable to abuse, but far less so, in my opinion, 
and in that of all the more reliable and expei'ienoed 
persons whom I lia\e consulted, than with spirits, 
wines, or hhang. 

20.275. What is the kind of opium used in this dis- 
trict ; is it the opium grown here P — For the most part 
it is grown in Rajputaua. 

20.276. Can you tell us whether - the opium of 
Rajputaua is of the same strength as the Benares and 
Patua opium ? — I believe the pure opium is. It is ex- 
ported as opium, and pays the ordinary duty on the 
frontier. 

20.277. In your opinion, at any rate, it is about the 
same strength ? — The opium we get in the Bazars to 
make our tinctures and other medical preparations, 
which we use in the dispensaries, answers as well as 
the ordinary Benares or Patna opium. 

20.278. What have you to say in regard to the 
relation of the opium habit to suicide P — I have never 
seen a man desire to commit suicide because he was 
addicted to opium-eating, but I have been called upon 
for advice in such a case from the excessive use of tea. 
I have also seen tobacco abused so as to nearly kill its 
victim. For disease or weariness opium is generally 
first used in middle life. Younger men take it in 
company, or as beer or wine are taken at an earlier age 
in Europe, and a few begin it at puberty or shortly 
afterwards in the hope of remedying the evil results of 
dissipation. In a very small number of cases parents 
continue to give it to their own children from careless- 
ness or on account of disease. Women take the drug 
less frequently than men, and usually only for disease. 
My impression is that I have seen niore females than 
male-i who have assigned grief as the cause for their use 
of the drug. 

20.279. What effect has the use of opium on the 
moral character ? — The most important questions, no 
doubt, are whether opium tends to degrade those who 
use it, to deteriorate their health, to cause neglect of 
business, poverty, gambling, domestic unhappiness, or 
sensuality. As to degradation, I think it is quite clear 
that no stigma of any kind attaches to the man who 
takes opium for disease, oi' even as a luxury and ordinary 
stimulant. I have seen many men eat it publicly, even 
Mobamedans of repute and respectability ; but, per- 
ha]is, with the exception of eating tobacco and ^lavt, the 
same cannot be said for any other drugs or stimulants. 
A man who takes a large quantity may sometimes nod 
in Darbar, and so be the subject of friendly chaff, but 
his friends do not seem to have the less reo-ard or 
esteem for him. 

20.280. Are habitual opium-eaters good business 
men P — As regards business, exce).)t in case of excess 
and even then it will probaljly be found that other 
stimulants aie used at llie same time, 1 do not think 
ci,-es of neglect or diminished capacity are common. 
On the contrary, I have found that opium-eaters are 
tenacious of purpose, that they may he refied upon to 
do work conscientiously, and after tiieir regular dose 



MINUTES OF EVIDEXOE. 



11 



even show increasic of power and mental activity (such 
increase of power has been made use of not unsui:ccss- 
fuUyby those who have to nndorgo a severe educational 
test examination). Some of the best soldiers who guard 
my camp on tour, or the horsemen who show me the 
road, eat large doses of opium. My khansama, who 
has been already referred to as a great opium-eater, is 
a valued servant well known as a most respectable and 
really good man with unusually good manners. A 
certain amount of time may be wasted, perhaps, in 
taking the drug and as the effects are passing off, but, 
from a business point of view, an opium-eater is as 
sharp as his neighbours, and, I should say, a better 
hand at driving a bargain. The present Minister of 
Jcypore gives his own expeiience of the use of the drug, 
which is sufficient as regards the intelligence of opium- 
eaters, but he and I were once called upon to decide 
whether a man who was in custody should be allowed 
to take an enormous dose of the drug as it was feared 
thSlt he intended to commit suicide. He took the dose, 
which he weighed against a piece of chalk about two 
inches long (that he scraped daily in order to diuiinish 
the dose imperceptibly) before us, without any ill 
effects. He was an exceptionally able man of great 
intellectual power, and was, what is more remarkable, 
the moat enormous man I ever saw. 

20.281. Do you think poverty can result from the use 
of opium ? — Poverty can hardly result in this part of 
India from taking opium or the poppy, as both are very 
cheap. Many men would not be able to work for their 
families if they did not use the drug, hence to some 
extent it may be looked upon as a source of gain rather 
than loss. 

20.282. Has it any efiect on family relations P — One 
of my informants thinks domestic unhappiness might 
ensue from the want of opium. The prevailing opinion 
is to the same effect here, and I know of no cases to the 
contrary. The family of the drunkard are always 
unhappy and in fear, but the relatives of an opium-eater 
know that, at the worst, he cannot bring them to open 
shame or injure them. Those who use chantlu and 
madalc, sometimes cause some trouble to their friends, 
because these articles are taken in public shops, hence 
may lead to neglect of work, just as in the case with 
the frequenters of pablic-housus. When idleness ensues 
it is from the same causes. Gambling is not a result of 
using opium. It certainly does not increase sensuality. 
As regards disease, I think much of the ill-fame which 
is said by the unexperienced to attach to the use of 
opium is due to the fact that the natural results, 
progress, and (t:/^ination of the diseases for which it is 
taken are contonnded with the supposed evil action of 
the drug itself. As I have pointed out, men take opium 
for a definite cause, generally for chronic disease, and 
it is my firm belief that, in the vast majority of cases, 
they do so with decided benefit, and with the effect of 
prolonging life. But opium does not always care and 
may only afford partial relief ; the disease itself may 
increase, though less slowly than before, and eventually 
kill. Sometimes opium may be taken in excess and so 
become a disease itself, but I think such cases are very 
rare. I see a few cases every year of obstinate con- 
stipation, almost amounting to obstruction of the 
bowels, in those who take large doses of opium, buD 
they are generally due to irregular dosing, and usually 
rapidly yield to proper treatment again. Dysentery is 
often said to be caused \>y opium, but I think rarely 
with justice. In his well-known work on poisons, Dr. 
Murrell asks this question — ''Is opium-eating or opium- 
" smoking necessarily and universally pernicious?" 
and in his answer attributes the prevailing belief to 
the descriptions of the older writers, especially to 
De Quincey, whose health oidy suffered when he took 
enormous quantities. He instances the Chinese as a 
nation which proves the contrary, and especially refers 
to the great age of many habitual opium-eaters. All my 
experience goes to confirm his views. A short time ago 
I had an old woman in the Mayo Hospital who had 
taken large quantities of opium for many years, and 
finally died when about 100 years old. There are men 
in Jeypore who are nearly as good examples of the long 
duration of life of opium-eaters. On the whole, the 
use of opium in preventing the encroachments or 
mitigating the ill-effects of disease, and in lessening 
the effects of worry, must increase the sum of years of 
human life, and add greatly to the comfort of in- 
dividuals. Most of my informants think it has nothing 
to do with the duration of life, and many consider that 
it lengthens it. 



"20,28.3. Have you had any experience with regard to 
the effect of the opium habit on subjects of surgical 
operations ? — It has been said that opium-eaters are 
not good subjects for surgical operations, I have not 
found it so apart frorn the disease for which it has been 
taken. Three months ago I removed a large calculus 
weighing four ounces from the bladder of a man who 
took opium and poppy (15 grains opium and 5 drachms 
poppy-heads). He recovered without a single bad 
symptom, 

20,281. What has been your experience of the effect 
of the opium habit on crime? — Almost without excep- 
tion my informants agree that opium-eaters arc not, 
as such, guilty of crime. Opium-eaters, like other 
persons, may commit crimes, but not because they take 
opium, rather the contrary indeed. A little petty 
theft, for the sake of procuring the drug, may be 
traced to them. I do not recollect ever having had to 
dismiss an opium-eater from service under me or to 
have had occasion to find serious fault with one, 
though often I have had to deal seriously with 
drunkards. 

20.285. What experience have you had of opium 
being given to infants ? — Children are given opium in 
Rajputana from about the third month to the second, 
third, or even fourth year, chiefly to keep them quiet, 
and set free the mothers for domestic duties or work, 
also to prevent pain and crying during dentition, and 
in the hope of preventing and curing diarrhoea and 
such like infantile disorders. At one time I thought 
the practice wholly bad, but my views have somewhat 
changed, and I am not wow prepared to say that a veiy 
ancient custom such as this is withont justification in 
a country in which pure milk is most difficult to be had 
by the poor. Goats and cows act too often as scavengers 
to make it at all sure that their milk is healthy even 
when directly drawn from the animal. To the universal 
practice of boiling the milk, to the prolonged lactation 
of infants, and to some extent to the use of opium, 1 
am inclined to attribute the fact that any children of 
the poor in some of the large cities of Rajputana ever 
survive to grow up at all tii be men and women. The 
children show no desire in after-life to especially resort 
to opium, nor is the progeny of those who use opium 
less active or healthy than that of other people. Neai'ly 
all my informants agree with me that insanity never 
follows the use or even abuse of opium. The chief 
Tunani physician here. Sheikh Buali Sena (Avicenna) 
and Hakim Ali state that some kinds of mania are 
cured by opium ; one man thinks the want of it leads to 
foolishness. The general opinion is that it is not 
disgraceful to take opium in moderation. Some think 
it an infirmity, and of course all consider the abuse 
unwise. It is only contrary to the religion of the 
Musalman, and with liim in the same sense, that all 
intoxicants and stimulants are forbidden even as 
tobacco is ; but, as one of my subordinates s&ya, " pre- 
cepts are not practice." Mohamedans allow it to be 
used as a drug, but alcohol is so abhorred that if a 
drop of it is spilt on a garment the piece of cloth 
should be cut out. On the question of liability to 
disease, I think that the opium-eater is protected 
against many minor ills, and especially against bowel 
complaints, diabetes, and malarious affections. 

20.286. Have you anything to say in regard to opium 
as an aphrodisiac ? — I think that the statement that 
opium is used for vicious purposes as an aphrodisiac is 
incorrect. All my evidence goes to show that it does 
not increase sexual appetite. In cases of failing health, 
due to excessive and premature use of the sexal organs 
in the male, it is taken because it is the general ijn- 
pressiou amongst nati\es of India, that it delays seminal 
emission, especially if taken with milk. This is a very 
different thing from employing it as an excitant. In 
the east, where failure from various causes is verj^ 
common, many other medicines are used as aphrodisiacs, 
as, for example, 8try,-3hnine, musk, Indian hem]3, and 
very many indigenous' drugs. The authorities on 
Maieria Medico, are very uncertain on this point. The 
majority say nothing on the subject, a-nd others merely 
that it is used in the Bast as an aphrodisiac. 

20.287. I understand that you have collected the 
details of some 4,400 opium-eaters in the Jeypore 
District, and that you have tabulated the lesults P — 
Tes. 

20.288. Do you think you could supply an analysis* in 
tabular form which might be put in the Appendix p— I 
think so. 



Lieut.-Cul. 
T.H. H<-n,lh,l, 
CLE. " 

29 Jan. 1894. 



* See Appendix II. to this Volume. 



B 2 



12 



INDIAN HPIUM COMMISSION; 



Sutyeon- 

Lieul.-Col. 

T. a Hendleu, 

CLE. 

29 Jan. 1804. 



20,269. You also obtained 55 reports from persons 
you applied ki, and I understand yon have made an 
analysis of these reports ; would you kindly hand it in 
for printing in the Appendix '■f — !fes. 

20.290. (Mr. Wihon.) In referring to the fact that 
the pouplo were largely vegetaiians, you spoke of 
opiTim as almost a necessary of life, but apparently 
only a small proportion of people get this necessity of 
lifer'— I spoke generally there. I tiiid, •'Drugs and 
stimulants of some kind ; " in that I was referring to 
fan, and some of the things I had previously men- 
tioned. 

20.291. Do you think a very large proportion of the 
people do take florae of these articles you refer to ?— 
They take something alw.ays, I think ; strong pickles, 
or something of that sort, strong condiments, chillies, 
&c. I believe I am correct in staling that all vege- 
tarians here use chillies and assafoetdia. 

20.292. Yon also refer to the number of shops for 
the sale ol European spirits, are they pretty freely 
liotmsed in this city ? — I know nothing of that aspect of 
the question. 

20.293. You know there are a great many? — Yes. I 
think it is to the increased desire to use European 
liquor that there are so many more Eiiropean shops 
than formerly. 

2< 1,294. You referred to the Eathoros of Marwar, are 
they a tribe or clan of the Eajputs H — That is the i-uling 
clan of Jodhpiiru, of which the Maharajah is the head, 
[t is one of the great divisions of the Eajput races. 

20.295. Am I right in believing it is a large aiid 
numerous clan ? — Yes. 

20.296. I do not know whether you are acquainted with 
the " Annals of Eajasthan," by Lieut.-Col. James Tod ? 
—I am. 

20.297. Are you aware that in that book, on page 163 
of Vol. 2, he says, " Though debased by one besetting 
" sin, the use of opium, the Eathore is yei a noble 
" animal y" — I have not found him a noble animal, I 
have found him a very noble individual. T have served 
in Marwar. I was thoroughly well acquainted with 
the late Maharajah of Jodhpore and ihe present one, 
and many of the Chiefs amongst the Eathorcs, and am 
proud to have many of them as my friends. 

20.298. Would you agree with Col. Tod that it is this 
besetting sin which debases them? — I have not said 
that opium was debasing, nor were the people debased. 

20.299. Lieuc.-Col. Tod has referred to the use of 
opium as the besetting sin of these people which debases 
them ; do j-ou agree with that expression of opinion? — 
1 do not agrue. I think Col. Tod's experience of Mar- 
war was very small. He was principally in Meywar, 
and only made a tour, as far as 1 know, through Mar- 
war. It is well known that Col. Tod was very much 
prejudiced in favour of Meywar, and against Marwar. 
In another place Col. Tod writes, with reference to the 
Bajputs, of amal pani being " dearer to them than 
life." 

20.300. You said that almost everyone uses opium in 
certain districts in the belief that it protects against 
the prevailing disease, which 1 understand to mean 
malarial disease ?— Malarial. 

20.301. Is it your opinion that it does protect a man 
against that ? — I believe it does ; but I believe there arc 
better things. It is the only thing they can resort to 
under the circumstances. 

20.302. I am referring to the expression you used, 
that they take it in the belief, is that your belief too ? — 
To a limited extent it is. Of course, it does not protect 
like quinine or other drugs. 

20.303. Then you also refer to " worn-out, crippled 
old men ; " but these old men have been crippled by 
taking opium, have they not P— No, through disease. 
They have only been kept alive by opium. 

20,304 You think they would not have lived at all if 
it had not been for opium ? — Tbty certainly would 
hot have been able to work. 

20.305. You do not think the opium had anything to 
do with their miserable condition p — No. I think they 
would be better without the disease than the opium. 

20.306. Y'on referred also to chaudu and Madak as 
being taken in public shops ; I daresay you heard wha'j 
the last witness said, that there are no chandn shops ? 



— 1 have said already 1 know very little about chandn 
and madak. 

■211,307. You said that those who use cbandu and 
madak sometimes cause trouble to their friends, be- 
cause these articles are taken in [mblic shops. The last 
witness said there were no such shops, and I want to 
know whether you can reconcile your statement with, 
his? — His statement is confined to Jeypore, and mine 
is a general stacement. 

20.308. Y'ou are not referring to this part of the 
country ? — Not generally. Speaking of Jeypore, I have 
already said that my experience is very small connected 
with smoking opium. 

20.309. Do I understand from your evidence that the 
general insanitary conditions of Eajputana are extremely 
unfavourable to child life ? — Very unfavourable to life 
altogctber, I should thiuk, but still more so to child 
life, especially in the lai'ger cities. Sanitation is 
making some progress, but we are only ou the fringe of 
i.he subject. It is notorious here that the mortality 
amongst children is enormous. 

20.310. In reference to the use of opium as an 
aphrodisiac, I do not quite sec where the contradiction 
is. You say that you think it is ii>correct to say that 
it is used for vicious purposes, liecausc you think it docs 
not have that effect ; but a thing m^iy be used for the 
purpose, .ind yet not have the cfTect, may it not — it 
may be taken for a vicious purpose although it may fail 
to effect that purpose ? — Yes, but I do not think it is 
generally taken in that way. I think it is taken when 
a man's powers are failing — he t.akes it as a drug iu the 
hope of keeping himself in good condition. 

20.311. Have you known young men take it for that 
purposs ? — Young men are very soon worn out in this 
country, and they may take it under that impression 
when they become diseased, but not as a stimulant 
during health. 

20.312. I gather .that you distinctly state that one 
great reason why you would not favour any stringent 
restriction on the use of opium is the fear that people 
would Hy to the use of alcohol, gaiija, and so on ?— The 
great reason is that it is the most available drug for the 
relief of pain. I do not think any i-estrictive measures 
are desirable. 

20.313. Would you be in favour of any further re- 
strictions than at present exists on those articles ? I 

should like to see their use restricted very much indeed. 
I doubt whether it would be possible, but the evils of 
drink arc so enormous in this country, especially 
amongst the nobility, that I should be very glad if they 
could be in any way restricted. 

20.314. I think that in the Med'ual Journal, of the 
30th of April 1892, you wrote a letter in which this 
passage occurs, " There is nothing remarkable iu this " 
(that is referring to Eajputs not caring to confess the 
habit) "as no Rajput would care to acknowledge, 
" especially to a European, that ho was not quite so 
" strong as he used to be in his early youth, and that he 
" was compelled to take a little wine or opium for his 
" stomach's sake." Is not that a little contrary to some 
of the things you have said to us p— I do not think so. 
In what way p 

20.315. That he would not like to confess he took it ? 
— He would not like to confess generally that he was 
getting a weaker man, and had to take stimulants of 
any sort. 

20.316. What you meant was that he would not like 
to confess to the weakness ; you think he does not mind 
confessing to opium?— A Eajput always calls himself a 
Jawan, or young man, until he is 40, and he would not 
like to confess that he has to take anything in order 
to strengthen his failing powers. He dyes his whiskers 
that ho may appear to be a young man as long as 
possible. 

20.317. (Mr. Fanshawe.) We have been told before 
that the non-medical and medical uses of opium vci-y 
much tijnd to merge into each other ; I rather under- 
stand that is your view too p— It is difficult to distin- 
guish the eft'ects of the opium and the disease. 

20.318. 1 mean rather in this war, that many men 
begin the habit in connexion with dis'oase, and then go 
on with it as a habit, taking opium as a restorative or 
stimulant f— It is quite possible. They begin the habit 
and it is difficult to lea\e it off. They find cerlain 
advantages are derived from it. 



MINUTES OP EVIDENCE. 



13 



20,31.9. Dr. Ricu, of 30 years' experience iu the 
Central Provinces, told us that many men in the lower 
classes would be unable to do their day's work, and 
would be practically brought to starvation, if it were 



not for taking opium ? — That is what I referred to with Surgeon- 

reference to the Sowiirs. Lieut.-Col. 

20,320. That is the view whi^'h you would also take ? T.H.HemUey, 

Yes, certainly. CLE. 



The witness withdrew. 



•29 .Tun. 1894, 



Rao Baiiadub. Tuakur Gobinb Singh called in and examined. 



20.321. (Sir .7. Lyall.) I believe you are Thakur, or 
chief, of Chanmoo in Jeypore ?— Yes. 

20.322. How big is your country P— It is a large 
country. The population is about 45,000. 

20.323. What opinion have you formed about the 
opium ([uestion ? — I wish to show the results that are 
likely to follow from a stop "neing put to the growth of 
opium. If the growth of opium was suppressed there 
would be a great loss in revenue and iu custom duties. 
It would rot be possible by a re -adjustment of rates on 
cereals and other crops that might take its place to 
make up for the loss, for the rates have been fixed on 
cereals and other crops for many years, and any 
attempt to increase them would cause the utmost 
dissatisf iiction, and would be regarded by the people as 
a great oppression. And not only would there be a loss 
in revenue and custom duties, but the Zamindars would 
also sufi'er greatly, for, as I shall show further on, 
there is no crop which gives such a large return to the 
cultivator as opium, and therefore to suppress its 
growth would be a severe hardship to the Zamindar. 
There would be no loss in excise at all, for no excise 
whatever is derived either from opium or any of its 
preparations. Furthermore there will, in my opinion, 
be a loss in credit if the growth of opium is prohibited. 
The growers will say they have prohibited us from 
growing the crop that paid us best, and allow us only 
to grow what gives us a poor return for our labour. If 
they have stopped the opium they may stop our other 
crops at any time, or begin to take hasil from the zdbti 
crop. What assurance have we that they will not ? In 
this way there will be great disquietuae, then they will 
have difficulty in getting advances from the Bohras for 
their crops. At present they have no difficulty, for 
the Bohras know that they will get their money back 
again, but they will hesitate to advance on crops for 
which a repayment may not be possible. Furthermore, 
the officials will be thrown into a state of disquietude 
because of the great difference in income caused by the 
prohibition. There are two ways in which revenue is 
derived from the cultivators. First, the cultivator 
gives a certain portion of his grain crop, such as barley, 
wheat, &o., to the Jagirdur. Secondly, there are 
certain crops classed as ;:(Mi, such as cotton, sugar-cane, 
chillies, carrots, and opium, &c. Now the cultivator 
does not give any poi-tion of this crop to the Jagirdars, 
but instead, he gives money, say, from one to two rupees 
per bigha according to the crop. The Zamindars prefer 
to grow this second class of crops, because it is more 
profitable to them, while the first class of crops is 
preferred by the Jagirdar for a similar reason In this 
way the Jagirdars encourage the Zamindars to grow 
the cereal crops, while they do what they can to dis- 
courage the growth of the 'Mhii crops. For this reason 
the cereal crops are more cultivated than the other. 
But one article of the zahti crop must be exempted from 
the above description, that article is opium. Opium is 
a crop which is the most profitable crop both to the 
Jagirdar and the Zamindar. Naturally, therefore, there 
is a desire to have as much land as possible under 
opium cultivation ; but for two reasons the growth of 
opium is i-estricted. first, opium can only be grown on 
certain land profitably, and that land is limited in area, 
and secondly, supposing there was a large area of land 
suitable for opium cultivation, it would still be restricted, 
for grain and grass must be grown in suflRcient quan- 
tities not only to supply present wants, but to enable us 
to provide against a possible famine in the future. One 
other point we may mention here, if we were to treat 
the zabti crop as we treat the cereal, and take hasil 
from it, that is, take a certain portion of the crop, then 
certainly our revenue would be much increased, but 
that change we cannot make, because this custom has 
come down to the present time from antiquity, and no 
change would be tolerated on thr part of the Zamindars. 
It would be considered a wanton invasion of their rights, 
and they would refuse to cultivate the land at all. 



There can be no doubt that our forefathers, with great 
wisdom and consideration, and with a perfect know- 
ledge of all the circumstances of the case, made this 
twofold division by which their revenue was derived. 
And to attempt to change it now would be a disastrous 
mistake. Again, were the growth of opium prohibited 
the Zamindars would have the greatest difficulty in 
paying back the money which has been lent to them by 
the Bohras. This would be likely to give riae to a 
good deal of ill-feeling and probably excitement. It 
would hardly be expected that either of the parties 
would tamely submit to such a loss, especially as there 
would be no reasonable prospect of retrieving the loss. 
A short description of how opium is produced, and the 
effect the suj)pression of its growth would have on the 
labourers producing it, may not be out of place. Opium 
juice is taken from the head of the poppy plant while it is 
standing in the field, afterwards the heads are cut oflf, 
the seeas inside are taken out, and oil is extracted from 
them. There is a kind of poppy head out of which opium 
is not extracted. This is called "post." The heads 
when dry, are steeped in water, and this water, which 
contains the intoxicating ingredient, is drunk chiefly 
by the common people, and the seeds of " poet " are used 
in medicine. All the other parts of the plant except 
the head are useless and are usually burned. The 
Zamindar makes the land ready and watei-s it, while it 
is growing the weeds are taken from the land where it 
is growing. Labourers take the juice from the head of 
the jjoppy while it is growing. There is a great deal 
more labonr required for the cultivation of the poppy 
than any other crop, and therefore were the growth of 
the poppy stopped it would lessen the sources of income 
for many a poor family. Those who are addicted to 
opium take it in different forms. Sometimes it is eaten 
dry, sometimes it is dissolved iu water and drunk. 
Sometimes spices are mixed with it and it is made into 
pills. Sometimes it is made into chandu and smoked. 
As far as I have been able to judge about 15 per cejit. 
among Eajputs take opium, and perhaps 10 per cent, 
among the other castes. Among all castes about 3 per 
cent, take it to excess. The greater number eat opium 
twice a day. Some take it thrice a day, while a number 
take it only once a day. As much as from two grains to 
16 grains are taken at one time. Some take as much 
as one tola a day. A man who takes a tola daily is 
considered intemperate, but such instances are rare. 
Opium is eaten on these special occasions. At the time 
of betrothal, and marriage, on the occasion of a death, 
on certain festivals, and un other times of rejoicing. 
At the time of betrothal it must be taken, a betrothal 
is not considered tomplete unless it is eaten. Besides 
there are many diseases for the curing of which the 
doctors prescribo opium. From this medicine much 
benefit is derived There are many poor people in out 
of the way places who, when sick, can consult no 
doctor and are so poor that they cannot go where they 
might consult a doctor. These derive much benefit 
from the taking of opium. Besides this, opium is given 
mixed with spices to elephants, horses, bullocks, and 
camels. It is my opinion, though I do not take it 
myself, that those who take opium in moderation get 
no harm from it but good. In conclusion then, it will 
be evident from what I have already said, that if opium 
could not be procured except as a medicine, there would 
certainly be harm done. Our customs could not be 
sufficiently observed and injury would be done to men 
who had been in the habit of taking it. 

20.324. You said that you thought about 15 per cent, 
of the Rajputs take opium; do ysu mean 16 per cent, 
of the total population or 16 per cent, of the adult men ? 
— 15 per cent, of the men. 

20.325. Eighty-five out of 100 do not take it at ail ?— 
That is my experience, as far as I can judge. 

20.326. Have you made out an estimate of how much 
poppy is produced per bigha P — No. I cannot give you 
the exact amount unless I inquire from the Jagirdars 
and others. 



Rao Bahadur 
Thakur 

Gobind Singh. 
{Jeypore 
State.} 



The witness withdrew. 



B 3 



14 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



Thakur Futteh 

Singh. 

iJeypore 

State.) 

29 ,Tan. 1894. 



Thakue Futteh Singh called in and examined (through an interpreter). 

20.333. Some people have proposed that the use of 
opium e.xcept for medicinal purposes should ha pro- 



20,327. (Sir J. Lyall.) Of what place arc you Thakur ? 
— Naela. 



20.328. About hoAV many villages are there there ? — 
There are about 400 houses. The correct number of 
inhabitants will be found in the census return. 

20.329. I believe you were formerly vice-president of 
the Jeypore (Jouncil ? — Yes. 

20.330. What is the general custom in this part of the 
country with reference to taking opium P — The general 
practice is to take opium twice a day, morning and 
evening. A few persons take it only once, while others 
take it irregularly several times a day. it is generally 
ofl'ered to guests on the occasions of the festival of 
" Holi," "Dasserah," " Akha Tij," &e. — at betrothals, 
marriages, and funerals. 

20.331. What are the effects upon the people who take 
it habitually day by day ? — ^If not taken at the usual 
hour the person becomes sick and otherwise indisposed. 

20.332. If they take it regularly do they remain strong 
and active P — If they take their usual dose they will 

■ remain healthy. When the dose is taken the system is 
restored. 



hibitcd ; what would the people in this country think of 
that? — It would cause pecuniary loss both to the ruler 
and to the ruled. If a person habitually accustomed to 
take opium does not get his usual dose he will not 
remain in health and be able to discharge his usual 
duties. 

20,3:!4. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Would it not be regarded as 
an interference with local habits and customs, and on 
that ground cause discontent P — As it is customary, and 
all persons are bound by custom to obser-\-e it, a man 
not following ihe custom would be looked down upon. 
All persons use opiuoi at festivals and ceremonies, aud 
if one did not use it he would be looked down upon. 

20.335. (Mr. Wilson.) Do you think it is good for 
young men who have no disease to take opium P — WTien 
young men are not suffering from any disease it is not 
useful for them to take opium. 

20.336. Do you approve of any change or restriction 
in the mode of selling opium P — Do you desiro any 
restriction yourself? — 1 do not desire any. 



The witness withdrew. 



Hahim Abdul 

Guffur, 

DJianna Lall 

Balabun,Chote 

Khan Jan 

Mohammad, 

and Asgar A li 

Hussain. 

(^Jeypore 

State.) 



Hakim Abdul G-urrUE, Dhanna Lall Balabun, Chote Khan Jan Mohammad, and Asgak Ali Hussaik called 

in and examined (through an interpreter). 



20.337. (Mr. Wilson, to Ahdul Guffur.) 1 believe you 
are a Hakim, practising in Jeypore ? — Yes. 

20.338. How long have you been in practice P — For 
four years. 

20.339. Did you before that study under Hakim 
Mohammad Assan Khan, of Indore, for nine years P — 
Yes. 

20.340. Is it a fact that men begin to take opium in 
small quantities from the pleasure it produces, and 
that they go on increasing the doscP — Yes; people 
often take little doses of opium, and not being satisfied 
with that thoy increase the dose. 

20.341. Does it become at last impossible to stop the 
habit P — He can leave it. 

20.342. Is opium often taken to cure coughs and 
colds, and also for sensual purposes ? — It is taken foi- 
coughs and colds, and also as an aphrodisiac. 

20.343. In the case of a poor man who cannot get 
rich food, does opium do him a great deal of harm P — 
It is very dangerous for him. 

20.344. Are you of opinion that the people of .leypore 
would be benefited if the authorities would stop all the 
opium shops ? — It would be to the benefit of those 
people who use opium. 

20.345. Do you think that the people of Jeypore 
would be glad to be delivered from rhe evils of opium, 
and would say nothing against such action on the part 
of the Government? — They are not able to make any 
opposition. 

20.346. What do yon mean when you say that they 
are not able to make any opposition? — I mean that 
they would be very thankful if the authorities would 
close the shops, and then thoge who are opium-eaters 
will live long. I have a patient who is an opium-eater 
now under my treatment. I h.ave stopped his opium, 
and he is now much better. 

20.347. (Mr. Wilsm, to Dhanna Lall Bn.labun.) Are 
you a teacher in a private school?— Yes. ily father 
was a teacher, and I am a pri\ate teacher also in a 
private school. 

20.348. (Ifr. Wilson, to Chote Khan Jan Mohammad.) 
Are you a chuprasi in the Tahsil Office P — Yes, I am. 

20.349. (Mr. Wilson, to Asgar Ali Hussain.) I believe 
you are a merchant and trader P — Yes. 

20,3-50. (Mr. Wilson.) Do you all agree with the 
hakim Abdul Gutfnr that the people of Jeypore would 
be much benefited if the authorities would stop all the 
opium shops P 

(The Interpreter.) They say they all agree. 

20,361. (Mr. Wilson.) Do they also think that the 
people of Jeypore would approve of the authorities 
stopping the common sale of opium P 



(The Interpreter.) They say they would be very glad 
for the authorities to stop the opium shops. 

(Dhanna Lall Balabun.) I got into bad company and 
took to the habit of eating opium. I have given it up 
now for three months. 

20.352. (Mr. Wilson.) Are yovi better or worse now 
that you have given it up P — 

(Dhanna Lall Balalmn.) I was in bad hc;ilth, but 
no-\\- that I have left it oft' I feci a little strength in my 
bod}'. 

(Asgar Ali Hussain.) I also take o]3ium. 

20.353. (Sir W. Roberts io Asgar Ali Hussain.) TTave 
you ever known opium-eaters live to an old age? — Men 
who eat opium live to an old age, but they become a 
little weak. 

20.354. (Sir J. Lyall to Abdul Guffur.) What is your 
age P — I am 20 years old. 

20, 35.'). Where is your father's home ? — Agra. 

20.356. You say you have been here four years ; I 
suppose yon have lived in the city P — Yes. 

20.357. How can you answer for the people nf 
Jeypore when you are an Agra man, age 24, and 
have only lived four years in the city ? — I am a 
Hakim, and several people have come under my treat- 
ment, asking and begging me to treat them and to give 
tliem medicine so that they can leave the opium. 

20.358. What made you come to Jeypore ? — I was 
called to Rajputana by the Xawiili of Tonk, but I was 
not appointed there. I am now serving one of the gentry 
of Jeypore who is Kazir in the Maharaja's court. 

20.359. Now you are a servant of the Nazir ? Yes. 

20.360. What pay do you get ?— Thirty rupees a month. 

20.361. What have you to do for that ?— I am a private 
physician. 

20.362. Who suggested that you should come here to 
give evidence ? — No one suggested it. 

23.363. (To Dhanna Lall Balahun.) What is vour 
age ? — 20. ■' 

20.364. What work do you do P— First my father used 
to teach at a Missionary school ; now he has his own 
private school. 

20,3l>j. Have you a sehoolhouse, or do you sit in the 
veraudah in some place ?— I have a house. 

20.366. What rents do you pny for your house ?— It is 
my own house. 

20.367. How many pupils have you ?— About 50. 
20,.368 You are 20 years of ago, and do you manaKO 

the whole thing yourself ?— There is my father as well 

20.369. Was your father ver\- angry with you when 
you. began to take opium ?--I used to take opium 
privately. My father did not know of it. 



MINUTES Oi" EVIDENCE. 



15 



90.370. {To Clioto, Khan Jan MohammivL) How old 
are you. ?— I am 21. 

20.371. What made you think about opium H — 
People were talking about opium and saying that it 
was very bad, and was not to be eaten or given to 
children and so on. 

20.372. Did anybody particularly tell you this ?— 
Yes. 

20.373. Who ?— A neighbour of mine. 

20.374. Do you belong to a temperance society ? — 
Yes. 

20.375. What is the name of the society P — Tbere are 
a few persons who neither smoke nor drink, and neither 
smoke nor eat opium. 

20.376. Did any person ask you to give evidence ? — 
Ko. 

20.377. What is your pay ? — Four rupees a month. 

20.378. (To Asgar Ali Hussain.) I believe you said 
you are a merchant ? — Yes. 

■-!0,:w^i. What kind of merchant are you ? — I deal in 
kcnisiao oil, broken things, broken plates and dishes 
and saucers, -.natcheK, and buttons. 



20,:IS0. Aro you an opium-eater ? — Yes. 

20,38J. Do you eat iu excess? — I eat onu anna's 
worth three times a day ; I take opium three times a 
day. 

20.382. What do you make a month in your shop P 

I make three or four, or five annas a day. 

20.383. {Mr. Pease. ) How much opium do you get 
for one anna ? — About four mashas. 

20.384. {Sir J. Lyall.) Has the habit done you much 
harm ? — I took opium before the Mutiny. I used to go 
iuto bad company and so I got into the habit ; I am 
still using it. 

20.385. Has it done your health much harm? — My 
health is the same as before. My sons' children are iu 
good health, and I am also in the same state of health. 

20.386. {Chairman to Abdul Ouffur.) Is it your desire 
that the authorities should close the liquor shops ? — I 
cannot say anything about alcohol. 

20.387. Do "you think it an evil thing ? — It is an evil, 
and it is a good, both. 

20.388. Do you think that it is as evil a thing as 
opium ? — No ; I think opium is worse. 



The witnesses withdrew. 
Adjourned to to-morrow at Ajmere. 

At the Daulat Bagii, Ajmere. 



FIFTY-NINTH DAY. 



Tuesday, 30th January 1894. 



Hakim AMvl 

Gvffur, 

Dhamia Lall 

Balabuit,Chate 

Khan dan 

Mohammad, 

and Asyar Ali 

Hussain. 

{Jeijpore 

State.) 

29 .Ian. 1894. 



PBESENT : 

The Highi Hon. LORD BUASSEY, K.O.B., Chairmau, peesiding. 



Sir .Tames B. Lyall, G.O.I.E., K.O.S.I. 
Sir William Bobeiws, J\1.D., F.K.S. 
Mr. R. 0-. 0. MowiiKAY, M.l'. 
Mr. A.,U. Fanshawe. 



Mr. Aethuk Pease. 

Mr. Haridas Vbhakidas Desai. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Pbescott Hewett, C.I.E., Secretary. 



Lieutenant-Colonel H. B. Abhott called in and examined. 



20,389. {Chairman.) You are resident for the West- 
ern Bajputana States, on special duty? — Yes. 



20,390. Will you tell us the particulars of your 
political service in Rajputana ? — Having passed more 
than 24 years of my political service in Rajputana, 
during which time I have had direct relations with 
nearly all the States, including the whole of the more 
important ones, and having lived for over 13 years in 
the opium-producing State of Jhallawar, where I 
supervised the Revenue Settlement, and had therefore 
unusual opportunities for observing the vital import- 
ance of poppy cultivation to that native State, its 
agricultural population and its traders, as well as of 
seeing the result of almost universal consumption of 
opium by its people, I have been appointed to represent 
Rajputana before the Royal Commission. 



20,391. I understand you are prepared to lay before 
this Commission information obtained from the different 
States of Rajputana, to introduce their witnesses for 
examination, to state your opinion regardingthe claims 
for compensation, and to give the results of your 
personal experience ? — Yes. 



20,392. Will you give us the leading statistics of the 
province of Rajputana? — The province of Rajputana 
has within its boundaries 19 States, ruled mostly by 
the Rajput race, and differing in population and revenue 
as noted in the table I now hand in. 





Name of Stale. 






Revenue. 


Lieut. -Col. 


— 


Ruler. 


Population. 


H. B. Abbott 












.30 Jan. 1894. 


I 


Jeypore 


Kajput 


2,8.32,276 


f*T t\fi i'»t»ri 


ol,9U,0o9 




2 


Marwar or Jodhpur 


Do. 


2,519,86S 


41,57,000 




3 


Meywar or Oode.vpur - 


Do. 


1,863,120 


37,50,000 




i 


Bikanir 


Do. 


831,955 


18,00,000 




5 


Ulwar 


Do. 


767,7S(i 


20,5S,792 




6 


Bhartpore 


Jat - 


040,803 


27,13,501 




7 


Kotah 


Rajput 


32H,267 


24,00,000 




8 


Tonk - 


Mussalman 


379,941 


12,00,000 




» 


Jhallawar 


R.ijput 


3.13,601 


15,00,000 




10 


Bundi 


Do. 


2115,67.: 


8,00,000 




11 


Dliolpur 


Jat - 


279,890 


9,25,342 




Vi 


Banswara 


Rjvjput 


211,&11 


2,59,878 




IS 


Sirohi - 


Do. 


190,830 


1,75,000 




u 


Duiiiiarporo 


Do. 


185,400 


1,45,689 




15 


Karauli 


Do. 


I.50,.j«7 


4,77,729 




111 


KishciiKarh 


Do. 


125,516 


3,57,478 




17 


Jaisalmil" 


Do. 


115,701 


1,58,700 




18 


Pertab,ii::irh 


Do. 


S7,97."> 


2,67,640 




19 


.Sliahpul-a 


lln. 


63,640 


2.89,000 





Note. — Tlie small esbate of Lawa. which appear- in the i-ensus returns, 
i-< excluded for tlie purposes of this stuttiineiit. The j)opnl:ition of the 
Tonk disU'icts situated in Central India are inclul.'d, a^ rhey are thj 
opiLim-|)ri'diicing districts of tins .State. 

B 1 



16 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Lieut.- Col. 
H. B. Abbott. 

30 Jan. ]8!I4. 



As regards opium the Rajputana States may be 
grouped into those which produce and export it and 
those which import it. Thi; former, which are situated 
in t}ie south-east, border on Central India, and are 
geographically a part of Malwa, form part of a country 
in which long experience has shown the soil, water- 
supply, and climate are all better suited to raising the 
poppy than to the cultivation of any other irrigated 
crop. Their interests in opium greatly exceed those 
of the rest as it provides a large portion of their revenue, 
is the main source of profit to their agricultural classes 
and traders, and is more generally in use by all the 
inhabitants. The table I now produce, which places 
ihe Rajputana States in the order in which opium i.s of 
the greatest revenue value to them, and showing pro- 
portion the poppy crop bears to the total irrigated 
area, exhibits their varied interests to some extent : — 



- 


Sliite.s. 


Proportion of 
Opium Revenue 

to the Total 

Revenue of the 

State. 


Proportion of the 

Poppy Crop to the Total 

lirigated Area. 


1 


Pcvtabgarh 


7t 


Information wanting. 


2 


Tonk 


.■il 


*20 per cent. 


S 


DunKarpore 


29 


Information wanting. 


4 


Jhallawar 


39 


Gl per cent. 


6 


Jaisalmir - 


20 


Xo cultivation. 


6 


Sirolii 


17 


Information wanting. 


7 


Kotah 


15 


Ditto. 


8 


Meywar 


12 


21 per cent. 


9 


Bundi 


10 


Information wanting. 


10 


Marwar 


5 


No cultivation. 


H 


Shahpura - 


4 


Information wanting. 


2 


Kishengai'h - 


■1 


Ditto. 


13 


Bikanir 


^ 


No cultivation. 


14 


Karauli 


3 


Information wanting. 


15 


Jeyporc - 


1 


Ditto. 


18 


Dholpur 


■8 


Ditto. 


17 


Ulwar 


'6 


Ditto. 


18 


Bhartpore - 


No statistics 


Ditto. 


19 


tBanswara 


Ditto. 1 


Ditto. 



* In some districts rising to .'iO. 

t The Banswara statistics were subsequently received, and are included 
in Appendix V. to thi^ Volume. 



In some States, namely, Bundi, Shahpura, Kishen- 
garh, Jeypore, Karauli, Dholpur, Bhartpore, Ulwar, 
Bikanir, Jaisalmir, Marwar, and Sirohi opium is 
either not produced at all or only in comparatively 
small quantities, such as in Jeypore where the area 
under poppy, though seemingly large, is relatively to the 
whole of its cultivated area very small. 

20,393. What statistics are you able to put before us 
from the several States : — The statistics collected from 
the States and to be now placed before the Commission, 
are composed cif those relating to : — I. — The production 
of opium, that is to say,^a.) The area under poppy 
growth and its yie'd. (6.) The amount of opium ex- 
ported through British India for foreign trade, (c.) 
The amount of opium exported from one part of Rajpu- 
tana to another, or to other parte of Indie, [d.) The 
amount of opium remaining for local consumption to 
provide for wastage in manufacture, or to be added to 
the stocks. — II. — The uses and value of opium, whii-h 
comprise— (a.) The uses the poppy plant is put to by 
the cultivator and others. (6.) The value of the poppy 
crop to cultivators, that is to say, the profit they 
annually derive from it after deducting the expenses of 
cultivation and payment of revenue, (c.) Its value 
to the money-lending classes which support them, thai, 
is, their annual profit. (tL) The value of poppy culti- 
vation to field labourers and village servants m wages 
received in cash, or perquisites in kind, to oil-preasers 
and workmen employed in manufacture, (e.) The 
States in the shape of revenue at present derived. (/.) 
The holders of alienated lands within them, in the shape 
of income at present received. {(/.) Traders, consisting 
of their annual profits, [h.) The manner in which 
•ipium is consumed, (i.) The extent to which it is taken, 
(j.) The purposes for which it is taken, (fc.) The occa- 
.'<"ion8 on which it is taken, (i.) Public opinion as to 
the results of the habit and the consequence of prohi- 



bition. {'III.) The opinions of Durb.irs, i.e.. States and 
political officers as to tlie possibility of prohibiting pro- 
duction, export, and consumption except as medicine, 
and as to the consequences of such prohibition. — III- — 
Estimated compensation to — (a.) The States. For loss 
of revenue from — (i.) The land revenue, eustums, and 
excise, (ii.) For cost of expenses connected with revi- 
sion of rates, (iii.) For the cost, of prohibitive mea- 
sures. (6.) The holders of alienated lands. (i.) For 
loss of income from the land and customs collections, 
(ii.) For cost of revision rates, (iii.) For cosi, of pro- 
hibitive measures, (c.) Cultivators, (i.) For the diiler- 
ence in profit obtained from the poppy crop, and that 
obtainable from the crops likely to be substituted for it. 
(ii.) For loss of credit, (d.) The money-lending classes 
supporting cultivators, (i ) For loss of yearly business, 
(ii.) For loss by bad debts, (iii.) For loss in credit, 
(e.) Field labourers and village servants, workmen em- 
ployed in the manufacture of opium, (i.) For loss in 
wages, oil-pressers, loss of income. (/.) Traders, (i.) 
For loss in annual profit by the termination of opium 
traffic, (ii.) For loss by unsaleable stocks, (iii.) For 
loss h}' disorganisation of business, (iv.) For loss in 
credit. (</.) Consumers For the extra cost of living. 

20.394. How do you propose to deal with this infor- 
mation, and in what order will you place it before the 
Commission p — ^The opium-producing States being the 
most interested in this inquiry, I will begin with the 
information received from them, and will continue with 
the others in their geographical order, passing up by 
the north and round by the west to the south again. 

20.395. What arrangement have you made with 
reference to the witnesses ? — As time does not permit 
of all the witnesses nominated by the States being 
examined, those of the smaller or less interested 
States have been either reduced to a few or dispensed 
with. In the latter case one State (Karauli) has submitted 
a " Kliarita " or *official communication to the Commis- 
.sion, giving the best information available, and express- 
ing- its view.*; ; this will be presented by me at the end 
of my evidence. In both the eases the information 
given in my statement will be more full than in the 
case of the larger and more interested States, whose 
witnesses ai'e present to enter into details. The smaller 
and less interested States referred to are : 1, Dungarpore. 
2, Banswara. 3, Shahpura. 4, Bundi. 5, Kaiauli. (i, 
Dholpur. 7, Bhartpore. §, Ulwar. 9, Kishengarh. 
10, Sirohi. The Karauli State has sent a Khorila. 
There remain the following nine large or more impor- 
tant States : 1, Meywar. 2, Pertabgarh. 3, Tonk. 4, 
Jhallawar. 5, Kotah. 6, Jeypore. 7, Bikanir. 8, 
Mlarwar. 9. Jaisalmir. 

20.396. You are prepared to give us the detailed 
statistics of each of the principal States you have 
named ? — Yes. 

20.397. We will place those statistics in our fAppen- 
dix. They are given as provided by the States them- 
selves ? — ^Yes. 

2o.397a. (Mr. Wilson.) You do not adopt or vouch for 
the accuracy of the calculations I' — In the summary I 
give my opinion about them. 

20.398. {(Jluiirman.) As Karauli is not represented 
before us ]>y a witness, I believe you wish to call more 
particular attention to the *official communication 
which you have received from that State ? — Yes. {Tlie 
%\}itness read the communication from Karauli.) 

20.399. (Sir J. Lyall.) May I ask if the traders 
and money-lenders are generally the same persons ? — 
No. The traders are the larger merchants ; the money 
lenders are small men who deal direcily with the culti- 
vators and take their produce. 

20.400. They sell it again to the traders :■'— They sell 
again to the larger traders. 

20.401. Are the traders resident in the State, or 

people coming from outside, from Bombay P I believe 

they are resident in the State. 

20.402. (Mr, Mowhray.) 1 wish to ask one question 
particularly about Karauli, but it may probably apply 
to some others I ^ee that the total land revenue on 
opium land is at present Rs. 11.312, and it is estimated 
that if opium were abolished the loss to the .State on 
account of such revenue would be Rs. 11,200?- -Yes. 

20.403. That is practically the whole amount of the 
land revenue on the opium-producing lands F Yes. 



* ,S'et .Vppcndi.v V. to this Volume. 
t .See Appendix VJ. to this Volume. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



17 



20.404. Is it your opinion that that is a fair basis for 
calculating compensation? — That will come into my 
general summary with regard to this State and all the 
others. 

20.405. {Sir J. Lyall.) Is the land revenue in 
Karauli on the same basis as it was said to be in 
Jeyporj, that is if there was a grain crop a division was 
made, and if it was one of the superior crops cash rates 
were taken per acre ?— I am not aware ; I expect it is the 
same. 

20.406. The land revenue is said to be Rs. 1] ,312 P— 
That would be on a money rate. 

20.407. On 1,180 acres ?— Tes. 

20.408. That is something less than Rs. 10 per acre. 
Do they work the loss out by putting the whole land 
revenue down, or do they take the special rate on poppy 
and the rate of some other crop that would be substi- 
tuted, and put down the difference P — That is what I 
think they have done, and they have brought up the 
amount pretty nearly to the present revenue. I fancy 
in this instance they have considered that nothing can 
replace the opium crop. 

20.409. In Jeypore they said that the land revenue 
was Rs. 21 per acre ; here they have only put down 
Rs. 10 per acre ? — It varies considerably. 

20.410. It may be that they have only put down half 
the actual land revenue ? — I think they have taken the 
net revenue they get. 

20.411. {Chairman.) These tables will be taken for 
what they are worth as sent in by the several States. 
Turning now to your own summary ef Rajputana, will 
you give us the general leading statistics P — The total 
area under p<.ippy cultivation is 137,948 acres ; of this 
4,818 acres were cultivated only for poppy heads, the 
remaining 183,130 acres give a yearly yield of 37,624 
maunds of opium juice. This is exclusive of the States 
of Banswara and Bhartpore, which have not furnished 
statistics. Of the above yield 19,635 maunds are ex- 
ported to Bombay for foreign trade ; 2,133 mauuds are 
exported from the producing States into the importing 
ones, and there remains a balance of 13,372 maunds for 
wastage in manufacture, for addition to the stocks and 
for l0(!al consumption within the producing States, but 
the opium of the Pertabgarh State is not included, as it 
has not given information about export. The Banswara 
and Bhartpore States are outside these calculations. 

20.412. {Sir J. Lyall.) Is the number of maunds 
exported to Bombay obtained from the States or from 
the Opium Agents ? — The amounc of opium produced 
within Rajputana going through the scales to Bom- 
bay. 

20.413. Are the figures got from the States? — 
Yes. 

20,4143a. {Chairman.) What are the advantages of the 
poppy plant to the cultivator .'' — ■ The poppy plant pro- 
vides the cultivator with vegetable food for himself, 
fodder for his cattle, and fuel and manure, in addition 
to its opium juice or milk and seed. The seed also 
provides nourishing food for his cattle, and is of use to 
oil-pressers, while the juice finds employment for many 
persons engaged in the manufacture of opium. The 
annual value of the poppy crop to the States and the 
different classes interested in it has been estimated at 
Rs. 107,99,056. 



profit from opium to be Rs. 13,89,688; in this the 
profits of the Jeypore traders have not been calcu- 
lated. The three figures Rs. 64,58,751, Rs. 29,50,617, 
and Rs. 13,89,688 make up the total of the estimated 
Rs. 107,99,056. 

20.414. {Chairman.) In what form is opium generally 
consumed in Rajputana ? — Taking Rajputana as a 
whole, opium seems to be more generally consumed in 
the dry form, but it is common enough to take it, or 
poppy heads mixed with water, which is more suited 
to the means of the poor, and the rich make a spiced 
mixture ; but smoking is very rare. 

20.415. What is the usual consumption P — Witnesses 
have difi'erent ideas of what constitutes a moderate 
daily allowance ; but the more gen eral opinions seem 
to be that the moderate habit means two doses a day, 
which together may range from 4 to 20 grains. 

20.416. Have you any estimate of the extent to which 
the consumption takes place in different classes of the 
population ? — Again, in the martter of estimating to 
what extent the population generally, the different 
castes, and men, women, and children are consumers, 
and what proportion of those who take it do so to excess, 
opinions are not all the same. This is not to be 
wondered at, as they are the result of conjectures 
which vary with the experience of, and the faculty of 
observation possessed by, each witness, and with the 
standard he sets up concerning excess. But, once 
more, taking the more general opinion, it seems that 
for the population generally consumers vary from 75 
per cent, in Kotah and Jhallawar, to 6 per cent, in 
Marwar. 

20.417. Is the 75 per cent, a per-centage of the adult 
males or of the whole population ? — I believe it to be of 
the whole population. 

20.418. {Sir J. Lyall.) Is it not probable that in 
the different States they may have differed in the way 
of treating the per-oentages, some taking the adult 
males and some the total population ? — I think it is 
possible that there may have been misunderstandings 
on that point. Among the castes who are the greatest 
consumers the per-centages are : — 



Lieut.- Col. 
H.B.Abbott. 

30 Jan. 1894. 



To cultivators 

To the money-lending classes 
To field labourers 
To village servants 
To oil-pressers 
To workmen engaged in opium 
manufacture - 

Total 9,nnual value 



Rs. 

46,66,095 
4,31,068 



13,61,588 



64,58,751 



But this does not represent the whole amount for 
Rajputana, as in many instances the profit to one or 
another of the different classes has been left out of 
calculation, and in others it has been under estimated, 
while the figures for Banswara and Bhartpore are again 
wanting. I'rom the opium yearly produced, exported, 
and imported the Rajputana States (leaving Banswara 
and Bhartpore out of account) obtain revenues amount- 
ing to 24,90,900, and the holders of alienated lands 
within these States derive an income of Rs. 4,59,717, or 
altogether Rs. 29,50,617. The traders or merchants as 
distinguished from the smaller dealers, who are 
associated with the cultivators, state their annual 

U 82588. 



T?or. 


From per Cent, in 


To per Cent, in 


State. 


State. 


(1.) Ilajputs 


6 Sirohi - 


80 Kotah. 


(2.) Miscellaneous 


2 Jaisalmir 


80 Kotah. 


(3.) Forest tribes - 


10 Marwar 


70 Kotah. 


(4.) Kayasths 


2 Ulwar - 


70 Kotah. 


(5.) Mahajans 


5 Jaisalmir 


60 Bnndi. 


(6.) Charans 


8 Sirohi - 


50 Pertabgarh. 


(7.) Brahmins 


12 Bikanir 


30 Shahpura. 


(8.) Mussalmans 


5 Jeypore 


2.5 Dholpur. 


(9.) Cnltivating 


20 Meywar 


Not given for other 


classes. 




States. 



20.419. {Chairman.) Is this a per-centage of adult 
males or of the whole population ? — It is supposed to 
be the whole population. They do not always dis- 
tinctly state it, but I am obliged to take it so. 

20.420. How would you distinguish the consumption 
as between the sexes and the different ages ? — Men 
consume generally in the proportion of from 75 per 
cent, in Jhallawar and Kotah to 15 per cent, in Dun- 
garpur to their total number. The per-centage of 
women consumers generally is very small, ranging 
from 15 per cent, in Kishengarh to 2 per cent, in three 
States, though in some of the producing States women 
seem to use the drug to a greater extent. 

20.421. What do you say as to children? — The 
greater number of children (more so among the cul- 
tivating castes) are given very small doses up to two or 
three years of age, and in some parts until they are 
five years of age. Opium is given to children to assist 
in rearing them, to ward off infantile complaints, and 
to afford time to their mothers to carry on their daily 
duties. The last reason refers in particular to the 
cultivating and labouring classes. Its use in youth is 
confined speaking generally to the sickly, except, of 
course, on special occasions. When middle age is 
reached, it is resorted to for the purposes of sustaining 
energy, bodily and mental, as a restorative from fatigue 
or for failing powers, and a general preserver of health. 



]8 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Lieut.-Col. 
M.B.Abbott. 

30 Jan. 1894. 



Its use among women seems to be mostly as a medicine 
for ailments, or a tonic in advancing age. It must not 
be forgotten that its use is extended to animals wben 
extra exertion id demanded of tbem. 

20.422. Tou say that opium is frequently used in 
Eajputana, especially on ceremonial occasions ? — Among 
the occasions which require the consumption of opium 
are all the important epochs of life, some festivals, 
festive occasions, and reconciliations. 

20.423. What is the general opinion of the habit of 
taking opium F — The general opinion is that the habit 
when Jiept within proper bounds is of the greatest 
advantage, answering all the purposes for which it is 
taken, and thereby conferring an ineatima.ble boon 
with special reference to the cultivating and labouring 
castes. It is further looked upon not only as preserving 
from liquor, but also as a reclaiming agent from drink. 
Many castes, the Eajput and its allied castes chiefly, 
look upon opium consumption at births, betrothals, 
marria.ges, deaths, the Diwali, Holland AkhaTij (Hindu 
new year) festivals, and all reconciliations as absolutely 
indispensable, the custom rising to the level of a 
consecration at betrothals and reconciliations. 

20.424. What is the view taken of the habit of smoking 
opium ? — Smoking seems everywhere to be looked down 
upon as disgraceful, and the besotted consum.er has no 
admirers. 

20.425. How do you ihink the proposal to limit the 
sale of opium to medical use would be received p — The 
prospect of opium being unobtainable except as a 
medicine is viewed with alarm. Witnesses from every 
part speak of dire results, such as great increase of 
sickness, and an appalling death-rate. The climax is 
reached in Jaisalmir, where consumers expect the 
country to be depopulated within a few years after 
prohibition. To save themselves as much as possible, 
consumers are expected to rush to drink, or to take 
arsenic or other poisons. The opinions of Chiefs and 
political ofi&cers as to the possibility of prohibition and 
its consequences have only been advanced in a few 
instances. The general result seems to be that the bare 
possibility is not altogether doubted, but the difficulty 
of prohibition is recognised as very great ; the absten- 
tion from oflTering opinions and the many omissions to 
estimate for the cost of prohibitive measures, however, 
would seem to show that the possibility of prohibition 
is not realised. 

20.426. {Sir J. Lyall.) Were the Chiefs specially 
invited to give opinions or not ? — They were asked what 
they would think of such measures. 

20.427. And they have not replied ? — Yery few. 

20.428. {Sir W. Roberts.) Is this ceremonial use of 
opium in Eajputana confined to Eajputs and allied 
castes, or does it penetrate widely through different 
strata? — It is more common among those castes than 
others. 

20.429. Do they form the bulk of the population of 
the country? — Charans, Bhats, and even Jats consider 
themselves allied, and so they make up a goodly 
number. I could not tell the exact number without 
reference to the census. 

20.430. Do the cultivators use opium ceremonially? — 
I believe they do. The Jats, for instance, are a large 
cultivating caste, and they use it as much as the 
Eajputs. 

20.431. So that it is not confined to select families ? 
-No. 

20,431a. {Mr. Mowbray.) Tou mention that it is 
looked down upon not only as preserving from liquor 
but also as reclaiming Irom drink. I do not know 
whether anything has come under your personal obser- 
vation in confirmation of that ? — No ; it is taken from 
the statements of the witnesses. 

20.432. (Ohairman.) I understand that you have a 
table to put in summarising the claims for compensation 
which have been sent in by the several States, and in 
certain cases the political officer has expressed an 
opinion that the estimate is quite an outside figure ?— 
Yes. 



20.433. In other cases he has stated the figure to bo 
reasonable ? — Yes. 

20.434. And in ottier cases under the mark p — Yes. 
The claim under main heads are — 





Es. 


(1.) To the States - 


30,55,170 


(2.) The holders of alienated lands 


2,40,861 


(3.) Cultivators - 


44,93,376 


(4.) Money-lending classes 


34,85,187 


(5.) Field labourers, village servants, 




oil-pressers, workmen employed 




in opium manufacture 


13,12,026 


(6.) Traders - 


166,25,798 


(7.) Consumers 


5,65,473 


Total - 


297,77,890 



Of the total Es. 297,77,890, Es. 128,59,796 is for 
annual losses, and Es. 169,18,094 is a non-recurring 
loss. Here again the States of Banswara and Bhartpore 
are not taken into account. The question of com- 
pensation is sure to prove a difficult and complicated 
matter ; how difficult and complicated the claims now 
put forward to some extent reveal- To begin with the 
loss in revenue and income to the States and alienated 
land holders, some have calculated it on the loss on 
the poppy area alone, while others have extended the 
calculations to expected losses in other areas which 
will be affected. Some have calculated on prospective 
losses in customs, others have not. To estimate the 
loss to cultivators leaves room for diversity of opinion 
as to the profits and expenses of cultivation which are 
not absent in the present calculations, and some will 
be found to have over-estimated, while others have 
done the contrary. In .some cases the losses to money- 
lenders have been forgotten. The item of losses to 
field labourers, village servants, oil-pressers, and work- 
men employed in manufacture of opium, has hardly 
been treated the same in two instances, and has been 
altogether overlooked in three or four cases. The loss 
to traders is a very big question, not as regards their 
annual profit from the trade itself, or the value of 
stocks, but as to the loss they would incur in all direc- 
tions, and in many ways by the total disorganisation 
of their business relations ; this portion of their losses 
has hardly been touched in the present calculations. 
The last item of losses to consumers consists of what 
it is expected they would have to pay for the increased 
cost of the drug, which is, of course, a misapprehension, 
as, if only to be had as a medicine it would be unobtain- 
able at any cost to the mass of consumers, but for that 
reason it need not be put aside, for it represents, only 
in an improper form, the idea that consumers will be 
worth much less without the use of opium. One State 
had^ originally put it in the form of so much lessened 
ability to earn wages which was valued at so much a 
month, and if, as is evident, it is the rooted belief that 
opium makes a man more capable of work, consumers 
(cultivators and labourers especially so) will expect the 
wherewithal to provide themselves with something to 
replace the drug, or else compensation for deterioration 
in their chief capital, i.e., mental or bodily capacity for 
work. The returns of area and yield in the producing 
States, at least the large ones, may be considered 
accurate, as also those of revenue from all ; the other 
items are less so, but as most officers have remarked, 
the calculations are the nearest approach to correctness 
at present obtainable. Altogether, I am of opinion 
the claims are sufiiciently correct to afford a fair basis 
for the negotiations which would have to be conducted 
by a special joint committee proceeding on pre-arranged 
lines, should prohibition ever become a reality. 

20,435. I understand that you wish to close your 
evidence-in-chief by giving us the results of your 
personal experience ?— Before this inquiry was started 
I noted on the question of opium prohibition with 
special reference to Jhallawar, that poppy cultivation 
cannot be prohibited without serious loss of revenue 
to the State and landholders, great hardship to the 
agricultural population, incalculable loss to the trading 
community, and an uncalled-for interference in the 
habits and customs of the population generallv which 
would create a discontent it is not easy to set bounds 
to. The cultivation of the poppy has engaged the time 
and attention ot the agricultural population for at 
least a century, the plant is useful to them in manv 
wavs. It provides them with occupation greater than 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



19 



any other crop, and its profits are such that the culti- 
vator's credit rests almost entirely upon it. The town 
of Jhalrapatan and other centres of trade in Jhallawar 
have risen and prospered on the traffic in opium. I 
canuot venture to say what ruin would bo brought on 
these traders and those associated with them in sup- 
porting the agricultural classes, if the traffic were 
stopped. Opium in one form or another might be 
said to be taken generally. I can recall a very few 
■instances of persons who exceeded ; as for the rest, I 
can only say I was not aware from their appearance 
or behaviour whether they were consumers or not, and 
that the population of Jhallawar is by no means less 
robust than that of other parts of the province. As 
an instance that opium need not do harm to the 
intellect and will, I may mention a fcxrmer minister of 
Jhallawar, the late Seth Harak Uhand, who was noted 
for his ability and strength of character, though a 
habitual consumer. In many religious festivals and 
joyous occasions opium is the symbol looked for, how 
could any interference with such customs be made 
without great difficulty and unknown trouble? To 
what I then wrote I would now add that prohibition 
would upset the entire economy of the producing 
States, cause a wide spread agrarian rising, and pro- 
bably convulse the greater part of Rajputana, which 
would heartily sympathise with the movement. 



20,436. What arrangement have you made as to 
witnesses ? — Befere introducing the witnesses I should 
mention that originally the number of witnesses selec- 
ted by the States were of the following number : — 



State. 


No. of 
Witnesses. 


State. 


No. of 
Witnesses. 


Meywar 

Banswara 

Pertabgarh 

Tonk 

Jhallawar 

Kotah 

Ulwar 

Bikanir - 

Dungarpore 

Bundi 


12 

14 

14 

21 

25 

8 

8 

13 

. 16 


Shahpura 

Kishengarh 

Jeypore 

Dholpur 

Jaisalmir - 

Marwar 

Sirohi 

Total 


13 
16 

8 
2 
3 

7 
7 


187 



But as the time at the disposal of the Royal Com- 
mission could not possibly admit of all the above being 
hoard, their numbers are now reduced to — 



No. of Witnesses selected. 


No. of Witnesses selected. 


Meywar 


7 


Kishengarh 


7 


1 )ungarpore 


1 


Jeypore - 


6 


Pertabgarh 


8 


Dholpur 


1 


Tonk 


9 


Ulwar 


5 


Jhallawar 


14 


Bikanir 


5 


Kotah 


8 


Jesalmir - 


- 3 


Bundi 


7 


Marwar 


& 


Shahpura - 


9 


Sirohi 


5 
Total - 100 



Lieut. -Col. 
H. B. Abbott. 

30 Jan. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Mr. J. Pbesooti Hbwett called in. 



20,414. (Ghavrman.) I believe you desire to hand in 
two petitions P — Tes. One was handed to me by Mr. 
Wilson. It is signed by Godhau Mallah and Bodhi 
Mallah, of Rasulpur Sanda, and is dated January 11th. 
It represents that they are compelled to grow poppy 
in their fields, against their will, and under the threat 
of Government. The other was received at Agra, 



20.437. What steps were taken in the selection of 
witnesses ? — These witnesses were locally examined on 
the points of the subject with which they were best 
acquainted ; their stateuients were then recorded, and 
copies sent to the head-quarters office, where they have 
been compiled and forwarded to the press. 

20.438. (Sir J. Lyall.) Have you ever studied the 
subject of when the opium cultivation began in these 
States ? — When I was supervising the settlement of 
Jhallawar I made inquiries among the cultivators, and 
the particular period 1 have mentioned (a century) 
was taken from their answers. 

20.439. Are you aware that so long ago as the time 
of Akbar, in the middle of the 16th century, opium is 
recorded in the " Ain-i-Akhbari " to have been a staple 
crop in the province of Malwa, which apparently in 
those days included a part of Rajputana ? — I am aware 
of it, but I did not think of it at the time. 

20.440. I see that I made a mistake, and that you 
were referring only to your personal experience of 
Jhallawar ? — Yes, that is the case. 

20.441. [Mr. Fanshawe.) With regard to the use of 
the poppy plant as a vegetable, is that at all a common 
use ? — I can speak for what I have called the producing 
States, the southern ones. It is used in the same way 
among all the cultivating classes there. As I have 
said, every portion of the plant is used except the 
roots. 

20.442. Does it form a substantial part of their diet, 
or a casual part ?— Under cultivation they pick the 
young leaves for vegetables as the crop grows up ; I 
have seen them eat it. 

20,442a. (Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) That is only when 
the plants are young ? — ^Tes. 

20.443. When they grow big they cannot eat it P — 
No. 

20,443a. (Mr. Fanshawe.) The leaves are in ordinary 
use while the thinning is going on ? — Tes. 



J. P. Hewett. 



and is signed by 171 persons. It states that the peti- 
tioners are so accustomed to the use of opium that it 
would be difficult for them to keep alive without ib ; 
that it is useful in various diseases, and that its culti- 
vation is serviceable in keeping their women employed, 
and is simpler than that of sugar-cane. 



The witness withdrew. 



Adjourned to to-morrow at 10.30. 



20 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



At Daulat Bagh, Ajniere. 



SIXTIETH DAY. 



Wednesday, 31st January 1894. 



PRESENT : 



Sm JAMES LYALL, G.C.I.E., K.C.S.I., in hie Chaik. 



The Right Hon. Lord Beassey, K.O.B. 
Sir William Koberts, M.D., F.B.S. 
Mr. E. a. 0. MowBKAY, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fanshawe. 



Mr. Arthur, Pease. 

Mr. Habidas Veharidas Desai. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Pbbscott Hewett, O.I.E., Secretary. 



Mehta Bhopal 

Singh. 

(Meywar 

State.) 

,11 Jan. 1894. 



Mbhta Bhopal Singh called in and examined. 



20.445. (Chairman.) You are the chief revenue 
officer of Meywar ? — Yes. 

20.446. What are you by caste ? — A Mahajan. 

20.447. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
cultivation of opium in Meywar ? — I am at the head of 
the Eevenue Department. In Meywar the Khalsa 
portion has been surveyed, but the Jagir estates and 
the lands given in charity have not yet been surveyed. 
The land given in Jagir and charity is double the land 
in Khalsa, i.e., of the whole State land one-third is in 
Khalsa and the remaining two-thirds have been 
alienated. It is therefore impossible to state what the 
whole area in acres is. But as the area of the Khalsa 
portion has been ascertained, it is not impossible to 
form an estimate of the total area of the State. Accord- 
ing to the settlement completed by Mr. A. Wingate in 
1886, the total irrigated land in Khalsa was 93,734 
acres ; of this 33,114 acres were under poppy cultiva- 
tion. But I submit that price of opium having fallen 
in late years, and the rainfall of Sambat years 1947 and 
1948 having proved insufficient, the area brought under 
poppy cultivation has since been reduced. A correct 
estimate cannot therefore be formed by taking into 
consideration the area brought under cultivation in one 
year only. But according to an average, it can be said 
that in Khalsa the total area brought under poppy 
cultivation annually is 20,000 acres. But as there is 
less irrigation in Jagir and alienated estates, the land 
brought under poppy cultivation in ihem is in my 
estimate 1| times greater than the land brought under 
such cultivation in Khalsa (although the total area of 
the Jagir and alienated estates is believed to be double 
the Khalsa area as stated before). Thus the poppy 
area in Jagir and alienated estates comes to 30,000 ; 
adding to this the Khalsa area 20,000, the total area on 
which poppy is grown in Meywar can be put down at 
50,000 acres. An average of the annual statements 
furnished during the last five years also comes to 
49,013 acres. 

20.448. You say that in 1886, according to Mr. Win- 
gate's settlement, there were 33,114 acres of Khalsa 
land under poppy cultivation. Why have you, there- 
fore, put the Khalsa land under poppy cultivation at 
only 20,000 acres. You seem to say that fhe poppy 
cultivation has fallen off owing to deficient rainfall and 
low prices since Mr. Wingace settled the country, and 
you put the Khalsa area as 20,000 instead of 33,114. 
Why have you reduced it P — On account of the fall in 
prices and the low rainfall. 

20.449. But the poppy is cultivated on irrigated land, 
is it not ? — Yes. 

20.450. Does the rainfall affect that very much ? — 
When the rainfall is scarce the wells are not sufficiently 
filled. 

20.451. They cannot irrigate so much land from the 
wells ? — No. 

20.452. What years do the " Sambat years 1947 and 
1948 " correspond with in English years ? — 1947 corre- 
sponds with 1889-90, and 1948 %vith 1890-91. 

20.453. Will you give an estimate of the yield of 
opium land? — After taking into consideration the 
results of four years of good harvest and of one or two 
years of unfavourable harvests in which the rainfall 



was insufficient, and also keeping in view the fluctua- 
tion in price and the annual average export of opium, 
my estimate is that during the last 10 years an acre 
must have produced 13 seers opium-juice per annum. 
According to this mode of calculation the total opium- 
producing area of 60,000 acres in Meywar must have 
brought forward an aggregate produce of 16,250 maunds 
of juice every year. 

20,464. Supposing the cultivation were prohibited, 
what crops would be likely to take their place ? — If the 
cultivation of the poppy were prohibite.J , the probability 
is that wheat and barley crops would take its place. 
These two crops are such as can be raised by irrigation. 
No wonder if sugar-cane be also grown in parts. But 
it is feared that the last-named crop will be grown on a 
very small scale, as more labour and care are necessary 
in raising it. 

20,455. What would be the result on the revenue 
demand if wheat and barley were substituted for poppy ? 
— An approximately correct answer to the question as 
to what would be the diminution in the revenue demand, 
consequent on the substitution of the wheat and barley 
crops for the poppy, could be given only so far as the 
Khalsa portion is concerned. It ssems propable that 
the ryot will claim reduction in the present rate of 
assessment from Rs. 1 8a. to Rs. 2 8a. per acre. This 
claim will have to be admitted in respect of the entire 
area now under irrigation, as iu Meywar poppy culti- 
vation is not separately assessed. By this mode of 
calculation it is feared that the total assessment will be 
reduced in Khalsa by Rs. 1,87,468, because the total 
Khalsa area under irrigation is retui-ned to be 93,734 
acres. It is not possible to form a correct estimate as 
regards the Jagir and alienated estates, as it is uncer- 
tain what the total area in them is. But as the loss in 
the Khalsa territory is estimated at Rs. 187,468, in case 
the production of poppy in poppy-producing area of 
26,000 acres be stopped, it will not, in my opinion, be 
incorrect to estimate an annual loss of Rs. 2,81,202 in 
Jagir and alienated estates. 

20,466. Is there a fixed settlement of land revenue in 
the Khalsa part of Mcj'war ? — Yes. 

20.457. When was it introduced? — It was not done 
everywhere at once. It commenced in the Sambat year 
of 1942 in one district and in the next district in 1943, 
and so on. 

20.458. What other crops are grown at present on 
the irrigated lands in Meywar p— Barley, wheat, and 
sugar-cane are the winter crops. 

20.459. What are the summer crops ?— Cotton and 
Indian corn. The vegetables are grown in the vicinity 
of the cities. They are not included. They are grown 
about the district of Ajmere. 

20.460. Would the stopping of poppy cultivation 

involve an alteration of the revenue rates ? The 

stopping of poppy cultivation would necessitate a 
revision of revenue rates at least of irrigated rates. 
The net amount of expenditure incurred on the last 
settlement has not yet been ascertained. But so far as 
can be seen the cost of the settlement has been six 
lakhs of rupees. The regular settlement has never 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



21 



yet been revised in Meywar. The cost of revision 
cannot, therefore, be estimated -without difficulty. If 
it is correct that the cost of a revision is one-fourth of 
that of settlement, then the cost oi' revising the assess- 
ment on iri'igated land in Mey war can be put down at 
Eb. 40,000. 

20,461. What do you consider the out-turn of an 
aero of poppy land ? — So far as can be ascertained I 
am of opinion that the value of the out-turn of an acre 
of poppy land is Rs. 93, inclusive of the value of poppy, 
poppy leaves, garlic, coriander, and zira (cummin seed), 
&o., which are also grown with poppy. In order to 
raise this produce worth Rs. 93, it is necessary to 
expend Us. 60, and the profit can, therefore, be put 
down at Rs. 33 per acre. But there is one more point 
to be borne in mind in this connexion, namely, that a 
Kharif crop can also be raised in the land in which 
poppy is grown; the value of this "Kharif" crop is 
Rs. 24 p«r acre, the cost of raising it being about 
Rs. 12. Adding the margin of Rs. 12 thus effected to 
the profit of Rs. 33 on account of poppy produce, &c., 
as mentioned before, the aggregate profit comes to 
Rs. 45 per acre of land which produces opium. If 
wheat be sown instead of poppy, the profit will be 
Rs. 8 per acre. The value oi the produce of an acre 
of a wheat field, including the value of Bhusa (chaff), 
&c. is Rs. 40, and the cost of raising such produce is 
Rs. 32. The profit per acre is, therefore, Rs. 8, as 
stated before. But it should be at the same time 
brought to notice here that in order to be able to raise 
a wheat crop the land must remain fallow during the 
preceding " Kharif " season. The effect of this would be 
that the land in which poppy is now grown will be " Tek 
Pasli" (onecrop land) instead of" l5u Fasli " (two crop 
land) land as at present. Moreover, soiae agriculturists 
will sow wheat, others might prefer to sow barley, and 
a few might elect to sow a mixture of wheat and barley 
locally known as " Q-ujji." From an estimate made it 
appears that the cultivation of barley leaves no 
margin, But in the same extent of land the produce of 
barley is larger than that of wheat, besides the 
" Khakla " (straw) of barley is also used as fodder. 
For this reason an agriculturist who has a larger 
number of dependants and cattle, and who has little 
hope of being able to sell the surplus produce of his 
laud, prefers the cultivation of barley to that of wheat, 
although the cultivation of the former leaves no 
margin. After fully taking into consideration all the 
circumstances, I am of opinion that the aggregate loss 
which will be inflicted on Meywar cultivators pro- 
ducing opium will amount to Rs. 21,16,672 per annum 
in case the cultivation of poppy be stopped. In 
arriving iit this conclusion it has been anticipated that 
of the area which is now brought under poppy cultiva- 
tion one-third will be sown with wheat and two-thirds 
with barley and " G-ujji." I also submit* three state- 
ments to illustrate how the value and the cost of the 
out-turn of an acre has been calculated, and how the 
figure of the aggregate loss has been arrived at. 

20.462. In calculating the expense of a crop of poppy, 
including garlic, coriander, and zira, at Rs. 60, have 
you put a money value on all the labour employed ? — 
Yes ; everything is included. 

20.463. Do you only chargs that labour which has to 
be paid for, or do you charge for the labour of the men, 
women, and children of the family at money rates as 
well .f — I have calculated the whole of them. 

20.464. As a rule, I suppose, the labour is not paid 
for in poppy cultivation ; I mean, in cultivating poppy 
it is generally the man's own family that does the 
labour, is it not ? — Yes, generally the members of the 
family do the labour. 

20.465. That is the reason why barley is made to give 
no profit, the labour has all been charged for, I suppose ? 
— The labour has all been charged for in the barley. 

20,465(x. But in reality there is a profit. If you do 
not charge for the household labour expended on the 
barley then there would be a profit P — Yes. There would 
be a profit then. 

20.466. In Jeyporo, we wore told by one witness, 
that poppy there was generally cultivated on land 
which had been fallow in the Kharif harvest. "You 
say that there is generally a Kharif crop before the 
poppy ; but in Jeypore we were told that poppy was 
the only croji during the year? — It may be so in 
Jeypore, but it is not so in Meywar. 

• For these statements, see Appendix VII. to this Volume. 



20.467. You mean as a rule ?— Yes. 

20.468. What damage would result to the cultivator 
if poppy cultivation were stopped F — -If poppy cultiva- 
tion was stopped, there is no doubt that the credit of 
the agriculturist would be greatly reduced. I n a field 
in which he now raises a produce worth Rs. 200, he 
will be able to raise a produce worth only Rs. 90 bj- 
sowing wheat, or worth only from Rs. 18 to Rs. 26 by 
sowing barley, in the same field. This way his credit 
will be in proportion to the value of the produce of his 
land, and it does not appear probable that his credit 
will be restored to the present extent. 

20.469. To what extent is sugar-cane cultivated ?— 
To a very small extent. They cannot collect the sugar- 
cane crop until a year and a half or so. It occupies 
the land for that time. So that they cannot cultivate 
it instead of poppy. 

20.470. Is there much profit from the sugar-cane ? — 
There is no profit from sugar-cane. 

20.471. (Mr. Wilson.) You have said that the cost of 
the settlement has been six lakhs of rupees, who pays 
that ? — The State pays it. 

20.472. You have made some calculations showing 
the extent of poppy cultivation, and the estimated value 
and cost of the produce of an acre of poppy land, at 
what rate of labour per day are these calculations 
made ? I want to know how many annas per day a 
man gets P — He gets about 3 annas at the beginning 
when the crop is small, but they also employ women 
and children. 

20.473. What rate of pay do you charge them ? — 
1 anna to a boy, 2 annas to a woman, and 3 annas to a 
man. 

20.474. What do you mean by " at the beginning''? 
— That is when the opium plant is small, when the 
boys can do the work. 

20,476. Are they paid more afterwards ? — It is 
nearly the same afterwards. If the women are 
employed they get 2 annas. Generally they employ 
their own families, and when a cultivator cannot help 
calling in other labourers — ^which is very seldom — he 
calls them in and pays them at this rate. 

20.476. What is the meaning of makka? — Indian 
corn. 

20.477. In the estimated cost per acre of makka, you 
charge for watering, cutting, &c. I want to know 
whether " etcetera " means all the operations except 
those which are mentioned p — It includes all charges. 

20.478. Is it correct that watering and cutting of 
poppy cost Rs. 8, and that the watering and all other 
charges for Indian corn cost only Rs. 3 8a. ? — 
" Watering '' ought to be struck out. In growing 
makka they do not need so much water. 

20.479. [Mr. Fanshcvwe.) I suppose they do use a, 
little water here ? — Yes ; but not nearly so much as 
for other crops. 

20.480. {Mr. Wilson.) In your estimate of the cost of 
watering wheat do you put it down at Rs. 5 ? — Yes. 

20.481. Is it correct that poppy costs Rs. 8 for 
watering, and wheat only Rs. 5 ? — As far as I know it 
is correct. 

20.482. Do I understand you correctly that in 
growing this mixture of wheat and barley there is no 
profit ; that the produce is equal to the cost and that 
no profit remains ? — From wheat there is a profit of 
8 annas, but from barley there is no profit. 

20.483. It is a mixture ? — Generally the barley will 
bo grown and the gujji will be grown, but not so much. 
Even in gujji there is no profit. 

20.484. Are there any other crops which require 
more watering than poppy ? — Sugar-cane. 

20.485. Anything else ?— No. 

20.486. {Mr. Mowbray.) Is it the case that there is no 
special rate upon poppy land in Meywar ?— There is no 
special rate. 

20.487. How is it that if the poppy crop is so much 
more valuable than any other crop no special rate is 
put upon poppy lands ? — Formerly there was a special 
rate for poppy lands, which was put on when poppy was 
cultivated, but when the settlement was introduced the 
settlement officer took it into consideration and put a 
general rate upon all irrigated lands. It was impos- 
sible to put a special rate on poppy lands because 
poppy is not always cultivated in the same fields. It 

C 3 



Mehta Bhopal 

Singh. 

(^Meywar 

State.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



22 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



31 Jan. 1894. 



Mchtn Bhopal is somi-times in one field and sometimes in another. It 

Singh. was fixed on the understanding that poppy would be 

{Meywar grown there as before. 

State.) 20,488. (Mr. Wilson.) You say "it seems probable 

" that the ryoi will claim reduction in the present rate 

■' of assessment from Bs. 1 8a. to Rs. 2 8a. per acre "? 

—Yes. 

20.489. You also say that the Khalsa cultivation has 
fallen from 33,000 acres to 20,000 acres. That is 
almost half. I want to know whether any reduction or 
compensation has been made where the "poppy has not 
already been grown? — I have calculated that if the 
opium cultivation were prohibited altogether, the total 
loss to cultivators would be Rs. 21,16,672 ; but if such a 
loss were inflicted, it would be absolutely necessary to 
give a compensation by partial reduction, which I 
propose should be given to the extent of one-fourth or 
one-fifth. By that reduction, I do not propose to give 
reduction to the full amount of the loss, but only 
partial. Besides this, the cultivators are in very bad 
circumstances at present, so that they must get some- 
thing in the way of a reduction of the rates. 

20.490. {Mr. Fansliawe.) The rate on irrigated land 
has been fixed on the understanding that poppy should 
be grown at the will of the cultivators. If poppy 
cultivation should now be entirely forbidden, the 
Darbar considers that that would be a reasonable 
ground for reducing the rate on irrigated land P — Yes, 
undoubtedly. 

20.491. {Chairman.) What rates did Mr. Wingate 
apply to irrigated land? — Prom Rs. 6 8a. to Rs. 12 
Q-overnment coin per acre generally ; and in the Sadri 
district, where poppy is greatly cultivated, up to Rb.19 
per acre. 



20.492. On the makka laud you make out that the 
rate of revenue at Rs. 11, Rs. 7 is put down for revenue 
on poppy, and Rs. 4 for makka land. That is, Rs. 11 
for the year. AVhy do you put down Rs. 10 in one case 
and Rs. 11 in the other ? — The revenue rales are from 
Rs. 6i to Rs. 12, varying a.ccording to the land. There 
are some lands of better qualities, and others arc 
worse. That is the reason why on the lands where they 
grow opium I have put one rupee more, because the 
land is of better quality. I should like to make a 
further remark, which I should lil;e to add to my evi- 
dence. 1 have estimated that there will be about eight 
lakhs of rupees loss to the labourers which I have not 
calculated if poppy cultivation is stopped. It is an 
estimated loss. 

20.493. (Mr. Pease.) How do you make up your calcu- 
lation of eight lakhs of rupees loss to the labourers P — 
I have estimated Rs. 25 per acre for the labourers. 
The members of the family do the manuring, plough- 
ing, and watering ; but in collecting opium and cutting 
poppyheads they must have labourers. 

20.494. Do you value the labour expended over the 
poppy at 12 lakhs of rupees, and the labour these people 
would be able to give to these crops at four lakhs of 
rupees, thus making the loss to the labourers eight lakhs 
of rupees ? — Yes. In my estimate showing the expendi- 
ture of poppy cultivation and the initial value and 
the cost of the produce of an acre of poppy land, I have 
stated that weeding cost Rs. 11 and collecting juice 
Rs. 14. That is also loss to the labourers. It would 
make Rs. 25 per acre. 

20.495. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) You estimate 50,000 
acres altogether ? — Yes. 

20.496. That would be 12J lakhs of rupees P— Yes. 



The witness withdrew. 



Sahiwala 

Hamir Singh, 

(^Meywar 

State.') 



Sahiwala Hamir Singh called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.497. {Ghavrman.) I believe you are chief officer of 
the Customs Department, Meywar ? — Yes. 

20.498. What are the duties of your appointment, and 
what is the rule of the State as regards the customs P — 
I am the head of the Customs Department. The 
Durbar has the exclusive right to the customs in 
Meywar. Duty is levied on the opium exported from 
Meywar. One chest contains 70 seers of opium. In 
Meywar duty is levied at two places only, i.e. (1) Rs. 48 
per chest at Ohitor on opium exported to Bombay, 
and (2) at Udaipur on the opium which goes toMarwar. 
The opium which is too dry to be sent to Bombay in 
chests goes to Marwar. Under this item the annual 
income is Rs. 836. From the customs records it 
appears that during the past decade the average number 
of chests exported to Bombay was 5,414, the customs 
levied on them amount to Rs. 2,59,872, while Rs. 836 
were received as customs on 40J maunds exported 
to Marwar. The aggregate income came to Rs. 
2,60,708. 

20.499. The opium which goes to Marwar is for con- 
sumption in Marwar, I suppose ? — Yes, the opium 
which is too dry to be sent to Bombay. 

20.500. Are transit duties levied on opium which 
goes from one part to another in Meywar? — Transit 
dues are levied when opium passes through Meywar from 
one State to another. The Durbar only has the right 
to take the transit dues. During the last decade the 
average income under this item has been Rs. 4,133 per 
annum. 

20.501. What is the rate of transit duty? — From 
Rs. 4 to Rs. 20. It differs at various places. 

20,602. Why does it differ so much?— At a place 
called Tikar the Meywar district is very narrow, so 
they levy a less amount ; but generally they levy 
Rs. 20. 

-!C,503. Are there any other cesses imposed on opium? 
— There is another cess also imposed on opium called 
" mapa." The Durbar and the Jagirdars, both have 
rights to this source of revenue. Different rates are in 
force at different places. It is unnecessary to give its 
details here. During the last 10 years the total 
revenue from mapa to the Durbar and the Jagirdars 
amounted to Rs. 48,984 on an average per annum. In 
short, the total loss to the Meywar State under the 
three items mentioned above would be Rs. 3,13,825 in 
case the poppy cultivation and opium trade is stopped 
in Meywar, and in that case it will be necessary to 



make a revision in the customs tariff so as to have the 
revenue the same as it is now. After taking into con- 
sideration the present condition of the country, it 
appears that there is no article left on which customs 
can be newly levied. Amongst the articles liable to the 
duty there seems to be none on which the present rates 
can be enhanced. The introduction of new duties and 
the increase of the present rates cannot be efl'ected 
without causing a general discontent. Besides this, the 
Mahajans and the agriculturists will suffer greatly in 
case the poppy ctrltivation be stopped. In that case it 
will not be fair to subject them to a furtiier loss by 
raising the duty. In this way the prohibition of the 
poppy cultivation would inflict a serious loss. The re- 
vision of customs tariff does not seem, therefore, to be 
of any benefit. The loss to be suffered every year has 
been mentioned in my answer to the previous question. 

20.504. Does any opium, after being weighed in the 
Government scales, pass through Meywar on the road 
to Bombay ? — There is a scale at Ohitor, where the 
opium goes by train. No transit duties are paid, be- 
cause it goes in the train. 

20.505. Is there any excise system on the sale of 
0])ium m Meywar p — No. 

20.506. Every man is free to cultivate and to sell it 
to whom he likes ? — Yes, everyone is allowed to sell to 
anyone he likes. 



20,507. Is there any excise 
like the Government excise. 



on liquor p — It is not 



20.508. Is there something on the stills ? — Yes. 

20.509. Can anybody distil as long as he pays that 
rate P — No ; only the people who have a sort of license 
can distill — the big Jagirdars, for instance. 

20.510. {Mr. Wilson.) Do you know the amount of 
mapa which the Jagirdars receive P — The opium culti- 
vation has been estimated to be one and a half times 
greater in the Jagirs than in the State; and on the 
same calculation I got about 48,000, because the State 
derives its income, Rs. 5,994, and about one and a half 
times that will make this. 

20.511. la the mapa levied on the land or on the 
seevs of opium produced. What kind of a cess is mapa ? 
—When the opium is e.xported from the Jagirdars' 
villages to any of the Khalta villages, or imported from 
tlie Khalsa villages into the Jagirdars' villages, the 
Jagirdars levy this due — mapa — on opium. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



23 



"20,512. {I 'hidrmaa.) Igit a kind of a weighman's due? 
— No, it is something like transit dues. 

20,513. Is it levied on the weight P— Yes. 

20,614. (Mr. Mowlmy.) Is the Meywar duty of Rs. 48 
a chest on opium exported to Bombay levied at the 
same time and place as the pass duty of the British 
Government ? — Yes, it is paid at the same time, but it 
is generally paid at Udaipur by the tradesman, and he 



gets a receipt from the Durbar officials. That receipt 
is sent to Ohitor. The collector of dues allows the 
opium to be sent to Bombay. 



20,515, 

Yes. 



It is calculated at the scales at Ohitor ? 



20,515ft. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Is not a mapa a kind 
of measurement ? — No, it is not. 



The witness withdrew. 



Sahiwalu 

Hamir Singh. 

(^Meywar 

State.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



Mr. Nathuji Punjawat called in and 

20.516. {Chairman.) I believe you are a Mahajan of 
Meywar ? — ^Yes. 

20.517. Where do you live ? — I live in Udaipur. 

20.518. To what extent is opium an article of trade in 
Meywar P — In Meywar the principal commodity of trade 
is opium. The cessation of its trade will lead to an 
entire loss to the general and rural merchants. The 
rural merchants who deal with agriculturists will 
greatly suffer if the production of opium be stopped. 
The cultivator of opium will lose his credit, and will not 
be able to purchase anything on credit or to obtain 
loans. This will lead to impediment and disorder in 
agriculture. This will also cause obstructio a in recover- 
ing the debts due to such merchants. The merchants 
in general will thiis heavily suffer. The extent of loss 
cannot be estimated at once. The rural merchants will 
not then be able to pay on behalf of the agriculturists 
the Government dues as at present. The banker will 
also suffer because at present the rural merchants 
enable themselves to advance loans to agriculturists 
from funds previously borrowed from bankers, and 
receive opium in return, which is afterwards purchased 
by the bankers, and it thus becomes an article of trade 
in their hands. The whole country will suffer if the 
production of opium be stopped. 

20.519. Have the rural merchants who deal with the 
Zamindars long running accounts with them, extending 
over many years ? — Every year a fresh account is made 
up. 

20.520. Is the Zamindar able to clear his account 
eveiy year, or does a balance go on year after year ? — 
Generally the account is made up clear, but sometimes 
a balance goes on year after year. 

20.521. Can you give us any figures as to the loss you 
expect ? — There is an obvious loss of Rs. 50,00,000, 
because the opium produced in the Sambat 1949 

, (1892-93) has now been made into balls, and there are 
in stock from former years about 10,000 chests. Opium 
is always exported to foreign countries when it gets old 
and dry. In Meywar there is no enterprise or business 
which can satisfactorily replace the trade in opium. 
When there is no other article of trade in Meywar 
which can compete with opium, how can we say whether 
there will be any other kind of trade which will com- 
pensate the loss which will accrue in the event of the 
trade in opium being stopped. But if this bo so, wheat 
and barley can in this country be produced in the land 
in which opium is at present grown. But the export 
trade in barley and wheat cannot be expected to bring 
in a good return or to compensate the loss which would 
be caused by the opium trade being stopped. 

20.522. Do you know how long ago opium cultivation 
began in Meywar ? — My father and grandfather used to 



examined (through an Interpreter). 

deal in opium. I do not know when it began — perhaps 
400 years ago. 

20.523. What is the profit to the trader P— Profit in 
opium trade greatly depends on the price current. But 
generally speaking the profit of a city banker can be 
estimated at Rs. 20 per chest, provided the chik (poppy 
juice) is turned into dry opium and sold to merchants in 
Bombay the same year in which the juice was pur- 
chased. After taking into consideration the average 
number of chests exported during the last 10 years, it 
can be said that Meywar exports about 5,500 chests 
every year, and that the total profit effected thereby to 
merchants is Rs. 1,10,000 per annum. A rural merchant 
usually makes a profit of Rs. 30 per chest by purchasing 
" chik " (poppy juice) from cultivators. Thus the total 
profit to rural merchants in opium in Meywar 
comes to Rs. 1,65,000 per annum. If the produc- 
tion of opium be stopped, the total annual loss to the 
opium merchants of Meywar would, as explained above, 
come to Rs. 2,75,000. 

20.524. (Mr. Wilson.) What do you estimate the 
present stock of opium to be P — 10,000 chests. 

20.525. Is not that the old stock ; this year's stock is 
now ready, is it not ?— The 10,000 chests include the 
past and present year. 

20.526. What is the price of the opium which the 
rural merchant pays to the cultivator P — The price is 
Rs. 160 a maund; the rural merchants pay Rs. 3 or 
Rs. 4 less to the cultivators per maund, and the big 
merchants have equal rates. 

20,257. {ClMirman.) Who fixes the rates of the big 
merchants P — The rural merchants and the cultivators 
meet at a place on Eaisakh Sudi Punam — that is some 
time in the end of April or beginning of May — and then 
the price is fixed by consent among them. 

20.528. {Mr. Wilson.) You have told us how much 
the rural merchant pays for a maund, but no cultivator 
has so much as a maund to sell, has he ? — -Many of them 
have two maunds. If they have less the price is given 
by that rate. 

20.529. {Chairman.) Do yon mean pakka maunds ? — 
It is Rs. 7 or Rs. 8 less in pakka maunds, instead of 
Rs. 3 or Rs. 4. With your permission I should like 
to add something. There is a class of people between 
the rural merchants and the bankers called beoparis — 
the people who have the balls made up ; they will suffer 
a loss of Rs. 2,75,000. I have not calculated that 
before. The loss, therefore, will be altogether 
Rs. 5,50,000. 

20.530. Is the loss of Rs. 1,10,000 to the beoparis or 
to the kothiwalas ? — It is to the bankers. 

20.531. By whom is the price fixed ? — It is fixed only 
by the Bohras. 



Mr. Nathvji 

Punjawat. 

(^Meywar 

State.) 



The witness withdrew. 



Thakue Manohak Singhji called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.532. {Clmirman.) I believe you are a Jagirdar of 
Sirdargarh P— Yes. 

20.533. What is the size of your jagir P — It yields 
about Rs. 4,000 a year. 

20.534. To what family do you belong? — I am a 
Dodhia Rajput. 

20.535. Will you give us your opinion about the 
prohibition of the ]Joppy cultivation ?— In my opinion 
the prohibition of the poppy cultivation, and suppression 
of the trade in opium in the State of Meywar will cause 
an irreparable loss, not only to the Durbar, but also to 
its Jagirdars, cultivators, traders, and labourers. It 
would be a grevious mistake to alter the present system 
of the growth and cultivation of opium. Such a change 
would arouse much dissatisfaction among the people. 
The interests of so many persons are affected in the 
growth, sale, export, and manufacture of opium that it 



would be a very diflBoult task to estimate the loss each 
individual will suffer. 50 per cent, of the population 
derive their livelihood from the growth and trade of 
opium. Any interference attempted in this direction 
will, I am sure, lead to more harm than good. The 
interests of the opium-growing districts are so large 
and so intimately connected with the prosperity of the 
agricultural population of this State that the abandon- 
ment of the cultivation is sure to be productive of 
disastrous consequences. Prohibition will reduce rents 
and eirnings of cultivators, and would thus bring ruin 
and disaster both upon landholders and cultivators. I 
know everyone in this State is opposed to the change ; 
and' if prohibitory orders were issued, the amount of 
illicit cultivation would be so large as to paralyze puni- 
tive measures, I know of no case in which habitual 
consumption of opium has affected injuriously the 
health or the morals of the individuals. On the 

C 4 



Thakur 
Manohar 
Singhji. 
(^Meywar 

State.) 



24 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Thakur 
Manohar 

Singhji. 
{Meywar 

State.) 

3! Jan. 1894. 



contrary, its use promotes health and adds to the 
longevity of the consumers. It is a well-ebtablished 
belief among the people of this State that after 40 
years of age, when the body shows signs of decay, and 
health loses its elasticity, and also when the constitu- 
tion has been more or less ruined t)y disease, or by the 
use of alcohol, the habitual ute of opium conduces to 
renovate the health and give vigour and capacity for 
work to the consamers. To habitual consumers their 
daily allowance of opium is a necessary of life. Any 
attempt to restrict the consumption of opium in 
individual cases would be an instance of cruelty and 
tyranny . 

20,636. Is there very much opium cultivated in your 
jagirp — Yes. 

20.537. I suppose in your jagir there is not a fixed cash 
settlement like that of the Khalsa land ? — No. 

20.538. Is the revenue in your jagir by hatai on 
grain, and by zahti or cash rates, on other crops ? — 
Yes. 



20,639. What is the last cash on poppy ?— Bs. 7 per 
bigha. 

20.540. Is it always Es. 7 ? — In my jagir it is Es. 7. 

20.541. Is it always Rs. 7 F — There is u. difference in 
some places ; there are higher rates, and some rates are 
lower. 

20.642. Do you mean in other jagirs or other villages P 
— In other jagirs. 

20.643. In the whole of your jagir is there only one 
rate P — Yes, it is Rs. 7 everywhere in my own jagir. 

20,544. That is rather a low rate, is it notp — In ad- 
dition to this, the cultivator has to pay all other 

cesses. 

20,546. {Mr. Pease.) You have said that 50 per cent, 
of the population derive their livelihood from the 
growth and trade of opium ; do you mean in the whole 
of Meywar or in the villages ? — In the whole of 
Meywar. 



The witness withdrew. 



3tohun Lai 
Vishun 

Lai Pandia. 

(^Pertabgarh 
State.) 



MoHUN Lal Vishun Lal Pandia called 
I believe you are a Nagar 



20,646. (Chairman.) 
Brahmin ?— Yes. 

20.547. Are you a Kamdar of Pertabgarh ? — Yes. 

20.548. Where are you a native of? — I am a native of 
Muttra, but for the last two years I have been domiciled 
at Pertabgarh. 

20.549. What opportunities have you had of forming 
an opinion of the opium question P — I have served two 
years in Pertabgarh, 24 years before that in Kajputana, 
for four ] was agent for Muttra Seths in Kotah, 
Jhallawar, Bundi, and Tonk, and managed their opium 
business. I have general supervision over revenue 
administration in Pertabgarh. My evidence is chiefly 
taken from records in Durbar Office. The average 
area under poppy cultivation in Pertabgarh during last 
five years is about 8,383 acres. Most of the land in 
Pertabgarh was surveyed some 20 years ago, but no 
final settlement of land revenue was ever sanctioned. 
The present calculation, therefore, is based on " andazi " 
appraisement. About 96,356 seers or nearly 2,384 
maunds of opium are annually produced. The out-turn 
per acre is calculated at 13 seers raw opium, of which 
2 " chataks " per seer are wasted in the final drying 
process. Total out-turn of raw opium for 8,383 acres = 
108,979 seers, deducting wastage 13,622 seers = 95,357 
seers or 2,884 mauuds. 

20,650, What do you mean by ' ' andazi appraise- 
ment"? — Where there is no proper seitlement made 
we make an appraisement of the land by measurement, 
and partly by the eye. 

20,551. What would replace opium if it was stopped? 
— Opium, if stopped, would be superseded either by (a) 
sugar-cane, or (6) wheat, barley, &c. Average rate of 
opium land is Rs. 32 4a. per acre. Total for 8,383 acres 
would be Rs. 2,70,380 per annum. Average rate per 
Bugar-cane is Rs. 8 8a. per acre, amounting for same 
number of acres to Rs. 71,255. Loss, if sugar-cane 
were substituted, wonld be Rs. 1,99,125. Average rate 
for other crops, Rs. 4 per acre. Total for same number 
of acres, Rs. 33,532. Consequent loss, Rs. 2,36,848 per 
annum. 

20.562. You say that the average rate of opium land 
is Rs. 32 4a. per acre ; is that worked out from fixed 
cash rates on fields ? — No, that is our rate of assessment 
on poppy cultivation. 

20.563. Is there a fixed rate P — The rate varies from 
Es. 10 to Rs. 40 01' Rs. 50 per acre. 

20.654. Are these old rates which have come down 
from olden times ? — Yes, they have been in force for a 
long time in Marwar. In our State the rate is higher 
than the rate in other States. Our land produces a 
good deal of opium. The rate depends upon the pro- 
duce of the land. 

20.655. On what kind of lands aie rates such as Rs. 40 
or Rs. 50 paid? — That is black soil, which produces a 
good deal of opium. 

20.556. How is that land irrigated ? — By wells, 
baories, and ories. 

20.557. What:.s an "orie"?— A small affluent of a 
river. Temporary wells are made of ories. 



in and examined (through an Interpreter). 

z!0,568. Do they work these ories with a bag P — Yes. 

20.659. Why is the sugar-cane rates so low P — Sugar- 
cane cannot grow well in the soil in which poppy is culti- 
vated. We can cultivate poppy in 20 acres, and that 
can be irrigated by ories, wells, &c., but if it is replaced 
by sugar-cane we have learnt by experience that in only 
three acres we will be able to cultivate sugar-cane. 

20.660. I was asking why the revenue rate for sugar- 
cane was so low ; you have put it at Es. 8 per acre ? — 
The sugar-cane rate in our State is not high. The 
yield of sugar-cane is not so large as poppy. 

20.661. Does the sugar-cane rate also vary very much 
in different parts of the country ? — Yes. 

20,562. Is it sometimes lower than Es. 8 p— Yes. On 
land where sugar-cane grows well the rate is high. 

20,663. Can you give any other disadvantages which 
would follow from substituting other crops for poppy ? 
— Out of 20 acres now cultivated with poppy, only 
three acres could be cultivated with sugar-cane, and 
the remaining 17 acres might be cultivated with other 
crops, because sugar-cane requires to be irrigated for 
12 months instead of four months as in case of opium, 
and the present wells would only irrigate three out of 
20 acres all the year round. Opium, again, can be 
grown on any irrigated land in this part of the country, 
whereas siigar-cane can only thrive on certain kinds of 
soil and if irrigated with specially good water. 

20,564. If poppy cultivation were abolished, would a 
revision of rates be necessary? — Yes. 

20,566. "What would be the cost of a revision of rates ? 
— The cost of preparing a fresh assessment is calculated 
at Es. 10 per acre, or a total of Es. 83,830. Loss in 
customs to Durbar would bo Es. 30,000 per annum, and 
to Jagirdars for " Khoont," or transit due, Es. 1,500. 
Total loss, Es. 31,500. 

20.566. What is "Khoont" 
of transit duty. 

20.567. Is it the same as "mapa" in Meywar ? No, 

it is not the same ; it is a kind of transit duty. 

20.568. la it a transit duty or an export duty ? — As 
the Jagirdars are not authorised to take customs, they 
take Es. 1,500 as what is customs, but under this name 
of " Khoont." 

20.669. Is it on their own opium or opium passing 
through their territory ?— Opium passing through their 
territory. 

20.670. Could the loss incurred in the Customs Depart- 
ment be made up by revision of customs rates ?— No. 

20,571. Is there any system of excise on opium in 
Pertabgarh?— No. 

20,672. The sale of opium is quite free?— Yes. 

2(1,573. Do people use opium much ?— They generally 
take opium, but not in excess. 

20,574. Is there any liquor excise in Pertabgarh ; 
any tax on stills or anything of that sort?— Yes, there 
is on country liquor. 

20,675. Do they pay customs on foreign liquors ? — 
As far as I know, think no duty is levied on them. 



' Khoont " is a kind 



MINUTES OP EVIDENCE. 



25 



20.576. Can you givo us your opinion about the 
profits of opium cultivation ? — The profit to Patels, &c. 
I'roni the cultivation of opium is calculated at Es. 20 
per acre. Prom cultivation of wheat, &c. the profit is 
Us. 3 12ii. per acre, that is, if the Patel and his family 
cultivate themselves, they get Ks. 20, of which Us. 16 
are calculated as remuneration for labour and Es. 4 are 
paid as interest. If the Patel employs hired labour, his 
profit is only Rs. 10, the remaining Es. 10 going to 
labourers and in payment of interest. There would be 
groat loss in credit both to cultivators and traders. 

20.577. You mean if opium were stopped y — Yes. 

20.578. By Patels you mean all the cultivators? — 
Yes. 

20.579. (Mr. Wilson.) Can^ you tell me how many 
acres of poppy each cultivator will commonly grow r" — 
One cultivator can cultivate about 60 bighas, or 30 acres 
of poppy. Those cultivators who are wealthy and rich 
can cultivate about 50 or 100 bighas of poppy. If they 
have large families, they all help. 

20.580. Can you tell me whether the cultivation of 
poppy is increasing or decreasing in your country ; is 
it more or less than it was a few years ago P — For the 
last five years, it has been about the same ; it is not 
increasing much. 

20.581. Before thatP — It depends upon the trafi5c. 
When opium is much needed, or there is a good profit, 
then, of course, much is cultivated. 

20.582. Has the price varied much during the last 
few years P — Yes, it has varied. 

20.583. Is it more now than it was a few years ago, 
or is it less P — For the last two or three years it has 
been less. 

20.584. Do you know what the transit duty now is 
from Ajmere P — I do not know, but I know the duty on 
the opium exported from our teiritoi'y. 

20.585. What Government scale does it go to from 
here P — There is a Government scale at Mandsaur. 

20.586. Can each cultivator grow as 'much as he 
likes ; is there any restriction P — He can grow as much 
as ho likes ; there is no restriction. 

20.587. {Mr Mowhray.) Do you know how much is 
generally exported to Bombay in the year from Per- 
tabgarh State P — ■ Sometimes 800 chests, sometimes 
1,000 chests. Sometimes less and sometimes more. 

20.588. It all goes to the scales at Mandsaur p — 
From Pertabgarh it goes to Mandsaur. 

20.589. What rate per chest do you charge for your 
customs duty P — About Rs. 20 per chest, and there are 
two or three duties more, brokerage, &c. 

20.590. Do you export opium from Pertabgarh into 
other native States P — No. 

20.591. Your whole export of opium is to British 
territory ? — Yes. 

20.592. {Mr. Fanshawe.) When you say that a cul- 
tivator can grow 30 acres or more of poppy, I under- 
stand you to mean that that area is sometimes cultivated 
in the laud held by one individual, not that the culti- 
vator can himself cultivate or prepare that amount of 
poppy ?— Yes ; a single cultivator or two can grow from 
6 to 10 acres ; and, if his family is large, then, of course, 
he can cultivate more. 

20.593. When you say his family, do you mean 
the men in his house P — Yes ; they all labour in the 
field. 

20.594. {Mr. Wilson.) What is the meaning of the 
" Kamdar" ? — It means "minister," it is the native 
word for prime minister. Literally, the meaning is 
"agent." 

20.595. {Ghairman.) You are not a native of Pertab- 
gai'h ? — I am originally a native of Muttra. 

20595a. As an outsider, and a man of great ox- 
perit'nce in Eajpatana, to what extent do you think the 
habit of eating opium is injurious to tlie people in 
Rajputana P — I think a moderate use of opium is not 
injurious in Eajputana. 

20.596. Is excess common P — It is not common. 

20.597. Do the common country people use it much ? 
— Yes, the cultivators and labourers generally take a 
moderate amount. 

20.598. Do you think it does them any good.' — Yes; 
they labour hard without clothes in the cold, and 
endure other hardships. 

O 82588. 



20.599. You think it is a useful stimulant for them P 
—Yes. 

20.600. Do they think it protects them from any- 
thing, or do they take it as a stimulant, or do thoy 
think it improves health; why do they take it ? — They 
take it as n stimulant and a comforter after hard 
work. 

20.601. (Mr. Wilson.) Does everybody take it P — Yes. 

20.602. Are there any persons who do not take it P — 
The labourers generally take it, and about 50 per cent, 
of the middle class men take it. 

20.603. You think the labourers all take it p — Yes, 
generally. 

20,601. {Ghairman.) Have you anything more you 
wish to addp — I ask permission to lay before you 
the following supplementary evidence which I have 
prepared. I have to point out some difficulties in 
substituting other crops for poppy, which iire as 
follows : — (a.) There is a distinction in respect of 
assessment between land actually producing opium and 
land capable of producing it. {&.) There are several 
kinds of Adan land in which poppy can be well cul- 
tivated, but other crops can hardly be done so, and 
if done, no profit will accrue. As, for instance, in 
Dhuraiti and Dhameri lands sugar-cane can not grow 
well, (r.) The poppy cultivation is at present being 
irrigated generally by wells, ories, tanks, and baories, 
&o. These waters differ each from the other, where 
there is phika or mora water sugar-cane cannot grow 
well, and if it does so, no best gur or sugar can be 
obtained, (d.) The cultivation of poppy in an area of 
about 20 acres can be well and easily irrigated by its 
well or cry, but if sugar-cane be grown in that very 
land the wells mentioned will be no sufficient means of 
irrigation. For sugar-cane requires a perpetual irriga- 
tion all round the year, and so the well which can 
irrigate 20 acres of land adapted to poppy cultivation 
will irrigate only three acres of the land adapted to the 
cultivation of sugar-cane, (e.) In case the substitution 
of other crops is forced upon us by the circumstances, it 
would be necessary that out of the aforesaid area of 20 
acres the sugar-cane would be cultivated in three acres 
only, and in the remaining 17 acres such crops as 
wheat and barley, &c. will be replaced. So the average 
assessment of this mixed cultivation would be Es. S 8a. 
per acre. And if the cultivatitm of other crops, ex- 
clusive of sugar-cane, would most likely be replaced, 
then the average assessment of the said amount of land 
would be Es. 4 per acre. For the discussion of the 
question of compensation payable to the Partabgarh 
State, the most important thing to notice is, that in case 
we strongly resent the prohibition of opium, how can we 
be expected to accept it gladly P Because we know well 
the present value of poppy and of opium in all its forms, 
and the loss which will be incurred by us and our 
subjects. Further, we are well aware that the cultiva- 
tion of poppy is a matter of right or possession of 
an important landed interest, and the compensation is 
a matter of so miich money allowance. I have shown 
in my statement how many parties would suffer loss, 
and what would be their respective losses. In case 
they consent to accept the compensation the paramount 
power would have to make good the sum total of them 
all. Since the prohibition of the cultivation, produc- 
tion, and consumption of opium has been suggested 
the people iu the opium-producing native states have 
shown their sorrow by refraining from cooking their 
meals and lighting their houses, &c. It has also 
become a very hard task for the revenue officials to 
pacify them, and to have them engaged in their 
agricultural business. I fear that there may be a 
diminution in the land revenue this year. In case 
the Pertabgarh State is asked to extend the edict of 
prohibiting the growth of opium except for medical 
purposes, there is no doubt, as far as I believe, 
that we would come to suffer the consequences of a 
serious political danger. Consequently, the adoption 
of preventive measures are also difficult, expensive, 
and impracticable in the Pertabgarh State. How 
can we prevent the Bhiels of our hilly tracts from 
consuming opium ? They can be expected to do so 
when their human nature is altered. For instance, I 
refer the Commission to the Bhiel rising of 1881-82, in 
Meywar. The census of them is taken still in the 
rough calculation of four persons a house. The culti- 
vation of poppy seems a very valuable crop Though 
other crops can undoubtedly be substituted for 
the same, yet they would not be so valuable and 
beneficial to the poorer classes. The poppy plant is 

D 



Mohun Lai 

Viahun 

Lai Pandia. 

{Pertabgarh 

State.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



26 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



^nhun Lai 
Vishun 

Lai Pnndia. 

{Pertabgarh 
State.) 

31 Jan. 1894 



used variously, from first to last. Its tender leaved are 
used as vegetables by the cultivators, iield labourers, 
and other poorer classes. I have seen the Kajas and 
State nobles also using it as vegetable, calling it Araal 
Ki Bhajee. It is abundantly sold in every street of 
villages and towns of this part of the country. Its 
seeds are used for sweetmeats, in prepariut;-, iVir 
instance, Dane Ki laddoo and Dane Ki piipri. Ac, and 
the superstitious classes take them while they hold fasts, 
i.e., vrats. Its oil is generally eaten and used in the 
opium-producing districts, and the heads, after taking 
out crude opium or ras therefrom, used as post, and 
their powder and small pieces are thrown in the fields 
in which all sorts of crops are cultivated to improve 
the quality of land as well, as it is urgently neces- 
sary, in the cultivation of sugar-cane, to save it from 
the injurious insects and a kind of grass called Adya. 
The stems of the plant are used in making barhs 
or fencing walls around fields. Nobody has yet come 
forward to say that any person is ever said to have been 
injured by using the said leaves as vegetable, the seeds 
and the oil, &c. I can therefore say that there is no 
other crop so valuable and beneficial, which the poorer 
classes can make various uses of from first to last. I 
am serving in this opium-producing part of the country 
from a long time, and I have always to deal freely with 
people who cultivate, consume, and trade in opium, but 
I have never seen any evils deserving consideration 
arising from the con.<5umption of opium. I can safely 
say that moderate and regular use of opium is not in- 
jurious, and never followed by any special evils. I 
consider alcohol is more harmful than opium. The 
consumption of opium in Eajputana is neither excessive 
nor harmful to the population, mentally, morally, and 
physically. Even if taken in excess it will take years 
for bad results to follow either on the body or on the 
mind. There is one of the witnesses with me, named 
Kirat Singh, who takes two tolas of opium daily with- 
out being seriously injured by the use, and if he is 
pressed, out of hospitality, to take more, I am quite 
sure he can safely take two tolas in addition. Though 
he is now 65 years old, yet he is healthy and 
strong. Opium is commonly given to children to keep 
them in health till they are four or five years old. It 
is not considered disreputable to take opium ; no doubo 
chandv, and madak are objectionable. Further, for the 
sake of argument, it may be observed that not only the 
excessive use of opium is harmful, but there are many 
instances where the overeating of even sweetmeats has 
proved fatal. It is considered absolutely necessary to 
take it for such special occasions and purposes as be- 
trothals, marriages, birth of children, festivities, hos- 
pitalities, breaking mornings, making agreements of 
peace and amity, establishing friendship between par- 
ties at variance, and other like State and social occasions. 
It is also customary to such an extent in Rajputana 
that when correspondences are being conducted in 
purely native forms, it is usual to write on the top of 



the letter in the handwriting of the sender, " Manohar- 
ka-amal levasi," i.e., kindly take opium in hospitality 
at this my request, and writing this is considered and 
taken generally as signing the letter by the sender. 
From all this the Commission can well conclude what 
would be the re.'^ult on the habits and customs, and 
physical condition of the people of this part of the 
country if opium could not be procincd uxcrpt as 
medicme. In my opinion the prohibition of ojiinm 
would therefore turn all things topsy-turvy, and cause 
a great stir in all communities of the population of 
Rajputana. Opium is a cheap and accessible drug even 
to the poorer classes. If it will be placed beyond their 
reach it is most probable they will have to resort to the 
worst kind of liquor available either from the country 
or imported from the continent of Europe. The use of 
liquor is forbidden by religion to a number of castes 
both Hindus and non-Hindus, but that of opium is per- 
mitted. By the prohibition of opium and the intro- 
duction of liquor the people ivill certainly be induced 
to break the commandments of their religion, and a 
race of opium-eaters will be replaced by that of lic(uor 
drinkers. In conclusion, I resent, on behalf of the 
Pertabgarh State, the extension of the edict prohibiting 
the production of opium except for medical purposes 
on the above-mentioned grounds. 

20.605. (Chairman.) Suppose the Government did not 
ask the Raja or any of the Rajas of Eajputana to 
prohibit cultivation : suppose the Government merely 
said "We will not allow opium to pass through our 
II country, you can do as you like, but it must not come 
'' into our country " ; what would the Durbar think of 
that ?— It is necessary that we should urge now upon 
the Commission what we want, as the future of the 
opium industry depends on the conclusions drawn by 
this Commission. 

20.606. Supposing the Government did not ask any 
of the Rajas to prohibit cultivation, but merely said to 
them, " You can cultivate as you like, but we will not 

allow opium to come into our territory or pass through 
our territory " ; what objection irould the Durbar have 
to that ?— If the English Government stops opium pass- 
ing through their territory, what is the use of cultivatin"- 
opium in our States p '^ 

20.607. {Mr. Haridas VeJiaridas.) Do you eat opium ? 
—I did for about nine months, but now I have left it 
oil. 

20.608. If the Government did not allow your opium 
to go through its territory for export to China or else- 
where, you say the cultivators in your State would not 
grow opium ; but do you not think you have a right to 
request the Government to allow your opium to "-o 
through its territory? — Yes. "^ 

20.609. (Mr. Wilson.) "When did you prepare the 
supplementary evidence you have just given us P— 
About a week ago. 



The witness withdrew. 



Ram Chandra 

Megraj. 

(Pertabgarti 

State.) 



Ram Chandka Megbaj called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.610. [Ghairman.) You are, I believe, an Agarwala 
Bania, resident in Pertabgarh ? — Yes. 

20.611. Will you tell us what you know about opium P 
— lam the Pertabgarh agent for the firm of Thakui'sidass 
Suraj Mull. I have been 10 years at Pertabgarh. I 
trade chiefly in opium and bills of exchange on opium 
with Bombay, Calcutta, &c. I buy annually about 400 
chests of opium, chiefly through Manotidars, Bohras, 
&c. ; sometimes also direct from cultivators. I pay 
Rs. 600 per chest, i.e., total Rs. 2,40,000. Profit on 
each chest calculated as follows : — 

Rs. 15 as commission. 
,, 9 average interest. 
,, 10 profit on sale during last year. 

The selling price continually changes. But total profit 
last year came to Rs. 13,600, or about 17 per cent, on 
original outlay. If opium trade was suppressed I would 
also lose profits on bills of exchange now drawn on 
opium credit, amounting to about Rs. 800 or Rs. 1,000 a 
year, calculated at 4 annas per cent, on Rs. 2,40,000. 
No other business would compensate my firm if opium 
trade were suppressed. I have other business on a 
comparatively small scale and depending chiefly on 
opium trade and credit. Immediate loss would amount 
to Es. 10,000 or Rs. 12,000 now due to me as arrears. 



The firm would not become bankrupt, but would sufi'er 
great losses from the certain bankruptcy of smaller 
traders; and the Pertaljgarh branch of the business 
would no doubt have to be suspended. 

20.612. Who are the Manotidars and Bohras ?—Thcv 
are the village bankers. 

^^it^^t-jT T^' ^°" P'^y ^s- 600 per chest, what year 
was that ?— Last year. '' 

20.614. Do you buy at as much as that from the culti- 
vators or from the Bohras P_The Rs. 600 is for the 
dry balls made out of opium, and not for the juice. 

20.615. Do people of your caste ever take opium P— 
1 es, they take it. '^ 

20.616. Do you think it does them any harm f— No 
it does good and not harm. ^ ^^v, 

20,617. 1 suppose you mean if it is taken moderated P— 
Wlien a man is ill or weak it does him good to take 

m^lll'not' ^^"'^^''''^■^ ^° y°^ *'^'^e it yourself?- 

20,619 Is all the opium that you buj- for export into 
Bnti.h teiTitory or is any of it for consumption inThe 
States P-lt IS all exported into British terri^tory. 
The witness withdrew. 



MINUTES OF EVtDEJfCE. 



27 



(Loed^Bbassey here took the Chair.) 
KiKAT Singh called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.620. (Sir J. Lyall.) Are you a Jagirdar of 
Pertabgarh ? — Yes. 

20.621. What is your caste?— I am a Charan. 

20.622. What is the connexion between the Charans 
and the Rajputs ? — The Eajpiits consider the Charans 
to be like their sons, and whatever the Charans want 
the Rajputs provide them with. 

20.623. What have you to say with reference to the 
consumption of opium among Charans, and the people 
in Pertabgarh? — Charans sometimes eat pieces of 
opium dry, and sometimes drink it dissolved in water 
(Kasumbha). Others also smoke it in the form of 
" chahdu," and " madak " Children take it from six 
months to three or four years old. Men and women 
begin taking it from the age of 25 or 30. Amongst 
Charans about 50 per cent, of the men, 10 per cent, of 
the women, and all children without exception take it. 
About 5 or H pur cent, of the people in their country 
take from 1 tola to 2 tolas a day. I have seen as much 
as 11 tolas taken in one day without any evil effect. 



People generally take it twice a day — morning and 
evening. I take one tola's weight a day. I can take 
twice as much. Opium is taken on occasions of betro- 
thal, marriage, death, settlement of a feud, and festivals. 
Even non-eaters take it on these occasions. As a medi- 
cine it is universally used for all kinds of disorders. 
Opium has a most beneficial effect on moderate con- 
sumers. If opium were stopped all consumers would 
become very ill. Everyone in this part of the country 
recognises its worth. 

20.624. How long have you been taking as much as a 
tola? — For the last three or four years. I began 
taking opium when I was about 21, but for the last 
three or four years, since I was very ill, I have taken it 
up to a tola. 

20.625. {Mr. Wilson.) You say that 10 per cent, of 
the women take opium ; why do men take it more than 
women ? — Women chiefly take to opium when they get 
ill, but men in going about the country mix with others 
who take opium, and thus take to the habit also. 



The witness withdrew. 



[Seth Daulat Ram called in and examined (through an Interpreter) 



20.626. {Chairman.) I understand you are super- 
intendent of the Customs Department, Jhallawar ? — 
Yes. 

20.627. What have you to say in regard to the 
quantity of opium dealt with by the Customs Depart- 
ment of Jhallawar ? — I put in a statement *showing the 
receipts of the last five years in the Customs Depart- 
naent from opium, poppy seeds, and oil, in customs, 
bhoom, chapa, (fees taken on sealing bags of opium), 
and mapa (fees realised on sales). The average 
receipts for the last five years have been Rs. 61,624- 
5a. annually. If the cultivation of the poppy, and 
the trade in opium were suppressed, the State would 
lose the whole of this Rs. 61,624-5a., and would also, 
supposing other crops to be substituted for poppy, lose 
the duty now realised on grain, &c., imported from 
outside, which would under the changed conditions be 
raised within Jhallawar territory, and pay only half an 
anna per maund, instead of one anna duty. I estimate 
that this loss would be about Rs. 4,000 per annum, but 
that is, of course, conjectural. The average annual 
receipts now from customs on imported grain are 
Rs. 10,200 : the appended statements show details* : if 
importation of grain ceased entirely the State would 
lose Rs. 5,100 ; possibly, however, importation would 
not cease entirely, and I have therefore estimated the 
loss at Rs. 4,000 only under this head. Some Jagirdars 
collect private dues on grain passing through their 
estates ; they would also lose in the same proportion as 
the State ; but I have no means of knowing what their 
present receipts from this source are. I do not think 
it would be possible to make good the loss by increasing 



Kirat Singh. 

(Pertabgarh 

State.} 

31 Jan. 1894. 



customs duties on articles other than opium. The 
rates as they stand are already as high as the trade will 
bear, and any addition to them would, I anticipate, 
diminish the volume of the trade and the customs 
receipts. 

20.628. You say that the receipts in the Customs 
Department for the last five years have been Rs. 61,624- 
5a. annually ; if the cultivation of the poppy and the 
trade in opium were suppressed, the State would lose 
this money ? — Yes. 

20.629. If other crops were substituted for the poppy 
there might be a loss on duty realised on grain 
imported from outside, and if that loss occurred, as it 
might occur, you say there would be a further loss to 
the State of Rs, 4,400 a year ? — Yes. 

20.630. And you anticipate that there would be losses 
by private persons, in addition to those which would 
fall on the State ? — Yes ; but that account is quite 
separate, and the Raj records would not contain an 
account of those losses. 

20.631. {Sir J. Lyall.) I understand that you have 
on ly given an estimate of the losses in customs ? — 
Yes. 

20.632. {Mr. Wilson.) Will you tell us what you mean 
by the word "bhoom"? — The word " bhoom " simply 
means earth. If goods pass from one district to another 
district, over land belonging to the State, the State 
charges a small duty on it. 

20.633. A kind of transit duty ?— Yes. 



Seth Daulat 

Bam, 

(Jhallawar 

State.) 



The witness withdrew. 



Mir Mahmud Hussain called iu and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.634. {Sir J. Lyall.) — I understand you are assis- 
tant deputy collector at Jhallawar ? — Yes. 

20.635. What have you to say with reference to the 
cultivation of poppy in Jhallawar ?— The average area 
under opium during the last five years has been — 



Khalsa lands 


- 22,937 acres. 


Chowmehla 


7,181 acres. 


Wast 


15,735 ,, 


Shahabad - 


21 „ 


Alienated lands 


- 5,688 „ 


Chowmehla 


1,882 „ 


Wast 


3,788 ,, 


Shahabad - 


18 ,. 



Grand total acres 



28,625 



The area in alienated lands is compiled from returns 
furnished by Tahsildars; these do not distinguish be- 
tween jagirs, udak, and other forms of iilienation, so I 
cannot give the details foi- each of them. The Khalsa 



•It is considered unnecessary to reproduce these statements. 



areas are given from the survey measurements ; those 
for alienated lands are only estimates. At the time of 
the settlement, which was finished in 1886, the area 
under poppy was considerably larger, viz. : — 

Khalsa — 

Chowmehla - - - 8,699 acres. 

Wast - - - 22,914 „ 

Shahabad - - - 223 „ 



Total acres 



31,836 



Mir Mahmud 

Hussain. 

(Jhallawar 

State.} 



Or 8,899 acres more than the existing five years' average ; 
the reduction has been effected from time to time under 
State pressure, owing to the fall in the price of the 
opium which made it advisable to encourage the people, 
as far as possible, to depend more largely upon other 
crops. The total area of irrigated Khalsa land in the 
State was in 48 S. (i.e., 1891-92), the last year for which 
I have complete returns, 39,658 acres, in the — 

Chowmehla - 11,303 acres. 

WasL - 26,29;i „ 

and the balance in Shahabad and Kirpapur. In the 
Chowmehla, if the cultivation of opium were prohibited, 
it would be necessary, I calculate, to make a reduction 

D 2 



28 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Mir Mahmud 

Hussain. 

(Jhallawar 

State.} 

31 Jan. 1894. 



in the State demand of, at least, 50 per cent, on first- 
clasa irrigated land, and 25 per cent, on second-class 
ditto, 'ilie total demand on first-class iriigated land in 
the (Jhowmehla is Rs. 1,34,779, and on second-class land 
B,s. 36,872 ; the reductions would therefore be 
Rs. 67,389 and Ks. 9,218 respectively. In Wast pro- 
hibition of opium ciijtivation would necessitate a reduc- 
tion of six annas in the rupee on first-class land, and 
three annas in the rupee on second-class land. The 
present demand on first-class land is Es. 2,33,879, and 
on second-class land Es. 69,34.5 ; the reductions would 
therefore be Es. 87,704 and Es. 11,127 respectively. 
Total reductions in Chowmehla and Wast would be 
Es. 1,75,439. The opium cultivation in Shahabad and 
Kirpapur is so restricted that its suppression there 
would not entail any reduction in the State demand. 
Over and above the 39,658 acres of fully assessed irri- 
gated land of which I have given details above, 
there are 1,088 acres of new irrigated land in the 
Ohowmehla which will be fully assessed on the 
expiry of existing leases four years hence ; there 
then would be a further loss to the State on this 
of about Es. 6,694. It would not be possible to 
confine the reduction to lands on which opium is 
actually grown ; it would have to be granted on all 
irrigated land on which opium could be grown. Apply- 
ing the same principles to the estimated acreage 
for Jagir and other alienated lands, I calculate that the 
holders would have to reduce their rents by Es. 30,457 
on the area actually under poppy. There are no statis- 
tics in the State offices from which I can estimate the 
total irrigated area in alienated lands, and I have 
therefore calculated the reduction on poppy land only. 
The total reduction would necessarily be a good deal 
more than Es. 30,457. Opium is very much the most 
profitable crop to the cultivator ; so much so, that it is 
popularly estimated to pay two-thirds of the whole 
revenue of the State ; and if it were suppressed cultiva- 
tors would not have the means to pay the present 
assessments even on lands not directly affected by the 
prohibition. The estimated average produce of opium 
per acre is as follows : — 

In the Ohowmehla 10 seers 11 chittacks. 
,, Wast 9 seers. 

,, Shahabad 4 seers 6 chittacks. 
At these rates the opium produced on the average area 
under that crop amounts to 6,818 maunds, valued at 
current prices at Es. 10,99,908. The customs returns 
on the average of the last four years give the amount 
of opium produced annually as 6,704 maunds. To this 
must be added the value of — 

Opium seeds, estimated at Es. 11-2 per acre. 

,, leaves, ,, Es. 1-6-3 ,, 

stalks, ,, Es- 1-10-8 „ 

To this again must be added the value of makka, the 
only crop which can be grown in combination with 
poppy on the same ground and in the same year, and 
which cannot be grown in combination with any other 
crop, so that the abolition of the poppy would prac- 
tically entail the suppression of makka too. This is 
estimated at Es. 13-5-7 in Wast, and Es. 19-1S-3 in the 
Chowmehla per acre. The total value of these sub- 
sidiary products I have worked out on the average at 
Es. 8,60,509. If opium production were suppressed 
there are only two crops which could really take its 
place on irrigated land in the Chowmehla and Wast 
divisions of this State, viz., cotton and wheat. Sugar- 
cane can never be a general crop here for two reasons, 
because it exhausts the soil too much, and because it 
requires watering in the hot weather, at which time the 
very great majority of the wells here run dry. I 
estimate the cost and profits of poppy (combined with 
makka) cultivation as follows : — 

In the Chowmehla. Per acre, cost of cultivation 
Ea. 59-4-5, and value of produce Es. 77-3 ; profit, 
Es. 17-14-7. 

Ditto ibr cotton, per acre, cost Es. 38-8-10, value of 
produce Es. 25-14-3; loss, Es. 12-1^^0-7. 

Ditto for sugar-cane, cost Es. 163-4-11, value of pro- 
dace Es. 152; loss, Es. 1-4-11. 

Ditto for wheat, cost Es. 39-1-1, value of produce 
Es. 33-11-7; loss, Es. .6-6-6. 

In Wast. Ditto for opium (combined with makka 
Rb. 56-1-1, value of produce Es. 67-9-5; profit, Es.11-8-4. 



Ditto fur 
Es. 26-2-3,; 

Ditto for 
ducc Es. 89 

Ditto for 
Es. 26-11-2 



value of produce 



cotton, cost lis. 31-12-9, 
loss, Es. 5-10-6. 
sugar cane, cost Es. 96-12-7, value of pro- 
; loss, Us. 7-12-7. 

wheat, cost Es. 32-6-4, value of produce, 
loss, Es. 5-11-2. 



The statements put in give the details of the above 
calculations.* Hence very little irrigated land is taken 
up with anything but poppy ; it is only on land that 
cannot be fully manured and irrigated that other crops 
are grown. The prohibition of poppy cultivation in the 
Ohowmehla and Wast would, on the above calculation 
of the profit per acre on opium, cause a direct aggregate 
loss to the cultivators in those divisions of Es. 634,204. 
After allowing for a reduction in the aggregate rents of 
Es. 212,591, the cultivators would suffer a net loss of 
Es. 428,307 on their irrigated lands, which there would 
be no possibility of their recouping by the cultivation of 
other crops. In point of fact, they could not cultivate 
their irrigated lands except at a loss, even if the rents 
were reduced to the extent proposed above by me, and 
the Ohowmehla and Wast would be entirely ruined. 

20.636. You say that from the returns lately furnished, 
the area of Khalsa land under poppy is put at 22,937 
acres, and you say that at the time of the settlement of 
1886 the area was 31,836 acres ; what, in your opinion, 
is the reason for such a, decrease in the area? — As there 
was a fall in the price of opium the State thought it 
advisable to encourage the cultivators to produce other 
crops. But as the soil is stony the other crops did not 
do well, and did not pay. I produce a specimen of 
wheat to show the soil is not adapted for it. 

20.637. Was there Bjpahha settlement made in 1886? 
—Yes. 

20.638. Before that there was a hatai and cash settle- 
ment ? — Before the settlement there was a contract for 
five years, and before that the States charged something 
in cash to each cultivator. 

20.639. (Chairman.) You have made a calculation of 
the reductions in the amounts which the Slate would 
derive from the land revenue, and it shows that in the 
district of Chowmehla, if the cultivation of opium were 
prohibited, the reduction of State revenue would amount 
to Es. 67,389 on one class of land and Es. 9,218 on 
another class ; and in the Wast district prohibition 
would imply a reduction on one class of land of 
Es. 87,704, and on another class Es. 11,127 ?--Yes. 

20.640. In Shahabad the loss would be less, as the 
cultivation of poppy is not extensive. There the loss 
would amount to Es. 6,694 ? — Yes. 

20.641. Turning to the Jagir and other alienated 
lands, you say that the reductions which the holders 
would have to sufl'er in their rents would be not less 
thanEs. 30,457 P— Yes, 

20.642. (Mr. Fansliawe.) As regards the average pro- 
duce of opium per acre, is it the case that poppy is 
grown as the only crop in the year in Jhallawar ? — 
Maize is first sown, and after that poppy, so that they 
have two crops in the year. Maize cannot be sown 
with any other crop. 

20.643. (Mr. Wilson.) Is it a fact that when the State 
advised the people to grow other crops, as far as possible, 
that policy proved unprofitable ? — We have to import 
grain from other States into Jhallawar, and consequently 
the State tried to get the grain produced in the country. 
The cultivators tried it, but it proved unsuccessful. 
The cultivators found it was to their loss rather than to 
their profit. They were accustomed to grow poppy, 
and consequently they disliked the order to grow grain, 
and the State policy did not succeed. The policy was 
therefore changed. 

20.644. You say that the amount of land on which 
poppy is cultivated is 8,899 acres less than it was at 
the time the settlement was finished ; did the State 
make any reduction in the land revenue on account of 
that reduction in the poppy land? — The State proposed 
to make some reduction, and some papers and returns 
were prepared. It was proposed that reductions might 
be made if the cultivators would agree to grow grain in 
the place of poppy, but as the cultivators showed a dis- 
inclination to do this, the State did not make any re- 
duction, and allowed them to sow ])oppy freely. 

20.645. Is all the manure put on the poppy land? 

No, they manure other crops. 

20,616. You have said that it is only on land that 
cannot be fully manured and irrigated that othu- ciops 
are grown F — More manure has to be put on the poppy 
land than on land upon which other crops grow. They 
are not inclined to grow ijtlier crops, and, therefore 
they do not manure them so well. BesidcH that, they 
have to irrigate poppy fields up to the very time that 
the juice is taken, up to the time the incision is made 
and the scraping is over. Whereab, in the ca^e of the 



Not reprinted. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



2a 



other crops they have to give water only a certain 
number of times, and not to the very last. 

20,647. If the cultivators spend all the manure, or 
most of it, on the poppy, then it is not surprising that 
the wheat is very poor p — It is not for the want of 
manure that the wheat has been so poor, but the laud 
itself is not suited for wheat growing. Besides that, if 



there is even a small quantity of rainfall in winter the Mir Maumua 

crop is spoiled by that rain, and the leaves get pale Hus.sain. 

and withered. In Jhallawar wheat is grown in dry {Jhallawar 

land, black soil. If there is "26 inches of rain during Stale.) 

the rainy season wheat is produced in large quantities 

in those dry fields, but if there be rain in winter then 31 Jau. 1894. 

those fields also are spoilt. 



The witness withdrew. 
Thakue Bahaduk Singh called in and examined (through an Interpreter) . 



20.648. (CliairmoM.) You are, I understand, a Rajput, 
Jagirdar of Motipura, and Tahsil Bakani P — Tes. 

20.649. Can you give ns any information as to the 
growth and consumption of opium iu the Jhallawar 
State P — In the Chowmehla and Wast no crop would be 
a satisfactory substitute for opium. Sugar-cane, wheat, 
cotton, and barley are the alternatives that suggest 
themselves. Cane cannot, however, be grown satis- 
factorily for want of water, and because it exhausts the 
soil, so that without special care and manuring it cannot 
recover itself. A man may grow cane for the sake of 
" gur," but he cannot do it at a profit. Wheat can be 
grown at intervals of three years in the same land ; in 
the interim hemp has to be sown and ploughed in and 
then a crop of opium taken. Cotton and barley do not 
do well either. " I cannot give details of agricultural 
expenses and returns to define the diiference Ijetween 
poppy and other crops, but i can say with certainty 
that if opium is done away with the cultivators will 
never get a belly-full, and neither the State nor land- 
holders will be able to get their dues, because it is the 
only crop which can be grown to a profit. It will 
certainly be necessary to reduce rents and revenue if 
the poppy is to be prohibited, probably by 50 per cent. 
In addition to this some Jagidars would lose their dues 
on opium ; but this would not afi'ect me personally, 
because I have not the right of " mapa " in my Jagir. 

The witness 



In my caste it would be quite an exception to find any- 
one who did not take opium. All take it, men, women, 
and children. Doses vary from tialf a ratti to nine 
mashas, and some take more than that. People take as 
much as suits their constitutions. Perhaps 10 per cent, 
are large consumers ; people take it once or twice or 
thrice a day, and some people tiiko it whenever they 
think of it, but the majority only take it once or twice. 
Gralwan is specially gi\'en, and is de rigueur on occasions 
of rejoicing. Moderate consumers are all the better for 
it both mentally and physically, and would deteriorate 
in every way without it. In fact, opium-consumers 
would die without their allowance. 

20.650. {Bvr J. Lyall.) What is the size of your 
Jagir ? — It brings in E.s. 1,000 a year. 

20.651. Are you a Rajput of the same clan as the 
Raja P — I belong to the Bhati Clan. 

20.652. Is the irrigation in Jhallawar from wells, or 
what ? — From wells. 

20,053. How deep are they ?— About 50 or 60 feet. 

20.654. I presume it is very expensive to raise the 
water ? — Yes. 

20.655. Will you kindly explain what is meant by 
Gal/wan P — It is a drink prepared by pounding opium. 
It is put into water and then strained off. 

withdrew. 



Thahur 

BahadurSingh. 

(Jhallawar 

State.) 



GoviND Ram called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20,656. {8w J. Lyall.) What is your caste P— I am 
a Mahajan. 

20,656-7. What are you ?— I am a trader. 

20,658. What can you say as to the value of the 
opium trade in the Jhallawar States ? — The value of the 
opium trade to this State can best be illustrated by 
detailing the components of the price of a single chest 
of opium sold here at the average price of Rs. 493 : — 

Rs. a. 

1. Price of opium-milk used in manu- 

facture, 2 mds. 7i seers - ■ 370 

2. Commissiononabove to middleman 6 4 

3. Cost of testing quality - - - 18 

4. Interest on capital sunk in 



purchase - - - 45 

5. Miscellaneous charges, carriage, 

&c. .... 

6. Dalal's dues . - - 

7. Weighing - - - - 

8. Packing, &c. - - - 

9. Oil - - - - 

10. Storage - - - - - 

11. Broken opium leaves used in 

packing 8 

12. Earthen utensils used in manu- 

facture 

13. Sewing bags 

14). Opium leaves used to wrap up 

opium - - - 

15. Contribution to charity 

16. Customs duty on import 

17. Temple dues on import - - - 

18. Merchant's profit - - - - 

Total - - - - 493 






1 


2 
1 

53 



If this opium is exported there are, of course, further 
charges. Of these the following affect the State and 
people of Jhallawar, viz. :— 

Packing cases - - - ^ 

Securing cases in canvas, &o. - ' ' ^ 

Carriage to Ujain Jj 

Cost of escort on road - - ' o 

Contribution to temples - - " ,5 

Export duty - . - - 1- 



a. 




8 


4 



Total 



23 12 



Taking 2,800 chests as the average quantity passing 
through Jhallawar markets for export in a year, we 
therefore have Es. 10,36,000 distributed amongst the 
agriculturists of the State. Taking 2,400 chests as the 
average annual quantity passing through Patau, we 
have distributed among Patan people : — 

Rs. 

Among the mercantile classes - - 2,59,200 

,, weighmen . . - 2,400 

oilmen . . - . 2,400 

,, broken-leaf sellers, &o. - 1,200 

,, carpenters- - - 4,800 

leaf sellers - * 2,400 

„ cartmen and carriers - 6,000 

,, temple dues on import - 3,300 

,, poor people - - 1,200 

,, dalals - 2,400 

„ packers, porters, &c. - 9,600 

„ house-owners for storage 3,600 

potters - - - 1,200 

,, bag-sewers ... 300 

,, shopkeepers, porters, &c. 

(item 5) - - - - 6,000 

,, escorts - - 6,000 

,, temples on export . 4,800 

, , customs dues , import and 

export - 35,400 

If the cultivation of opium were stopped all these 
sources of income would be closed to the people of the 
city and neighbourhood, and great numbers of them 
would be reduced to destitution, since there is no 
trade possible which would give so much and so well- 
paid employment. In addition to this the prohibition 
of the opium trade would entail the loss of lakhs of 
capital sunk in buildings and plant which could not be 
utilised for other purposes. There is practically no 
trade of any magnitude here except in opium, nor 
is there any other local produce which could take its 
place as an article of commerce. With the disappear- 
ance of opium the importance of Patan as a trading 
centre would vanish. The injury caused to opium con- 
sumers, if the cultivation of the poppy were suppressed, 
should not be overlooked. 75 per cent, at least of the 
inhabitants of the State are regular consumers, and 
people cannot keep their health without it in this 
country and climate. If they could not get opium they 
would be no good for anything. I should mention that 
the figures previously given refer, to Patan trade only. 
Bankers here have firms and branches iu Kotah, Agar, 

D 3 



Govtnd Sam. 

(Jhallawar 

Stale.) 



80 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



Gov'md Ram. 
(^Jkallawar 

Stale.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



Ujaiii, iDdoiu, and Bom1j:iy, all of wliich would be 
proportionately injured by the suppression of tbc 
opium trade. The stocks of opium in Patan on the 
14tli December 1893 -were 5,821 maunds, valued at 
Es. 22,62,000 odd. 

20.659. Tou liave given tlie price of a chest of opium 
at lt,.s. 493 ; is that the average price for the last three 
or four years .'' — It is for this year only. The rates 
vary. 

20.660. Is the price now much lower than it was 
formerly ? — Yes. 

20.661. What is the reason for that.P — The demand in 
China is less. 

20.662. Tou put the price of opium juice at Rs. 370 
for two maunds 7i seers ; is that the price paid to the 
cultivatoi's r' — Te.s. 

20.663. Did all the cultivators get the same price 
this year, oi' is that an avei'age P — It is the average. 

20.664. One cultivator gets a little more, and one 
cultivatoi' gets a little less ? — Tes. 

20,666. (Mr. Fanshawe.) In your statement joii have 
on various occasions used the word Patan ; do you 
mean by that the people of Jhailawar State ? — Jhalla- 
war Is the State, Patan is the city, and close to it is a 
cantonment called Jhailawar Patan. By Patan I mean 
the city, and by Jhailawar I mean the whole district. 

20.666. Wherever you use the word Patan, then, you 
are speaking of the people of the chief town ? — Patan 
means the chief town, and by the word Jhailawar I 
mean the whole district. 

20.667. {Mr. Mowbray.) The chest of opium you 
speak of is a full chest of 140 lbs., is it not ? — Yes, a 
full chest. 



20.668. (3Ir. Wilson.) Whore is it that the opium 
milk is converted into opium ? — In the city of Patau. 

20.669. Are there matiy persons engaged in that 
trade ? — Yes. 

20.670. How many? — About 25 shops in Patan 
itself. 

20.671. Do you think that all the opium prepared by 
these 25 firms or persons is of equal, uniform quality ? 
— It i.s uniform quality. 

20.672. One man does not make it better or of more 
value than another .P — No. 

20.673. You have said that 75 per cent, of the in- 
habitants are regular consumers ; do you mean of the 
entire population, men, women, and children; or do 
you mean men only ? — 75 per cent, of the males. 

20.674. (Mr. Mowhray.) Where are the scales at 
which the Jhailawar opium is weighed.'' — Ujain. In 
some cases the opium goes to Indore as well. 

20.675. (Chairman.) Tou say that Es. 10,36,000 is 
distributed amongst the agriculturists of the State; 
how do you arrive at that figure ? — The agriculturists 
pay customs duty on so many chests, and if the value 
be calculated on these 2,800 chests at the bazaar 
market price, it comes up to that figure. 

20.676. (Sir J. Lyall.) You have taken the market 
price at Es. 370 and multiplied that by 2,800?— Tes. 

20.677. (Mr. Wilson.) Tou say that the stocks of opium 
in Patan on the 14th of December 1893 wore worth 
Es. 22,62,000; is that two years crops, or how do you 
reckon it ? — That does not show the produce for one 
year or two years. The Raja made inquiry, and all 
the traders had to give just the quantity they had. 
The totals of the different quantities given by the 
diflierent traders comes to that amount. 



The witness withdrew. 



(Mr. Mowebay here took the Chair during the remainder of the proceedings.) 



llao iBaliadur 
Apji Amar 
Singh. 
{Kotah State.) 



Eao Bahadub Apji Amar Singh called 

20.678. (dhairman.) I believe you are a Member of 
Council of the Kotah State? — Yes. 

20.679. Are you a Jagirdar p — Yes. 

20.680. Will you kindlj' give us an account of the 
poppy cultivation in Kotah p — The average number of 
acres under poppy cultivation in Kotah during last five 
years amounts to 50,000 bighas or 22,765 acres. The 
Khalsa area is known from the revenue records. The 
Jagirdars alienated area I calculate from the returns 
submitted by them and by appraisement from my own 
personal kiiu\vledge. The out-turn of opium is about 
6,2(50 maunds. The calculation is made at the average 
rate of 6 seers a bigha, or 11 seers an acre. 

There is no crop that can compare with opium, but 
in opium lands, sugar-cane, barley, wheat, cotton, 
" j^Tungphali " (pignut), " Kasum " (safflower), land 
Indian corn can be grown. Gram and Jowar (millet) 
arc not grown on opium lands. JNIillet is not sown 
because the opium fields are always close to the village 
site, where on account of the trees there are multitudes 
of birds who devour the crop. Uram, if sown, will bear 
no fruit. 

Sugar-cane will be irrigated. 

Barley ditto 

Wheat ditto 

Cotton will not be irrigated. 

" Mungphali " (pignut) will be irrigated. 

" Kasum " (safflower) will not be irrigated. 

Indian corn ditto 

Conse(|uenton the substitution oi the crops mentioned 
before for the poppy, there would be a diminution in 
revejiue demand of Rs. 3. 8a. a bigha, which on 50,000 
biglias would conic to Es. 175,000. 

20.681. Is there any difiiercnce between the rate for 
opium lands and non-o].iium lands ? — The rati_s for 
opium fields are higher than tliuse for oilier crops. 

2n,(;;8J. Is the dill'eionie between the rates on opium 
jands and other lands Rs. 3. 8a. a bigha P — If opium were 
to bu stopped the Eaj would luivo to keep the rates at 
Rs. 1. Sa. ; therefore the loss will be Rs. 3. 8a. The 
ftveragi' rate for irrigated land is Es. 6. 

-11,68:1. At present it is Rs. 5 ; if opium cultivation 
were stopped it i\ould ha\ e to be reduced to Rs. 1. 8a. ? 
—Yea. 



in and examined (through an Interpreter). 

20.684. That is how you estimate the loss at Es. 3. 8a. 
per bigha ? — Yes. 

20.685. If poppy cultivation is stopped will that 
necessitate a revision of irrigated rates p — Yes. 

20.686. How much do you estimate will be the cost of 
that revision .P— About Es. 10,000. 

20.687. If the production and export of opium were 
prohibited, at what amount would you calculate the 
loss to the Durbar P — If the production and export of 
opium be prohibited, there will be a loss to the Durbar 
of about Rs. 70,000 or Es. 75,000, even up to Es. 80,000, 
if we calculate on returns for a period preceding the last 
five years. During this latter period there has been 
much decrease in the opium trade owing to the hifh 
duty on opium levied by the Marwar State. If we 
calculate on those last five years then there will he a 
loss of about Es. 61,000 a year, but the calculation 
should be taken on a more extended period than these 
last five years. 

20.688. What is that loss on, is it loss on customs 
duty, or what p — Yes, customs duty. 

20.689. Do the Jagirdars levy any taxes on opium 
besides the custom duties of the Durbar p— The Jagir- 
dars levy taxes on opium styled " Mapa "' and " Bhoom " 
•' Mapa " is a kind of weighing tax on all opium (and 
other produce) sold in the Jagir. All Jagirdars and 
owners of alienated land levy this tax, "Mapa" I 
cannot say definitely what loss other Jagirdars would 
sufllcr if ni.ium .-cased to pay "Mapa," but I can 
answer for 7ny o^i-n .lagir. 1 should lose a,bout Es. 200 
a year m my five villages on opium " Mapa" alone. 

20.690. Does the Durbar levy " Mapa " and "Bhoom " ? 
— " Bhoom" is an ancient tax which certain Jagirdars 
were entitled to levy on goods passing through their 
Jiigb'. All owners of alienated l.ind cannot li'\y it 
Only those who are eutitleil to do so from iinrimt times 
cm le\ y it ; I levy "Bhoom." If opium no longer was 
iin ;irticlo of commerce I should lose iiliont Rs 250 a 
year " Bhoom" that upiiim alone lirin"s in ■' Maria" 
and" Bhoom" ;av ;ilsn l,,vi,.d by the Durbar or State 
Itself The income on this hi;iid will be about E' 
10.001.1 i. yciirto the State in resp.xt to opium alone 
At a rough mlculation I 4ioukl sav that the l.i^s to 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



31 



Jagirdars and holders of alienated lands would 1k' about 
Ks. 5,000 a year in respect to " Mapa " and " Bhoom " 
levied on opium. 

20.691. Do the Jagirdars levy customs ?— The Jagir- 
dars levy no cnstfims duty, except the Kotris (petty 
States) which iin; eight in number. 

20.692. Would there be any possibility of revising the 
customs tariii, and putting a tax on other articles P — 
In my opinion there would be no use to revise the 
customs tariff. There is no article of commerce that 
would take the place of opium on which any customs 
due conld be levied. If customs dues were levied or 
increased on any produce other than opium it would 
tend to discourage the growth of that produce. 

20.693. Is there any excise in Kotah ? — There is only 
excise for abjcari, — liquor. 

20.694. There is no excise upon opium P — No ; there 
is neither any excise upon opium, nor upon any pre- 
paration of opium. 

20.695. Have you made any calculations with regard 
to the profits made by cultivators out of opium com- 
pared with other crops P — Yes. If opium is grown, 
there is an average yield of 5 seers a bigha, which, 
taking the price at an average of Rs. 4 a seer, would be 
worth Es. 20, then there would bo 2J maunds of seed 
produced worth Rs. 7 8a. Generally cultivators also 
grow Indian corn as a preliminary crop to opium. 
After they have prepared the field for opium, the yield 
of Indian corn would be about 6 maunds of seed worth 
in all about Rs. 5. The total value of the crops would 
then be Rs. 32 8a. The cost of cultivation per bigha 
would be : — 







Rs. 


a. 


P- 


("Indian corn seed 


- 





2 





Indian 2 weedings at 0-2-0 







4 





Corn. 1 digging - 


- 





4 





Ls months' watching 


- 





6 





Ploughing the land for opium 


seven 








times, at 0-2-0 


. 





14 





Cost of rope and leather bucket for 








watering 


- 





9 


6 


4 weedings at 0-2-0 







8 





2 diggings at 4 annas 


. 





8 





Manure 


- 





8 





Pricking and gathering milk 







12 





W atohing for 20 days 


- 





2 


6 


Seed 


- 








6 


Ploughman's share 


- 


2 








Making beds for plants 


- 





2 









7 





6 


Revenue demand 


- 


5 








Total cost 


. 


12 





6 


Net profit to cultivator 


20 


7 


6 



Rs 


a. 


P- 


1 


4 





5 








1 








1 


8 





4 








12 








3 








2 








3 









If sugar-cane is grown, we may fairly estimate an 
average crop as yielding 12 maunds of " Gur " 
(molasses) per bigha, worth Rs. 72, at Rs. 6 a maund ; 
the cost of cultivation per bigha is :— 

10 ploughingB, at 0-2-0 

Seed (2,500 cuttings) 

Fencing - - - 

Rope and bucket for watering 

Irrigation for four winter months 

12 waterings in four hot months • 

6 diggings, light, at 0-8-0 

2 deep diggings, at Rs. X 

Watering for 8 months 

Hire of large iron pan for boiling 
juice - - - ,. 

Preparation of sugar mill for extract- 
ing juice - . - . 

Hire of bullocks and man to drive 
mill, at 0-8-0 a day for 10 days 

Man to feed mill 

Man to hand cane to above 

Cutter of sugar-cane 

Man to stir juice 

4 women to remove leaves from 

sugar- cane- 
Stoker of furnace 

Fuel, - - - - - 

4 cloths to bind sugar in 



10 
2 



5 








1 


8 





1 


4 





1 


4 





1 


4 





2 


8 





1 


4 





2 











4 






2 years' revenue demand 



67 
- 10 



67 



Net profit to cultivator Rs. .'J a bigha in two years. 
Barley would yield about 6 maunds a bigha, worth 
about Rs. 6. The cost of cultivation would bo : — 

Rs. a. p. 



Ti ploughiugs 

Seed 

3 waterings 

Rope and bucket for watering 

Ploughman's share 



Revenue demand 



10 

12 
6 
G 
9 



Hao Bahadur 

Apjc Amar 

Singh. 

{Kotah Siatr,.') 

31 Jan. 18:)4. 



Rs. a. 


P- 


10 





14 





12 





9 





6 





6 





3 9 





5 





8 9 






Rs. a. 


P- 


10 





1 


6 


6 





1 8 





12 





1 8 





4 13 


6 


1 8 





6 5 


6 


2 10 


6 



2 11 C 

5 

7 1 10 



If revenue demand is reduced toRs. 1 8a., then the 
cost comes to Rs. 4 3a., leaving a net profit of Rs. 1 13a. 
Wheat would yield 3 maunds a bigha, worth Rs. 4 8a., 
at Rs. 18 a. a maund. Cost of cultivation : — 



5 ploughings, at 0-2-0 
Seed 

Watching 
Ploughman's share 
Rope and bucket 
3 waterings 



Revenue demand 



Loss to cultivator, Rs. 4 la. 

If revenue demand is only Rs. 1 8a., then the cost 
comes to Rs. 6. la., leaving aloss to cultivators of 9 annas. 
Cotton will yield 3 maunds worth Rs. 9. Cost of 
cultivation : — 



5 ploughings 
Seed - 
3 weedings 
Gathering cotton 
Watching - - - 
Ploughman's share 

Add revenue demand 

Profit to cultivator - 



Cotton, however, could not be grown the next year in 
that field. 

" Mungphali " (pignut) will yield 12 maunds in a 
bigha, worth Rs. 16. Cost of cultivation : — 

Rs. a. p. 
4 ploughings 

Seed 

Weeding and digging 

2 waterings 

Watching (pigs give great trouble) 

Digging up nuts 



Revenue demand 



Profit to cultivator 

Kasum (safaower) will yield 4 maunds in a bigha, 
which when dry will weigh only a maund, worth Rs. 10 
and Re. 1 seed; total Rs. 11. Cost of cultivation -.— 

Rs. a. p. 
4 ploughings 
Seed 

Weeding and digging 
Watching 
For picking the flower 



Revenue demand 



If revenue demand is taken at Rs. l-8a., then the profit 
to cultivator is Rs. 3 5a., otherwise he is a loser on 
the crop to the extent of 3 annas a bigha. Safflower is 
not much grown here, as it does not produce a good 
It is imported asarnle. 

20,696. In estimating the cost of cultivation, have 
you estimated for hired labour, or for a family working 
+viT. tVieiTiRfilvpR !"— In estimatinfc the cost of cultivation 



- 


8 





1 


8 





- 1 








- 1 








2 








- 2 


4 





8 


4 





5 








13 


4 





. 2 


12 









8 








3 








8 





1 








4 








6 


3 





r, 








n 


3 






for themselves ?— In estimatmg i 



1^ .} 



82 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Rao Bahadur 

Apji Aiiuir 

Singh. 

{Kotak State.) 



above the actutil cost that •would be incurred in each 
case it' labour were employed and ])aid for, has been 
givcu. Where the oukivator and his I'aniily themselves 
perform the field work, or some ol: it, of course the 
cultivator would save that part of the cost, -whether with 
31 Jan. 1894. regard to opium or any other crop, and would gain that 
■ much extra profit. 

20.697. Do you consider that there would be any 
other loss to the people of Kotali if poppy cultivation 
were stopped?— If poppy cultivation was stopped, most 
certainly there would be a loss in credit. I can see no 
way of maintaining it. Money-lenders advance thou- 
sands of iTipees on the security of the opium crop alone. 
I am not an opium merchant, but about 100 maunds of 
opium are annually produced in my Jagir, the value of 
which iit 4 rupees a seer is worth Ka. 16,000. This 
would be the price in the village. I bring it to Kotah 
and sell it here, where it fetches Rs. 20,000. If I 
cannot sell it I make it into cakes and keep it, and by 
that means I shall obtain a larger profit. I have now 
about 30 or 32 maunds by me now. 

20.698. Can you give us any information with regard 
to the consumption of opium in your part of Rajputana ? 
— Opium is taken in a dry form and in a diluted form. 
Some take it in pills, some mix spices with it. No one 
smokes it. It is not the custom here. If any Rajput 
were to smoke it, he would be outcasted. Men, women, 
and children alike take opium. About 75 or 80 per 
cent, of the men take opium, about 50 per cent, of the 
women take it. All the children are given it up to 
about five years of age. Adults begin to take it again 
from 25 to 30 years of age. I know of no one who takes 
it to excess. Opium is taken twice a day as a rule. 
The usual quantity is about two rattis at a time. I take 
one ratti only once a day. I have taken it for the last 
25 years. I took it at first to get rid of intermittent 
fever which would not leave me. The fever left me 
after I had taken opium for about a twelvemonth. 
Since then I have never left it off. It is absolutely 
necessary to take opium at betrothals, at weddings, 
birthdays, big festivals, and other occasions of rejoicing. 
Without opium a betrothal is not considered binding. 
This is a very old custom, not a new custom at all. 
People to whom it is offered are considered bound to 
take it. If a man does not get his opium dose he is 
rendei'ed useless. After a man takes opium strength 
comes to his hands and feet. It gives him an appetite, 
and he can talk well ; that is to say, it gives vigour to 
the body and makes the heart cheerful, and improves 
the intellect. 



20,691*. Have you any wish to see the custom of 
taking opium interfered with in Rajputana? — Our 
ancient customs would be greatly interlered with that 
have been handed down from our forefathers, our 
habits would be interfered with, and hundreds of men 
Wf;uld be in danger of death if they were not able to 
get opium, and bodily health would be lost. We do 
not smoke it as the Chinese do. Smoking opium, no 
doubt, may be injurious to health. Whether it is so or 
not I do not know. If the Commission wish to stop 
Chinamen from smoking opium, pray do so ; but why 
stop us from eating opium from which we derive so 
much benefit, and which is with us such an old custom ? 

20.700. {Mr. Wilson.) You have said that your cal- 
culation is made at the rate of 5 seers a bigha, or 11 
seers an acre ; is that quite correct ? — It is quite 
correct. It is really less than it ought to have been. 
I have taken an average. 

20.701. Is that the right proportion — Rs. 5 for a 
bigha and lis. 11 for an acre ? — Yes, it is right. 

20.702. You have also stated that 75 or 80 per cent, 
of the men take opium. I should like to know whether 
those who do not take opium have not intellects so 
bright ? Why should not their intellects be as bright 
without it ? — I do not mean that nobody else but the 
opium-eater has his intellect brightened. 

20.703. With reference to the tables you have given 
us how many annas a day is reckoned foi- the labourers P 
— To every strong labourer 2 annas a day is paid, to 
women 1 anna ; and 1 annas is paid to those who 
incise the poppy because it is skilled labour. 

20.704. Is it correct that watching for 20 days would 
only cost 2a. 6p. ? — That is the average for one bigha 
of poppy land. 

20.705. Then I suppose one man would watch a great 
many bighas ? — Yes ; he can watch four bighas. 

20.706. That would be about half an anna a day for 
the man's wages p — A child or woman can do the work. 

No strength is required. One has him ply to throw a 
stone to send away the birds that come. 

20.707. You put down Indian corn seed at 2 annas. 
Is it correct that you can buy enough Indian corn for 2 
annas to sow a bigha of land ? — Yes ; it is sown very 
distantly, not close together ; it is sown at intervals of 
2 feet. 



The witness withdrew. 



Chaube 

JRaghunalh 

Vass. 

{Kotah State.) 



Ohatjbe Raghunath Dass called in and examined. 



20.708. {Chairman.) I believe you are from Etawah in 
the North- Western Provinces, a Brahmin, Chaturbedi, 
age 45 and Superintendent of Revenue of the Kotah 
State?— Yes. 

20.709. You have given us the average number of 
acres under poppy cultivation as 22,765 and the out- 
turn of opium as 6,260 maunds ? — Yes. 

20.710. Can you tell us on what you have based the 
out-turn per bigha ? — Although the out-turn per bigha 
or per acre varies not only in different localities, but 
also in different fields of the same locality from four to 
12 seers per bigha, we have for all practical purposes 
fixed it at an average of not more than five seers a 
bigha or 11 seers an acre. Calculating at this rate 
22,765 acres would yield the quantity of opium stated 
before. 

20.711. Supposing poppy cultivation were to be pro- 
hibited, have you any suggestions to make as to what 
crops might take its place .^ — Considering the great 
and diverse advantages of poppy cultivation from a 
pecuniary as well as an economical point of view, it is 
almost impossible to suggest an eflioient substitute for 
poppy, but if it must be given up, the only crops that 
seem likely to take its place, if indeed tbey can ever do 
so, are sugar-cane, cotton, wheat, and barley. Sugar- 
cane is a wet crop, but is costly in cultivation, and 
demands a sustained labour and continuous employ- 
ment for more than a year. The land is prepared in 
the rains, say, August and following months, the cane 
is sown in January, it is harvested in February of the 
following year. So it really takes two years to grow, 
hence to the majority of cultivators it is prohibitive. 
It is further liable to disease and its out-turn is un- 



certain. Cotton. — Unirrigated or in some cases slightly 
irrigated, would if it escaped frost and disease yield a 
good crop the first year, but a very poor one, if at all, 
the second year. Because an exhausting crop like 
cotton takes so much out of the soil that it must lie 
fallow for a year before anything could be grown in it. 
Wheat in this soil, if irrigated, is most liable to the 
disease called rust. If unirrigated.it would burn up 
tlie incessant manuring of the opium land for very 
many years past rendering it too strong for the plant 
to grow and thrive thereon without water. Barley is 
not a paying crop as it is so cheap. The average irri- 
gated (peewat) rates are taken at Rs. 5 a bigha or 
about Rs. 11 an acre, the dry rates at Rs. 1 8a. a 
bigha or Rs. 3 4a. an acre. The land revenue at these 
irrigated rates on 50,000 bighas or 22,765 acres is 
Rs. 2,50,000, while at dry rates it will be no more than 
Rs. 75,000. Since it would bo hardly possible to levy 
more than Rs. 1 8a. a bigha from the land now under \ 
poppy when in all probability cotton or wheat would be 
grown thereon, the result of the substitution would be I 
a clear loss of Rs. 1,75,000 to the State, and that directly 
in the land revenue alone. 

20.712. Do you agree with the last witness that the 
stopping of the poppy cultivation would necessittite a 
revision of the irrigated rates and that that would cost 
about Rs. 9,000 P— Yes. 

20.713. I believe you have prepared a statement of 
the details of the expenditure, making np the Rs. 9,000 ? 
— Yes. The loss in revenue will amount toRs. 1,75,000. 
The revision of the rates would cost about Rs, 9,000 in 
the preparation of revised village papers and records. 
The expenditure would be : — 



MINUTER OB* EVIDENCE. 



33 



(1.) Preparation of the statement 
for every village of the 
revised rates for the now 
irrigated area comprising 
1,68,000 fields - 

(2.) Three fair copies of the 
above statements, one in 
Urda and two in local 
Hindi characters - 

(3.) Paper and stationery 

(4.) A Mnnsarim to examine the 
records thus prepared, 
both original and copies 
for one year 

(5.) Binding of records - 

Total 

Or in round numbers - 



Rs. a. p. 



2,500 



5,000 
900 



360 

200 

8,960 

9,000 



20,714. Ton have also made calculations as to the 
relative profit on the growth of opium and of other 
crops P — We have fixed the produce of opium at 5 
seers the bigha. 

Rs. a. p. 
This at the rate of Es. 3. 8a. a seer, the 
present market rate (and mind this is 
the lowest) is worth - - 17 8 

Poppy seed 2J maunds at Rs. 3 a 

maund - - - 7 8 

Sale of poppy heads and dry leaves 2 

Total - - 27 



Expense of Cultivation. 

Opium land is ploughed 9 times at 

2 annas a ploughing, this cost - 

Manure 8 or 10 cartloads - 
Three weedings and 2 diggings 
The land is watered 7 times 
Extraction of juice ... 
Watching and miscellaneous 14 

7 
Revenue demand - - 5 

Grand total - 12 

To the cultivator the net gain is thus Rs.l5 a bigha, 
but considering that almost the whole manual labour in 
the above-mentioned operations is performed by himself 
and his.family, and the bullocks that draw water out of 
the well for the opium land serve as well for his entire 
holding, which consists, besides the iiTigated tract, of 
other lands under different crops, he will be saved the 
cost of cultivation and so his profits come to about 
Rs. 22 a bigha or about Rs. 48 an acre. In addition 
to poppy the cultivator generally grows with it other 
wet crops such as "zira" (cummin seed), "dania" 
(coriander) and vegetables which give him another 
Rs. 3, and when it is remembered that in most places 
poppy is usually preceded by a crop of Indian corn 
(maize), and this after paying his expenses gives him 
another 4 rupees in money or kind, his aggregate 
profits virtually amount to Rg. 29 a bigha, or about 
Bs. 65 an acre. 

Now as to substitutes — 

Sugar-cane. — For reasons already given very few culti- 
vators would grow sugar-cane, but supposing some do 
the out-turn at the highest would be 10 maunds of 
" g^r " (molasses) worth Rs. 6 a maund or Rs. 60 in all. 

Ea^enses of cultivating Sugar-cane. 

Seed - 

rive ploughings (deep) 

Manure 

10 or 12 weedings - 

10 or 12 waterings 

Extracting juice, &c. 

Land revenue for two years 

Total cost - 37 4 
Profit - - 22 12 

Divided between two years comes to 1 1 6 

If we cultivate cotton in place of poppy it would not 
grow well in a good many places and would generally 
yield 3 maunds, but I would take the highest average 

O 82588. 



Rs. 


a. 


p- 


5 








1 


4 





1 








3 








12 








5 








10 









and put the nut-turn at 5 maunds a bigha 
rate of Rs. 3 a maund will give Rs. 15. 

Expenses of cultivation would be as follows 

Rs 
Seed - 

Three weedings - - - 2 

Picking cotton - - - 1 

Watering - - 1 

Manuriilg - - - 1 

Ploughing - - - - 



rhis 


at the 


s :— 
:. a. 


P- 


6 





























8 






Chaube 

Haghunath 

Doss. 

{Kotah State.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



Land revenue 



Profit 



Total 



Grand total 



6 14 
5 






10 14 
4 2 







Supposing, as in the case of opium, that almost all 
the labour involved cost the cultivator nothing in hard 
cash, he will be able to gain Rs. 10 a bigha, but the next 
year the land will lie fallow, and yet the cultivator will 
have to pay revenue thereon, leaving him only Rs. 5 a 
bigha profit. Even if we calculate that there has been 
a revision of settlement and that the revenue payable is 
only Rs. 1 811. instead of Rs. 5, this will give him a profit 
of only Rs. 12 a bigha in two years. 

Take wheat as a substitute for opium. The produce is 
generally 4 maunds a bigha, but even placing it at the 
highest figure of 6 maunds, the price of the produce at 
Rs. 1 8a. a maund would be Rs. 9. Out of this revenue 
demand would have to be paid Rs. 5. 



Ooat of Gwltivation 



Rs. a. 


P- 


1 





1 2 





8 





2 10 






Six ploughings 
Seed (25 seers) 
Watering 



including land revenue is Rs. 7 10a. Profit to the 
cultivator Rs. 1 6a., or not taking the manual labour of 
the cultivator and his family into account his profit 
would be Rs. 2 14a. a bigha. 

A comparison of the profits of the crops given above 
will show that whereas opium gives Rs. 29 a bigha, 
cotton gives only Rs. 6, and wheat at the highest 
Rs. 2. 14a., and sugar-cane Rs. 11 6a. 

20.715. Besides the loss to the cultivators, are you 
of opinion that there would be a loss to any other 
sections of the popnlation if poppy cultivation were 
stopped? — If poppy cultivation is stopped there will 
be not onlj' a. loss but a serious loss in credit. Prom 
what I have so long seen no money-lender, I think, 
would like to run the risk of advancing money on the 
uncertain security of a grain crop. Opium is the 
backbone not only of the credit of the cultivator, but 
also of that of his village money-lender who in turn 
borrows money from bankers essentially on the security 
of opium. It will be very difficult to revive credit at 
least for some years to come if the cultivation and 
sale of opium be stopped, meanwhile it will entail great 
hardship if not misery on the population at large. 

20.716. {Mr. Fanshaive.) Have you been long in this 
province ? — Tes. I have been in this province for the 
last 17 years. 

20.717. Is the habit of opium-eating in moderation 
general among the inhabitants of Kotah ? — Yes. 

20.718. What is your opinion as to its effects upon 
the health and morals of the people ? — Generally 
speaking, I do not think they have sufl^ered from the 
use of opium. It is suited to the climate. The ma- 
jority of the people take opium without injurious effects 
as you have heard from other witnesses. 

20.719. That is your opinion too ? — Tes. 

20.720. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) I suppose the ma- 
jority of these people take it not for pleasure, but when 
they get ill or for some pain or disease and afterwards 
it becomes a habit P— Generally that is so. There are 
exceptions but they are very few. 

20.721. The generality of the people you think take 
opium to cure disease or pain ? — It is sometimes given 
from childhood after a child is 10 or 12 days old. It 
is given up to the age of five years .lud in some cases 
say up to eight years. It becomes their mother's milk. 

k0,722. Then the children give up taking it ? — Yes. 
they give it up. 



u 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Chavbe 

Jiaghunath 

Uxss 

{Kotah State.) 

31 Jan. 1894. 



20,723. In timo they sometimos contract the habit of 
taking it themselves ? — In some instances it is disease 
which compelled people to take to the habit. 



20,724. Of course, opium taken in excess is really 
injurious ? — Decidedly it is. 

The witness withdrew 



20,725. (CJiuirman.) It is also taken largely as a 
national custom and on ceremonial occasions ? — Yes, it 
is taken on those occasions among Kajputs and those 
who are accustomed to Bajpnt customs. There are a 
good many other castes that follow Rajput customs on 
all occasions. 



Sirdar Mull. 
{Kotah State.) 



SiEDAE Mull called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.726. (Ghairman.) You are a Mahajan and Oswal, 
42 years of age and agent of Rajroop Hunsraj of 
Kotah ? — Yes. 

20.727. What would the effect upon your business be 
if the production and export of opium be stopped ? — If 
the production and export of opium were stopped I 
shoald suffer great loss. For the last 100 years my firm 
has dealt in opium and transactions connected with the 
cultivation and manufacture of opium. 1 have about 
3 lakhs of rupees worth of opium now stored in my 
godowns. About 700 or 800 maunds of opium are 
manufactured by my firm every year. The profit on 
this opium is on an average about Rs. 40 a maund 
which gives an average profit of from Rs. 28,000 to 
Rs. 32,000. There are branches of my firm in the 
outlying districts of Kotah who deal directly with the 
cultivator in lending him money, so I not only lend the 
cultivator money but can obtain opium from him at a 
very favourable rate. About 6J lakhs of rupees out- 
standing is to be recovered from cultivators in the 
districts. The branches in the districts turn this 
money over as opportunity offers, lending money or 
buying opium with it. I also get about Rs. 5,000 or Rs. 
6,000 commission on buying and selling opium for other 
firms. I also get a saving on exchange by the sale of 
rnv opium in Bombay which obviates m}' having to 
purchase handis to pay for goods, &c., bought in 
Bombay. The gain on this account amounts to about 
Rs. 3,000 or Rs. 4,000 a year. Thus, if the production 
and export of opium were stopped I should lose 3 lakhs 
worth of opium stored. I should lose 6J lakhs advanced 
to cultivators in out districts. I should lose about Rs. 
30,000 profit yearly on manufacture of opium and Rs. 
5,000 or Rs. 6,000 on commission, besides Rs. 3,000 or 
Rs. 4,000 ill exchange. Total prime loss once and for 
all ru lakhs and yearly loss Rs. 38,000 to Rs. 40,000. I 
should lose my entire capital and my whole credit as a 
merchant would disappear. I should be ruined. I 
should lose 64 lakhs of rupees that is oat in the dis- 
tricts, besides this I should lose about Rs. 40,000 yearly 
profit I now get through the transactions of opium. 

20.728. Is all the opium out of which you make your 
profit exported to British India ? — It is exported to 
Bombay and into Marwar. I used to get a greater 
profit than I do now. It is only Rs. 40 a maund now. 

20.729. How is it that you get less profit now than 
you used to get ?— There is no demand in China for 
it. 

20.730. How much of your opium goes to Bombay and 
how much to Al arwar P — -Altogether I send away about 
800 chests, 400 to Bombay and 400 to Marwar. 

20.731. Your whole business is about 800 chests, 
about half of which goes to Bombay and half to 
Marwar P — Yes. 



20, 



732. Doss your firm make advances to cultivators 
for any other crops besides opium ? — They only give 
advances on opium, 
in Harauti. 



The grains are always very cheap 



20.733. Do you mean that the other crops are not good 
enough security for you to advance money upon ? — 
They are not a good security as opium. 

20.734. Besides merchants like yourself, are there any 
other classes of the community who would be affected 
if the cultivation of opium were prohibited ? — All the 
poorer classes who earn wages in connexion with the 
opium trade would lose those wages, such as persons 
employed in the manufacture of opium, guards, cart- 
men, carpenters, coolies, gunny bag makers, basket 
makers, collectors of dry poppy leaves, not to mention 
the cultivators who would be ruined altogether. It is 
through opium alone that they pay their revenue. 

20,735 (Mr. Fanshawe.) Is the habitual use of opium 
iu small or moderate quantities common among the 
people of your caste P — Some people take two rattis and 
some take four. They take it just as they like. 
It is a common habit among the people of my caste. 

20.736. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Are you a Jain? — 
Yes. 

20.737. Are there people also of your caste who do 
not take opium ? — Yes. 

-0,738. How many ? — 50 per cent. 

20.739. Males P — All taken together ; men and women 
50 per cent. 

20.740. Is the excessive use of opium injurious P — 
No. it is not injurious. Some take a rupee's weight. 

20.741. {Mr. Wilson.) Are you agent for your firm ? 
Are you the principal of the firm. What is your posi- 
Gion in the business ? — I am manager. 

20.742. When you speak about all these losses which 
you would incur, do you mean that you would incur 
them yourself, or that your firm would incur them p — I 
mean my firm. 

20.743. When you say "I should lose 6J lakhs of 
rupees," you do not mean yourself, but the people you 
manage for P — I am a representative of the firm. 

20.744. I suppose you are on a monthly salary? 

Yes. 

20.745. What do you mean by the term hundis ? — 
Bills of exchange. 

20.746. Are you a partner at all in the firm of which 
yon are manager p— No ; I have no share in the business, 
I am only manager. 

20.747. You come here to represent the interest of 
the firm ? — Yes. 



The witness withdrew. 



Karam 

Chand. 

{Kotah State.) 



Kakam Ohand called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.748. {Chairman.) I believe you are a trader of 
Barrau in Kotah P —Yes. 

20.749. What is your caste ? — I am a Khattri. 

20.750. What do you trade in principally p — In opium . 

20.751. If the opium trade were prohibited what 
would be the result upon your business P — If the opium 
trade were prohibited I should suffer great loss. I live 
by this trade. I buy annually about 200 maunds of opium 
milk, and manufactare at Barrau. I have now about 
200 maunds of manufactured opium in large cakes, and 
about 69 maunds manufactured opium in small cakes. 
This stock of opium is worth altogether Rs. 95,560. If 
the sale of opium is stopped I should lose this. My annual 
profit in dealing in opium comes to about 20,000, but, 
ot course, it depends on the prevailing price of opium. 
I should be entirely beggared if the trade in opium 
were stopped. I could not compensate myself by any 



other business. Other goods, such as grain, deteriorate ; 
opium improves by keeping. 

20.752. Do the members of your caste consume 
opium P — Yes. 

20.753. In what form?— They take it in dry pills. 
Some take one ratti, some two and some four rattig. 

20.754. Do they ever smoke opium P — No. 

20.755. Do you ever take opium yourself? — Yes I 
take it myself. I swallow pills. 

20.756. What dose do j-ou take P — I take it twice a 
day, three rattis at a time. 

20.757. How many years have you taken it ?— I have 
been taking it from my very childhood. 

20,7.58. About how many men in your caste take 
opium ?— About 15 per cent, and all the children up to 
five years of age take it. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



35 



20.759. Do any of the men of your caste take it to 
excess P — I know two or three men who do. 

20.760. Out of how many P— Out of about 700. 

20.761. Do yon yourself consider the use of opium 
to be beneficial P — Yes ; I think it is beneficial, 
because the climate of the country in which I live is 
cold. If I do not take opium I have pains in my knees 
and I feel a little cold. 

20.762. Can you give me any reason why Europeans in 
this country do not take opium P — Europeans eat many 
other hot things which the poor people in India cannot 
provide themselves with. Besides that the Hindu 
religion forbids thetu to take some things, such as meat 
and liquor. 

20.763. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Do the men of your caste 
who eat opium generally begin about the age of 35 or 



40 or do they begin at an earlier age P — Opium is given 
to children up to five years of age generally. ^V'hon 
they become boys and young men they give up eating 
opium ; but afterwards when they feel weak and feel 
cold, when they are about the age of 35, they generally 
take to the habit. 

20,764!. {Mr. Wilson.) Is it a good thing for young 
men who have no disease to take opium regularly ? — It 
is beneficial to them, too. 

20.765. Then why do not the other men of your caste 
take it P — Why should they take it when they are not 
suffering from any disease ? 

20.766. Do yon recommend young men who have no 
disease to take opium regularly P — I could not re- 
commend it. If they like to take it they may, but I 
would not recommend them to take it. 



The witness withdrew. 
Adjourned to to-morrow morning. 



At the Daulat Bagh, Ajmere. 



SIXTY-FIRST DAY. 



Thursday, 1st February 1894. 



Karam 
Chand, 

31 Jan. 1S9-1. 



PHESENT : 
The Right Hon. LORD BRASSEY, K.O.B., Ohaikman, pbesiding. 



Sir James B. Lyall, a.C.I.E., K.O.S.I. 
Sir William Roberts, M.D., P.R.S. 
Mr. R. a. 0. Mowbray, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fanshawe. 



Mr. Abthur Pease. 

Mr, Haridas Vehakidas Desai. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Prescott Hewett, O.I.E., Secretary. 



Colonel G. H. Trevor, O.S.I., called in and examined. 



20.767. (t'hairman.) You are Agent to the Governor- 
General, Rajputana P — "Ees. 

20.768. Will you give us a general view on the ques- 
tions submitted to this Commission ? — The information 
placed before the Commission by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Abbott renders it unnecessary for me to say more than 
a few words. It appears to me to show that any general 
prohibition of the use of opium in Rajputana, except 
for purely medicinal purposes, is wholly impracticable, 
and would lead to very serious discontent, even if the 
Government were able and willing to pay the enormous 
compensation estimated to the different classes that 
would be affected by such a measure. Supposing the 
Government desired to see the consumption of opium 
reduced, the utmost it could hope to achieve, in my 
opinion, would be gradually to induce native States to 
increase the price of the drug where it is considered 
too cheap. Restriction in this form is all that I con- 
sider possible or desirable at present. I do not think that 
the habit of indulging in opium to excess is nearly so 
prevalent as that of indulging in spirituous liquors to 
excess, and I doubt if it is as injurious to the community 
at large, while I feel sure that any sweeping and in- 
judicious attempt to place opium out nf the reach of those 
who have been accustomed to the use of it would lead to 
increased consumption of liquor or other more dan- 
gerous stimulants, such as ganja. So much evidence 
has been recorded on the point whether the sale of 
opium under the restrictions hitherto imposed is 
generally hurtful or beneficial, that my individual 
opinion can have no weight. During 36 years of resi- 
dence in India, and upwards of eight years iu Rajpu- 
tana, I have seen very few cases of persons who have 
been pointed out to me as physically shaken from con- 
suming opium. Had I been specially interested in 
tracing such cases, I should doubtless have seen more 
of them. What I can say most emphatically is, that 



any undue interference with opium, even in the loyal 
Rajput States, would be politically full of danger to 
British rule, and the influence hitherto exercised with 
beneficial results by the Government of India. By our 
treaties with the States we abstain from interfering 
with their internal administration, and we could not 
largely reduce their revenues from opium without 
trenching upon treaty rights, unless we were prepared 
to pay full compensation, which seems out of the ques- 
tion. I shall be happy to answer anj questions which 
the Opium Commission may think fit to ask me ; but 
after the full information set forth in Colonel Abbott's 
memorandum, I do not see that I need trespass upon 
their time by any further remarks. 

■20,769. Will you give us your general impression as 
to the effect of the use of opium in those parts of India 
with which you are acquainted ? Would you be inclined 
to say that it had been a serious cause of general moral 
and physical degradation P — I should say not generally, 
so far as I have seen. In Rajputana most people 
eat opium, or consume it in some form, and they 
are a specially healthy race. In Hyderabad, with which 
I am acquainted, they are Mahomedans, and I think 
more liquor was taken there than opium. The Nizam's 
Government never troubled their heads about it. There 
is a mixture of races there; they have not the hardy 
ph) .sique of the Rajputs, but I never heard that ascribed 
to opium. I believe that the immoderate use of opium 
is very hurtful indeed ; there is no dispute about that. 

20.770. Does the use of opium enter largely into the 
personal habits of the people in Rajputana ? — There is 
no doubt of it. 

20.771. Is it much connected with ceremonies and 
relig'ious observances ?— Yes, it enters into most of 
them. In former days the Rajputs, before going into 
battle, used to drink the stirrup cnp ; they considered 

E 2 



Col. G. H. 
Trevor, C.S.I. 

1 Feb. 1894; 



36 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Col. G. H. that it nerved thera to do anything, that it was a 
Trevor, C.S.I, stimulanc. 



1 Feb. 1894. 



20.772. Siich being the facts, how would you say that 
the prohibition of the use of opium, as the people of 
Kajputana have been accustomed to nse it, by outside 
pressure fi-om the British nutliorities would be re- 
garded p — I think it would tjc regarded with very 
serious discontent, and in time of trouble would strain 
to the utmost the loyalty of the States. 

20.773. To what extejit do you think we have the 
power to call upon the native States which you 
superintend, to deal with opium in the manner which 
has been proposed ? — I do not think we have the power, 
unless we used it as we did in the case of suttee, which 
was prohibited in Lord William Bentinck's time ; 
and in that case we should have to declare that it was 
a crime, and that the British G-overnment would not 
countenance it any longer. But there is this differ- 
ence between the two cases. When the British G-overn- 
ment prohibited suttee as a crime all the general 
opinion of the country was leading up to regard it in that 
light. Although there were a few instances afterwards, 
still the people wire prepared to welcome the prohibi- 
tion, and when it was la'd down by authority-. If the 
opium habit were stamped as a crime, and prohibited on 
that ground, it would be contrary to the general feeling 
of the people, I may mention that in the case of salt 
the G-overnment of India found it necessary to keep the 
monopoly. There was a good deal of salt in the States 
(there was a big lake here), and the Government com- 
pensated them largely for their rights. That was a 
matter of negotiation. 

20.774. Salt being a very important item in the 
revenue of the c-ountr}', it was necessary to deal with it 
on a comprehensive system throughout the length and 
breadth of India ? — It was. There was a very large 
compensation paid. 

20.775. {8ir J. Lyall.) By agreement P — By agree- 
ment. The case is not quite analogous. Nor is the 
prohibition of suttee as a crime, because there is this 
difference, that the whole sense of public opinion in 
the country was all converging in favour of the order 
which was issued. 

20.776. The justification of the interference of the 
British Government must, of course, depend upon 
the subject matter with which you have to deal? — 
Precisely. Of course, if it is treated as a question oT 
great Imperial importance, and the States are called 
upon to give way, that will be our justification. 

20.777. If the vital principles of morality or the 
maintenance of public brder were involved, in the 
interference, the vindication of it would be the im- 
morality to be suppressed, or the necessity for the 
maintenance of public order, but you would deprecate 
such interference unless the occasion were sufiioiently 
grave ? — Certainly. 

20.778. If we came in and interfered in a matter like 
this, it could only be by paying full compensation p — 
That would be the first preliminary. But even after 
paying compensation to the Durbars I do not see how 
they could prevent the consumption of opium. It would 
require a very large preventive establishment. That 
preventive establishment, I suppose, would be kept by 
the States, and by persons who would always be inclined 
to wink at any infractions of the rules laid down. 

20.779. In order to keep up the salt monopoly in 
British territory, we had had to maintain an enormous 
hedge or fence running a thousand miles across India, 
which was of a very vexatious nature, and it was with 
the object of getting rid of the necessity of keeping up 
that hedge and the preventive establishment which 
would watch the hedge, that we entered into negotia- 
tion with the States, was it notP — I believe it -was 
chieriy for that. No douljt the salt cordon was a great 
nuisance and led to a great deal of oppression. People 
felt that and were very glad to get rid of it. 

20.780. In order to get rid of it we really compensated 
the Slates concerned who had salt resources in their 
territory in an extremely liberal manner P — It was 
liberal on the whole. 

20.781. And we so induced them to agree? — Yes, we 
did it by agreement. 

20.782. Has there ever been, to your knowledge, any 
precedent for our asserting the right to interfere in an 
internal matter like the growth of a certain crop or the 
management of certain produce P — No, I know of no 
precedent. 



20,7;3. Is it not the case that the excise arrangements 
of many of the States in India, which joined the British 
territory, have been exceedingly troublesonie to our 
Oivn excise arrangements? — They are so very imperfect 
that they must necessarily be troublesome. They 
cannot guard sufliciently the passage of opium or any- 
thing that is contraband. Some of the larger and more 
civilised States have pretty good establishments, I 
believe. Still there have been constant complaints of 
opium being smuggled through, say Jeypore to the 
Punjab. 

20.784. We have had, I believe, ti tolerate the in- 
convenience caused thereby unless we could get the 
States, after argument and full consideration, to agree 
to modify their arrangements p— Quite so. We have 
not been able to prove the fact as far as I know, 
although it is generally believed. I merely mention 
that, because, I take it, their excise establishments are 
imperfect. It must be so for some years to come 
until they improve in their general administration. 

20.785. {Mr. Fanshawe.) In referring to the sup- 
pression of suttee, you recognise, of course, a very 
marked distinction between suttee considered by 
itself and the habit of consuming opium ?— I do. I 
stamp the one as a crime, and you must stamp the 
other as a crime before you can prohibit it. 

20.786. Wo could not, of course, stamp opium con- 
suming as a crime in the same sense as the other? — 
Certainly not. 

20.787. And any attempt to put down a general habit 
like opium-eating, if not in accordance with the 
general opinion of the people, would be ineffectual, as 
you believe P — I believe it would. 

20.788. That would be specially the case in a country 
like Bajputana? — Certainly. 

20.789. Will you give us your views as to whether 
the special use of opium among the Rajputs is attri- 
butable to their early military history — I think you 
rather suggested this ? — It certainly ia intimately con- 
nected with their early military history. All their 
great warriors took opium. It is stated by all their 
bards that they always drank the opium cup before 
going into action. On leave-taking there is the stirrup 
cup ; they always partake of this cup of opium. It is 
a social observance. 

20.790. Perhaps you have not studied the origin of 
the habit among the Rajputs? — I do not know how 
long it has existed. I never heard of a time when the 
Rajputs did not take opium. The Rajputs have a very 
ancient and shadowy history, and we do not know 
much about them until the last 700 or 800 years. 

20.791. (Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Has any State 
come forward to express its willingness to prohibit the 
growth of opium ? — No, certainly not. 

20.792. Would not that be the first thing to decide, 
whether the State was willing or not, and then go into 
the question of compensation ? — I think so I do not 
think any State would be willing. You could only do 
it by stamping opium-taking as a crime with which 
the Imperial Government was bound to interfere, 
unless it was done with a high, strong hand. 

20.793. You do not think the Government can use 
its official pressure on the State to prohibit the growth 
of opium ? — I do not think so. 

20.794. Then if the States are allowed to grow, 
would not it be an injustice not to allow their produce 
to go through British territory to other countries 
beyond India ?— I do not quite see that. If you think 
a thing is bad, you are not bound to give a passage 
through your territory. 

20,795 It is only a question of transit?— If you had 
made up your mind that it was positively spreading 
immorality, and that it was a thing to be put down 
with a strong hand, I do not see that you would bo 
bound to give a transit because you do not choose to 
interfere ivith the growth. 

20.796. Would not the States be at liberty in the 
same manner not to allow any traffic through their 
territory ?— They would be at liberty according to 
reason, I suppose. 

20.797. Would not the State be at liberty in the 
same -R'ay ?— Yes, I think so. I do not think we are 
bound to give transit. Supposing a thing was declared 
contraband, suppose a State chose to convey dynamite 
through British territory, I do not see that you are 
bound, because you do not choose to interfere with the 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



37 



production of the article, to givo it passage through 
British territory. That is a mere question of argu- 
ment. 

20.798. Take the case of Kutoh. Tormerly opium 
went through Kutoh, but we asked Kutch not to allow 
anything to go, under the impression that the British 
Government supplied opium as much as the State 
would require ? — -Yep. 

20.799. Then if one part of the treaty were can- 
celled ought not the other parts of the treaty to be 
cancelled also P— 1 think that would be fair. 

20.800. Then, of course, it would go through neutral 
territory in that way P — Yes, it would. 

20.801. You are of opinion that if the opium pro- 
duced is sent throngh British territory to a foreign 
country, Government cannot interfere or prohibit it P — 
I would not say that they cannot do it. 

20.802. The question is whether it would be a fair 
proceeding or in afcordance with the geneial policy of 
the British Government to prevent it getting to the sea P 
— I think it would be very unfair to prevent it getting 
through to the sea. 

20.803. {Chairman.) There are examples of agree- 
ment having been made with the native States pro- 
hibiting the export of excisable articles from such 
States into the British territories ; there are no similar 

• precedent for the prohibition of expoits from native 
States into foreign countries beyond the sea ? — There 
are not. 

20.804. {Mr. Mowbray.) Supposing the British 
Government in the last resort is entitled to prohibit 
the export of certain articles from native States into 
the British territory, I presume you would consider 
that that power could only be exercised in cases 
involving great moral issues P — It could only be 
justified in that way. I would say Imperial issues. 
Morality is a matter on which opinions always differ. 
I would rather say great Imperial issues — matters 
declared to be of the greatest concern to the Empire at 
large, obliging the Government to override till consi- 
derations which ordinarily as between individuals 
would be considered fair. 

20.805. And in yonr opinion, is the opium question 
of that character? — No, certainly not. 

20.806. Suppo-.ing that export were prohibited from 
the native States, would that involve a large increase 
in the preventive establishment of British India sur- 
rounding a native State ? — I thinlc it must — it stands 
to reason. 

20.807. Could you form any estimate with regard to 
the cost of the necessary preventive measures ? — -I 
could not indeed. It must be very large. 

20.808. {Mr. Wilson.) You have been asked some 
questions with reference to suttee ; can you tell me 
what was the method by which it was abolished or 
prohibited in the native States? — I only know 
generally. It is a very long time ago that the 
Govern or- General published a proclamation saying 
that anyone who was guilty of it would be deemed 
guilty of a crime, aid that the practice was to be put 
down. 

20.809. In the event of the practice being continued 
in a native State, what could the Government at that 
time have done ? — It co'ild not have done very much. 
But public opinion in the States supported the Govern- 
ment. The natives of India constantly groan under 
the pressure of old custom, and when authority comes 
in to prohibit it the most willing obedience is paid, 
because they have not to reckon with their old people 
who preach the Shastras at them, or with the Zenana. 
They are obliged to say it is " hukum," or an order of 
the Governlnent, and then the people cheerfully 
acquiesce. 

20.810. Was a communication sent to each of the 
native States intimating that the Government of India 
would henceforth regard it as a crime ? — I cannot tfll. 
I always understood that it was abolished by pro- 
clamation of the (iovernor-Geieral. 

30.811. {Sir J. Lyall.) I am not aware that the 
proclamation was applied to any but British territory ? 
— I think from time to time agreements were made 
with the native States as opportunities arose, and that 
pressure was brought to bear upon them gradually. 

20.812. {Mr. Wilson.) Can you give us any other 
illustrations in regard to matters of that kind, or in 



regard to similar matters in which we have exercised 
inttuence, or pressure, or compulsion in the way of 
interfering with the native States. I am anxious to 
ascertain what Lord Brassey has already put to you, 
the nature of our relations with the native States in 
regard to matters either of great or of small im- 
portance — whether it is anything more than a question 
of degree P — I can only say that by treaties we 
undertake to abstain from interference with internal 
administration. I cannot give you any illustrations of 
cases in which we have interfered. Of course, we have 
brought pressure to bear upon the States in getting 
agreements. We have pointed out what we considered 
the evil or the good of such and such a course. 

20.813. Can you tell us about the Age of Consent 
Bill P Have similar provisions been extended to the 
native States ? — No. 

20.814. Not in any way ?— Not that I know of. I 
know that the Rajputs passed some rules a short time 
ago for regulating the expenses at marriages and 
funerals, which were very burdensome to the people. 
They also went beyond that, and said that the marriage- 
able age of a boy should be 18, and of a girl 14. That 
was before the Age of (Jonsent Bill was passed. The 
infraction of those rules is not penal. Society has 
drawn up those rules for itself. 

20.815. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) The Age of Consent 
Act has no operation in the native States ? — The 
preamble says "British India." 

20.816. {Mr. Wilson.) Have any negotiations or pro- 
posals been made by the British authorities in India to 
the native States to induce them to enact any similar 
regulation? — Certainly not in Rajpntana. No 
reference has been made to me from any foreign 
Government. 

20.817. What has taken place in reference to Jeyporo 
in the matter of the age of consent ? — All I know is 
that while the Bill was under consideration the 
Maharaja sent a letter explaining the rules they had in 
Jeypore, and stating his opinion that the measure was 
a very necessary and judicious one, and that the Rajputs 
themselves had anticipated it by providing that a bride 
was not to be married before 14 years of age. 

20.818. {Chairman.) You cite that as an instance in 
which a step was taken which was commended by the 
Viceroy's Government, and adopted by certain States 
of their own free will p — It was never sent to them or 
commended to them ; they were left free. 

20.819. It was spontaneously done P — Yes, they had 
done it before. 

20.820. Then it would be more coirect to say that 
the British Government followed the Jeypore Govern- 
ment ? — They went beyond. The age of consent is 
fixed at 12 years, but the Maharaja said they had put it 
at 14. 

20.821. (Jlfr. Wilson.) Do I understand you that when 
the Maharaja of Jeypore knew what was going on about 
the Age of Consent Bill in British India he sponta- 
neously wrote intimating that they had already made 
regulations of a still more stringent character ? — As far 
as I know it was spontaneous. The first that I saw of 
it was in the papers of the Government of India. 

20.822. That they had already done it, and that it 
went beyond the provisions of the Age of Consent Bill ? 
—Yes. 

20.823. {8ir J. Lyall.) You are not sure that in 
Jeypore they have the force of law P — No, they were 
only social rules. 

20.824. {Mr. Wilson.) It was not done by authority, 
but by common consent among the people P — Yes, they 
pasped it. Of coarse the Darbars, the Maharajas, and 
the heads of States promulgate these rules, and tell 
their people they expect them to be followed. They are 
rules only applying to Rajputs. 

20.825. {Chairman.) The great point is that the 
action taken with regard to the Age of Consent Bill is 
no precedent of an edict going forth from the 
British Government to be applied to the native 
States against their consent? — Certainly not. As u, 
matter of fact nothing has been done with regard to the 
native States about the Age of Consent Bill since it was 
passed. The existing state of things is exactly as it was 
before the Bill was brought in. 

20,820. Have any steps been taken in any of the 
native States in Rajpntana similar to those taken in 
British India with reference to the prohibition of 

E 3 



Col. G. U. 
Trevor, C.S.l. 

1 Feb. 1894. 



38 



IND]AN OPIUM commission: 



Col. G. H. smoking chandu and inadaTc upon licensed premiacs 'i- 
Trevor, C.S.I. Mone that I know of. 



Veb. 1894. 



20,8-27. May we take it as a fact that the British 
G-overnment, or rather the old Company, made the 
export trade by its arrangement with China, and caused 
the development of the cultivation of dpi am in this part 
of the world by its Chinese policy ? — That I cannot tell 
you. Every Rajput is bound to take opium. It was to 
them what I suppose whisky is to the Scotchman. 

20.828. (Mr. Wilson.) iSir James Lyall has referred 
to the salt hedge; when was that abolished? — In the 
time of Lord Lytton and Sir John Strachey. 

20.829. A Question was put to you as to the effect of 
any attempt to put down opium-eating in the native 
States ; is it not possible to imagine that the British 
Government might desire to stop this export trade to 
China without in the least attempting to interfere with 
the habit of opium-eating in the native States ? — 
Certainly. 

20.830. Would the same objection which you have 
stated, and the same serious consequences which you 
have referred to, be likely to ensue in that case p — • 
Certainly not. I do not suppose that there is much 
opium grown in Eajputana that goes to China. 

20.831. (Sir J. Lyall.) I believe that nearly all the 
opium grown in Eajputana and Malwa does go to China ? 
— It is so in Malwa, but I am speaking of Eajputana. 
Two-thirds of the opium exported from Jeypore goes to 
Ujjain and Indore. When I asked the Council there 
what was the reason for it they could not tell me. I 
made further inquiries, and found that it was exported 
there because it is sold from thence as Malwa opium, 
that being considered a better article. 

20.832. Malwa is supposed to include Eajputana. 
Malwa opium is a trade term p — Then, of coarse, there 
would be this hardship — if you prohibited, you would 
stop the market for their opium, and take away the 
value of the crop. 

20.833. {Mr. Wilson.) Then we may draw a distinc- 
tion p— There is a distinction as to the degree of 
discontent which would be caused. 

20.834. Tou have said that we could not "largely " 
reduce their revenues. The question of right and 
wrong would scarcely depend on the amount, would it ? 
— I think so. The States do not haggle about small 
matters. A small thing you could manage by agree- 
ment, that is what I meant. Tou can induce them. I 
have myself recommended a State to increase its import 
dirty — to make opium a little dearer — and they have 
done it. But I could not do it. The G-overnment 
could say to a State, " You may not get quite so much 
' ' revenue, but do not you think that opium in your State 
" is too cheap P We think it would be a good thing if 
" you were to raise the duty a little." The State might 
say, " We should lose so much revenue " ; still, I think 
they would do it if the Government of India made a 
great point of it. 

20.835. Is the amount of transit duty payable on 
opium sent to Bombay secured by treaty ? — -No, not the 
amount ; the duty has varied at different times. 

20.836. So that if the British authority were desirous 
of reducing the amount of export, it might do it by 
raising that duty without negotiation p — Yes. 

20,837, 
Yes. 

20,838. You have given a very strong illustration in 
referring to dynamite. Suppose any of the native 
States established a dynamite factory, or anything of 
the kind, and desired to export the article to any 
foreign country which the British Government thought 
undesirable and leading to complications with the 
foreign country, I gather from you that you would 
consider that we had a perfect right to say " We will 



Although it might cause dissatisfaction ? — 



" not permit this dangerous stuH' to pass through this 
" territory at all," and we should have the right in an 
extreme case of positively refusing to jiermit it going 
over our ground on any lerms whatever P — I think so. 
We should be exercising the Imperial power in a ques- 
tion declared to be of the gravest emergency. 

20.839. Therefore it comes back to what Lord Brasscy 
put to you, that it was very much a question of degree, 
and of the opinion that we have of any particular trans- 
action or trade P— Yes. 

20.840. {Mr. Pease.) Do you know whether agreements 
were made in connexion with the salt in all the States 
that joined British territory P— It was only with those 
States where there was any salt produced. All the 
States did not produce salt of any value. 

20.841. What arc the producing States ?— .Jeypore, 
Kishengarh, Ulwar, and Bikanir ; there were salt in 
them. Jeypore and Jodhpore have the greatest supply 
in the Sambar lake. 

20.842. There are other States in the Eajputana 
agency besides those which adjoin the British terri- 
tory ? — Bhurtpore joins and there is salt there. 

2i3,843. {Chairman.) You have referred to the memo- 
randum of Colonel Abbott; have you seen it P — Yes. 

20.844. Are you acquainted with the reference that 
he makes to the claims put forward by the native 
States and the sums which they think they should be 
paid in compensation in case the cultivation, sale, and 
export of opium in the several States were prohibited? 
He stated that looking at the matter broadly he believed 
the sum named might be considered a not unreasonable 
sum. Do you concur in that opinion ? — It is a thing 
that I really cannot say anything about, because I have 
not been charged with the preparation of these statistics. 
I only saw the memorandum in the train on my way 
here a few minutes before I wrote the short note of my 
evidence. 

20.845. We can see, as a Commission, that Colonel 
Abbott's observation must be a true one, namely, that 
the only way of verifying all these claims would be to 
send a committee round, composed of the most com- 
petent seltloment officers of the several districts, to 
verify the statements on the spot P — I do not see how it 
can be done otherwise. 

20.846. I thought you might have a general im- 
pression on the subject ? — My general impression is 
that the compensation would be quite as large as the 
sum named by Colonel Abbott. In fact, I have thought 
from the first that it would be such a tremendous sum 
that Government could not look at it. 

20.847. Your impression would be that if not only the 
trade with other parts of British India but the trade 
with China were stopped and compensation not paid, it 
would cause very considerable discontent F — I am 
certain that it would. 

20,81-8. {Sir J. Lyall) You are aware that there 
was a trade in opium beyond the seas from what is now 
the Bombay coast before any Europeans came to India 'f 
— YeiJ, I have read that, but the extent of it I cannot 
say. 

20,849. To prohibit opium from passing through 
British territory to the tea would be to ruin an ancient 
and important industry and trade, I suppose ? — I should 
think it would. 

20,860. Have we not in the name of free trade and in 
common interest of the British territory and the native 
States of the Indian Empire always tried to induce the 
native Stale.? to abolish all customs duties and transit 
duties on the borders of their States ? — We have. 

20,851. Would it not be absolutely inconsistent with 
this long continued policy if we refused to let opium 
pass from those States to the sea p— Certainly, I think 
it would. 



Surgeon-Major 

A. Adanis, 

MB. 



The witness withdrew. 
Sukgeon-Major a. Adams, M.D., called in and examined. 



20,852. {Sir W. Boherts.) You are Officiating 
Eesidency Surgeon and Chief Medical Officer, Eajpu- 
tana? — I am. 

211,85^5. What opportunities have you had of studying 
the use of opium in Eajputana? — I have been over 
14 years in Eaj putana. 

20,'So4. What conclusions havo you come to P — It is 
largely used, and without detriment t5 the consumers 



when taken in moderation. I can recall very few ca^cs 
where it appeared to mo that the con.stitution had been 
undermined or life shortened by this driio-. 

2(1,855. Is opium a popular household remedy in 
Eajputana?— It is very popular where there are no 
dispensaries and the people have not medical aid Tt 
is the people's remedy for all their maladies, and 1^ 
absolutely essential as a household remedy, where tho 



MINUTES OP KVIDENCfi. 



39 



masses are so remotR from skilled medical aid. It is 
the beHti remedy for painful bowel diseases so common 
in this country ; it is the only thing they have got to 
alleyiate their sufferings from painful and spasmodic 
affections, rheumatisms, cougKs, asthma, and other ills. 
They use it both to cure and prevent malarial fevers, 
and it is a great prophylactic against many of the 
diseases common in tropical climates. It gives them 
powers of endurance, and when they are called upon to 
make an extra effort they make it under the influence 
of opium. It is their remedy against all kinds of hard- 
ships, cold, hunger, thirst, and fatigue. In a climate 
like' that of Hajputana, with extremes of temperature, 
it is commonly resorted to to dull the sensation of cold 
when night marches have to be undertaken, and it is 
used in the same way to keep off miasmatic influences 
when people have to remain in their fields all night to 
protect their crops or watch their cattle. Camel 
drivers who are exposed on long night marches resort 
to opium to keep them warm and to keep off malarial 
fever, and they perform long and fatiguing journeys 
under its intluenoe. These people are thinly clad, and 
would suffer terribly in the cold nights if they had not 
opium. Old people who have to make long and 
tiring marches in the sun do the last stages under the 
influence of opium, whereas, if they had not this stimu- 
lant, thoy would often have to lie by the roadside till 
they recovered from their exhausted condition, and 
some of them would never move on again. The above 
classes are not npium-eaters, and only resort to it under 
exceptional circumstances. It enables them to accom- 
plish what they could not do without it ; it stays their 
hunger and thirst, and it keeps oat the cold in a way 
that nothing else could do. 

20.856. These people you have mentioned eat opium P 
-^Thej' are the ordinary people of the desert. If a 
camel di'iver has to go a journey he talces a little 
opium. Perhaps he has no food, and he takes a little 
opium instead, especially if he has to go a long march. 
Those people do not, as a rule, become opium-eaters 
unless driven to it by some painful disease ; they are 
the hardest working and the hardiest .'n the land. 

20.857. What is your opinion as to the excessive 
eating of opiirm ? — Excess of opium iu the well fed is 
not attended with any serious degeneration for a long 
time, and people who can a9'ord s;ood food will consume 
the drug in enormous quantities for years. They 
generally look well nourished, they are mostly capable 
business men, good artisans or hard-working labourers, 
so long as they can get enough of the stimulant, which 
becomes a necessity for their digestion and life. They 
live to a good round old age, and most of them work to 
the last. 

20.858. What have you to say about the effect of 
opium on those who are insufiiciently fed? — The 
underfed who exceed in opium suffer more, and they 
become emaciated and diseased ; however, one does not 
often see such extreme cases in these parts. 

20.859. How would you compare the use of opium 
with the use of alcohol P— When compared with the 
drunkard the worst opium-eater is a respectable citizen, 
capable of earning his livelihood, and never a nuisance 
to his neighbours or a disgrace to his relations; nor 
does he degenerate mentally, physically, and morally, 
as the drunkard does, and his life is not shortened to 
the same extent by his excesses. 

20.860. What have you to say with regard to the 
proposals for the prohibition of the production or sale 
of opium ? — Any interference with the production or 
sale of opium, which would put it beyond the masses 
who depend upon it for so much of their comfort in 
life, would bo luuoh to b3 deprecated. Alcohol would 
undoubtedly be largely substituted for it ; the latter 
would confer little or none of the benefits derived from 
opium, and be attended with far greater evils when 
taken to excess. The degrading effects of the abuse of 
alcohol can be seen from time to time in this country, 
although not to the extent that it is visible at home ; 
however, this ia sufficient to make one rejoice that 
the people have a less degenerating and debasing 
stimulant. 

20.861. (Mr Pease.) Could yon give us any informa- 
tion 'as to how far the taking of opium is a general 
prpcticc among the labouring classes, male andfemalep 
—It is very largely taken by the people in the desert, 
especially on certain occasions, as when they want tm 
efibrt. They also take it for pleasure and in times of 
feasting, and so on. 



20.862. How far is it a general habitual practice 
among the labouring classes p — They take it very 
commonly ; all the villagers take it. 

20.863. Day by day all the year round ? — Not day by 
day. They take it when they have a cold or when they 
are exhausted, and as a sort of refreshment. 

20.864. Thoy do not take it regularly, but when they 
want to put forth some special exertion or for some 
ailment P — ^A great many use opium in that way in the 
western part of Rajputana. 

20.865. How far is it habitually used by the women ? 
— The men use it more than the women, but some of 
the women use it. 

20.866. In many places we have been told that it is 
the practice to take it habitually after 40 years of age, 
but not among the younger men; do you think tliat is 
the case in Rajputana P — The old people undoubtedly 
take it more. They often take it for asthma, colds, and 
coughs, and they get to take it regularly. 

20.867. I suppose those who take it habitually, 
morning and evening all the year round, are quite a 
minority of the population ? — It would be a minority 
of the population, but a great many of the old people 
take it regularly. Many others take it from time to 
time, whenever they require it, to keep out the wet, or 
whenever they have to b3 exposed. I have known many 
who used it in that way. 

20.868. Any general statement that it is a common 
practice for all the people of Rajputana to take opium 
habitually would be very far from the mark P — The 
whole population do not take it habitually, daily. 

20.869. {Sir J. Lyall.) The Rajputs are not the 
labouring classes. 

20.870. (Mr. Pease.) What would you say as to the 
practice of the middle and upper classes ? — A great 
many of the bania classes take it. They take it more 
than the Rajputs. A great many of them use it regularly, 
especially the older men. 

20.871. Could you give us a per-oentagep — I could 
not. 

20.872. Could you give us your impression as to how 
far it is the practice to take it habitually, say twice a 
day all the year round? — A great many of the old 
people take it among the Rajputs, among the bania 
and the labouring classes especially. 

20.873. Not the young people or the middle-aged ? — 
The young people do not take it as a rule, but it is 
almost invariably given to children in the western part 
of the Rajputana States, 

20.874. (Mr. Wilson.) Do you think it is a good thing 
for children ? — I have compared them with other 
children. I could not find that they suffered in any 
way from mal-nutrition or anything else. They seemed 
to be just as healthy. I do not consider they were any 
worse cr better. The mothers believe in it, and 
say they cannot get on without it, and the majority of 
them get it in these places. 

20.875. Are there any kind of statistics as to the 
number who take it? — Statistics of that kind are very 
scarce. 

20.876. What you tell us is your general impression 
rather than the result of statistical information ? — I 
am giving you my own experience of the people. I 
have not been able to collect absolute statistics. I 
have seen hundreds of children who have had opium 
regularly. 

20.877. Tou say it is a great prophylactic against 
many diseases ?— Yes, against dysenterj' and many of 
the bowel diseases which are common in this country. 

20.878. Have you any private practice ? — I have had 
a groat deal of practice ; I do not call it private ; it is 
among the people, dispensary and hospital practice. 

20.879. Do you recommend opium as a prophylactic — 
do yon prescribe it ?■ — I always prescribe it for bowel 
diseases, but many of them take it themselves as a 
medicine. 

20.880. Have you recommended it habitually as a 
prophylactic ? — When they have a bowel complaint or 
a chill I recommend a dose. 

20.881. Have you noticed a distinct difference be- 
tween the power of endurance of those who take opium 
and those who do not ? — The habitual consumer must 
have his opium, but the men I referred to are camel 
drivers who use it for the cold. They only use it 

E 4 



Surgeon-Major 
A. Adams, 

M.n. 

1 Feb. 1894. 



40 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



A. Adavift. 
M.D. 

1 Feb. 1894. 



Surgeon-Major occasionally -when they have to make a great eflort. 
I have ridden with a camel man myself -who only had 
light clothing on. I was wrapped up, but I felt cold and 
hungry. The man was able to attend and help me. 
That was after riding 80 miles on the camel, when I was 
fatigued and he appeared fresh. 

20.882. But they belong to a different race?— Yes, it 
suits them. 

20.883. Have you had any opportunities of observing 
whether any persons do not take it, and whether they 
suffer more comparatively ? — They suffer more from the 
cold certainly. I have st-en men taken out for shooting, 
tiger hunting, and bo on. They take a little opium, 
and have no food or water all day perhaps. 

20.884. Are there any who do not lake it? — I think 
they all take it under those circumstances. You find the 
Bhils sitting round, and they all take it at the same 
time. 

20.885. Is the practice so universal that you are un- 
able to institute a comparison as regards endurance 
between those who do take it and those who do not ? — 
It would be difficult to do so unless one had an 
opportunity of making experiments. 

20,b86. The natives themselves believe in it to that 
extent under these circumstances ? — They believe it is 
useful, and they certainly do not suffer from hunger 
and cold, as they otherwise would. 

20.887. Are there any persons who do not take it? — 
Yes, there are many people who do not take opium. 

20.888. Do they suffer more than the other persons ? 
—They feel the hunger and cold more, I am certain of 
that. 

20.889. You have referred to the use of opium at 
ceremonies, and so on. What (juantity will a person 
consume on those occasions.'' — It depends on whether 
thoy are accustomed to the use of opium in large 
quantities or not. Those who take it regularly and 
habitual!}" will consume much more if they go to a 
friend to be entertained than those who are not in the 
habit of taking opium. 

20.890. What forui is it generally taken in ? — It is 
handed round as opium water, as a rule. 

20.891. Dissolved? — Yes, they take it either that way 
or in the dry condition. 

20.892. Is it already cut up, or does each man help 
himself? — It is passed round. They drink with each 
other, among the caste people. 

20.893. When it is passed round what form is it in H 
Is it in small quantities, or do people help themselves 
from a larger mass ? — People of the same caste will take 
it nltogether from a small box in that way. They are 
not very particular about it. They do not weigh it, as 
a rule. They are not afraid of taking too much. 

20.894. The box is passed round? — Yes. 

20.895. Like a snuffbox? — -Yes, I have seen them 
hand the box to each other. A little is given to a friend. 

20.896. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Among the Rajputs, and the 
banker or trader class, you say that opium is habitually 
taken to some extent. Are cases of excess common or 
not ? — It is difficult to say. Some take large quan- 
tities, but very few of them suffer, especially amongthe 
well fed. I could hardly find au3'oiie who had exceeded 
to any extent. It is quite different, however, when 
alcohol is consumed. 

'20,897. You say, therefore, that taking opium in 
excess is very rare ? — Yes. 

20,898. You referred to the Bhils. Is opium taking 
very common amongst them in Kajputana ? — Yes ; some 
of them use opium and some use drink. Opium is 
cheaper. A gentleman complained to me the other day. 
He said, " I shall have to entertain my friends with 
" alcohol, or drink, after this." 



20.899. Was that a Bhil P— No ; some Bhils use 
opium and some drink. 

20.900. The use in connexion with social customs 
and habits would be confined to Rajputs and allied 
castes, I suppose ?— The Bhils use it in the same way 
as well. It is cheaper than alcohol. 

20.901. {Sir W. Roberts.) I suppose you would divide 
the opium-eaters into those who use it for certain 
occasions, and those who use it habitually day by day ? 
—Yes. 

20.902. I suppose those who use it occasionally cover 
nearly the total population ? — iklost people use it 
occasionally, in the Western States especially. 

20.903. Among these camel drivers I suppose it is 
universal ?— It is practically universal. 

20.904. Mr. Wilson asked you whether those camel 
drivers who did not use opium, even occasionally, were 
able to accomplish their journeys as well as the other 
men who take opium on these occasions ? — They them- 
selves say they would suffer much more. TTiey take a 
little opium to keep them warm, and to keep them from 
feeling hungry when they go long journeys. It is 
difficult to institute a comparison. 

2U,905. Would they suffer more? — The man who 
takes opium suffers leas. He would not feel the cold, 
or hunger, or thirst. He would not suffer so much as 
the man who refrained. It is experience that teaches 
him that he derives benefit from it, and therefore he 
takes it. 

20.906. You said the practice of giving opium to 
children was very common ? — Yes. 

20.907. You also said you had not noticed that it 
affected their nutrition ? — I was unable to detect any 
difference whatever, the children are given it to keep 
them quiet, I think, in the first instance ; but now it 
is believed to be necessary by many mothers to help 
children over their teething, and its use has become 
general even among the well-to-do, who could afford 
to have their children nursed and looked aftei-. . They 
believe it to be the most potent remedy against the 
diarrhoea and convulsions of teething. 

20.908. Have j-ou seen accidents from the practice ? — 
I have not. 

20.909. You have heard of some, I suppose ? — Yes, but 
I have not seen anywhere a fatal dose has been given. 

20.910. You have seen manj^ hundreds of children in 
your time who have been given opium ? — Yes. 

20.911. (Jan you rail to mind any case amongst the 
well fed where opium did at length produce injurious 
results ? — I have not known life to be shortened by it, 
but I have known old men to die of diarrhoea, or some- 
thing of that sort. 

20.912. You think they have their lives indirectly 
shortened ? — I have known them to live to a good round 
old age. Of course the medicine is so much given for 
that in this country that it probably would not have so 
much effect. 

20.913. In the cjse of the under fed it is a, mixture 
of semi-starvation and opium ? — One hardly sees a case 
of that. They generally explain that they fake opium 
to excess for a cough, or cold, or rheumatism. They 
generally excuse themselves in that way. 

20.914. Do you think that opium used in malarial 
districts is a direct or indirect preventive as a pro- 
phylactic?— Malarial fever recurs very much from 
exposure. The people take it very much for exposure, 
when they have to take jute out of the water, or do any 
hard work, it keeps off the recurrent attacks of ague, 
brought on by exposure to the sun, or cold, or damp. 

20.915. It is a prophylactic in that sense ?— Yes, and 
the people believe in it to that extent. 



The witness withdrew. 



Bohra 

Meghbahan 

and Bohra 

Mattan Lai. 

(^Bundi State,) 



CoHRA Meghbahan, Prime iliuister of Bundi, and BoHBA. Rattan Lal, Member of Council 

and examined (through an Interpreter). 



Bundi, called in 



20.916. {Sir J. Lijnll, to Bohra Meghbahan). How 
long have you been Prime Minister? — Five years. 

20.917. And bow long in the service of the State ? — 
Five generations. 

20.918. You are a native of Bundi ? — Yes. 

20.919. {To Bohra Rattan Lal.) How long have you 
been a member of Council? — Five years. 



20.920. And how long in the service of the State ?— 
For the last 54 years. 

20.921. {To Bohra Meghbahan.) Will you give us 
your views on the subject which is before this Commis- 
sion ?— People cannot live in a healthy state on account 
of the insalubrity of the climate which will be caused to 
them without the consumption of opium. The chief 
aim of the State is the welfare of its suljjects, and so 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



41 



when tte peace and health of the subjects are disturbed, 
they both (State and its subjects) cannot bear the loss 
and acquiesce in the prohibition of poppy cultiva- 
tion and consumptioD of opium. In case of the people 
being forced to bear the loss, the ruin of ths country 
and insurrection is feared. Further, the State cannot 
make any separate arrangements for each man, so that 
he may be watched over and not allowed to consume 
opium. In the opinion of the State, the prohibition of 
opium, under the ground that it is prejudicial, and the 
enforcement of the rules regarding withdrawal from the 
consumption of opium by the Government, seems to be 
unadvisable, for the people cannot undergo such pressure 
because of the following reason. When even the dimi- 
nution in the usual dose of opium-eaters maljes them 
not only unfit for other works, but render them so 
weakly that they cannot discharge even their ordinary 
duties required for keeping up their bodies, then how 
is it possible that they may manage when the consump- 
tion of opium be totally prohibited, which will result in 
the loss of their lives. The opium-eaters do not become 
criminals, but now a full certainty of their determina- 
tion to turn bad characters on account of their being 
deprived of the use of opium is feared. If the Govern- 
ment of India prohibits the cultivation and use of 
opium by order, without giving any consideration i-o 
the objections now made, the State and its subjects 
have no option except to submit under protest, and they 
both will then in every way be entitled to compensation, 
though, in no way, can the bodily injuries to the people, 
which will lead to the loss of their lives and the ruin of 
the country, receive adequate compensation. In the 
event of the stoppage of the poppy cultivation an ad- 
ditional force of police will have to be recruited for the 
purpose of makine arrangements for prohibitiou. The 
expenditure that will have to be incurred by the Statu 
annually for this purpose is estimated to be Rs. 50,000 
(flftv thousand) according to following details :-*■ 



Pay of 800 policemea at Es. 4 per mensem 
,, 80 jemadars at Bs. 5 ,, - 

,, 4 inspectors at Rs. 30 ,, 

1 assistant superintendent at Rs. 60 
per mensem. 
Cost of office establishment - 
Miscellaneous expenses 



Es. 

38,400 

4,800 

1,440 

720 

3,600 
1,040 



Total 



- 50,000 



Owing to the insolvency and poorness caused to the 
cultivators by prohibition of poppy cultivation, a greater 
portion of land will remain uncultivated <Parat),a.a& 
the loss that will be entailed by the State in this case 
can now hardly be estimated. Up to this time Govern- 
ment has never interfered in the internal afl'airs of the 
State. The prohibition of opium will interfcte with the 
internal affairs of the State, and the Government has 
been in friendly connexion with this State up to the 
present time. I put in a statement showing the total 
amount of loss both to the State and its subjects. 

20,922. (To Bolira Rattan Lai) Will you tell us what 
you know as to poppy cultivation p— The average annual 
area under poppy cultivation for the past six years is 
1 ,871|* acres, and for the last 12 years i-; 5,1043^ acres. 
I'put in a statement* showing details. I have arrived 
at these figures by average appraisement, which is 
nearly accurate. With a view to submit statistics for 
opium to the political agency the information regarding 
thu area under poppy is from time to time ascertained 
from the Patwaris. The average out-tarn of opium for 
the past six years is maunds 371-10-5 chittaks, and that 
for the last 12 years is 1,007 maunds. For details, I 
submit statement.* The calculation is based on the 
information furnished by the Patwaris, no Jmswar 
account is kept in the office. If the cultivation of the 
poppy were prohibited, wheat barley, Indian-corn 
(maUka), gram, cotton, sugar-cane, and cummin seed 
would most likely take its place. I submit a state- 
ment* showing the profit to the cultivators and to the 
State on ore acre on the cultivation of the poppy and 
each of the crops replacing it. Another statement* gives 
details of the loss of Rs. 34,396-15-3 that will be done mthe 
land revenue realised from the cultivation of 1,871-|| 
acres the average annual area for the past six years and 
of the loss of Rs. 93,790-3-3, which will be done in the 
revenue realised from the cultivation of 5,10 I /^ acres, 
the average for the past 12 years. There is no commo- 
dity of so much value and importance as opium on 



Wot reprinted. 



which revenue rates be raised. Another table* shows 
the revenue rates. No rates can be raised to make up 
the loss in the revenue. The loss in the land revenue 
has been stated before. If rates are revised, in future a 
new survey and settlement will be necessary, which 
will require hard labour and large expenses. The ex- 
penses that are to be incurred in the new settlement 
are estimated to be Rs. 1,00,000 (one lakh). By the 
stopping of the poppy cultivation the cultivators' 
credit will be seriously wounded. Opium being a 
commodity of great value and importance, the Bohras 
give loans to the cultivators readily, who, in their 
turn, can pay their creditors easily by the sale pro- 
ceeds of opium and poppy seeds, &o., and carry on 
all the expense.: of their household. The cultivators, 
so far as can be judged, will, in the event of the prohi- 
bition of the poppy cultivation, commence growing in 
its place wheat, barley, &o., and these crops which are 
already cheaper, of little importance and little paying, 
will, by over production, be again lowered in value, and 
at certain times will remain unsold, and thus get spoilt 
to the great loss and ruin of the cultivators. Should 
tl-io cultivation of sugar-cane be encouraged, it is ques- 
tionable whether they would be Successful in their new 
attempts, for the crop of sugar-cane requires a greater 
depth of irrigation, larger su-ns, and more labour than 
any other crop would do, The cultivators, who have 
for ages been using their skill and labour in poppy 
cultivation, which yields fruits in little labour, would 
not be able to work as hard as they would be required 
to work for sugar-cane, &c., because sugar-cane takes 
about the whole of the year in ripening, and cotton 
about eight months. On the other hand, poppy takes 
only four months for being mature, which, in other 
words, means to pay more in little labour. In the crop 
of sugar-cane, if any of its requisites, namely, irrigation, 
expenditure, or labour be in any way deficient or the 
wells fail to supply sufficient irrigation, the crop would 
rather prove loss-giving than profitable to the culti- 
vators, and will not yield them even the expenditure 
incurred by them in its growing. Under such circum- 
stances, the Bohras will be less trustful, and this dis- 
credit will result in itie insolvency and poverty of the 
cultivators. This loss can by no means be made up, 
and the safe payment of the laud revenue being feared, 
owing to the poverty of the cultivators, the rates will 
have to be lowered again, which will entitle the State 
for adequate compensation. Again, on account of the 
poverty and insolvency of the cultivators, a greater 
portion of the land will remain uncultivated, which 
will lead to a. great loss to the State, the amount 
of which can now hardly be estimated. 

20.923. (To Bohra Rattan Lai.) Is there a fixed settle- 
ment of revenue in Bundi, or is there a division of 
produce on grain, and special cash rates on particular 
crops ? — It has been surveyed according to State 
custom, and this survey has fixed the rates. 

20.924. Is the measurement every year with a certain 
rate levied on particular crops, or is it a fixed settle- 
ment, not varying from year to year ? — There are fixed 
rates for lands. 

20.925. Without reference to the crops ? — The crop.-: 
are also considered. For instance, if they grow opir.m 
they are charged higher rates. 

20.926. Is that done for a term of years, or is it a 
yearly business ? — It is a fixed rate for good, nol: 
changed year after year. 

20.927. {Mr. Pease to Bohra Meglihalian.) How have 
you calculated the loss to the cultivators, Rs. 1,04,176 ? 
— The profits from the poppy have been estimated, the 
poppy revenue has been deducted; then the profits 
from other crops that might take the place of poppy 
have been estimated, and the figure given in the table 
is the diff"erence between the two. 

20.928. Has allowance been made for less labour 
being required for other crops than for poppy ? — Poppy 
requires less labour than the other crops. 

20.929. (Sir J. Lyall.) What other crops P— Sugar- 
cane. 

20.930. (Mr. Pease.) For wheat the labour is less, is 
it not ? — It is greater on wheat, too. Poppy cultivation 
only takes four months to gather the crops. 

20.931. (Mr. Wilson to Bolira B.<itfnn Lai.) In your 
3rd statement* , how do you get the figure Rs. 5/4/6 
in the bottom line ? — That is the average of the los.'; 
of the seven crops. If he were to grow cottor. 

• Xot reprinted. 



Bohra 

Meghbahan 

and Bohra 

Battan Lai. 

QBundi State.') 

1 Feb. 1894. 



O 82588. 



42 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



liohra 

Meghbahan 

and Bohra 

Itat/an Lai. 

(_Bundi State.) 

1 Feb. .1894. 



the expenses would bo Ra. 5/13/t) ; if he grew sugar- 
cane the expenses would be Es. 15/5/6. Adding all the 
seven items and then dividing by 7 the average is 
obtained. 

20.932. {Sir J. Lycdl.) Tou mean that the other 
expenses per acre amount to Rs. 19,13/6. and then yon 
give the expenses for each kind of crop ? — Yes. 

20.933. The avcrao-e of all of them is more than that 
of opium by lis. ."i/'l/'O ?— Yes, more than poppy cultiva- 
tion — that is, the expenses. 

20.934. {Mr. Wilson to Bohra Meglibalian.) Is the 
habit of taking opium by young men in good health a 
a good habit? — It is not considered a bad habit ; on 
the contrary, it is usefnl ; some people have a liking 
for it. 

20.935. Is it a good habit ?— It is not a virtue, but 
sometimes it does a man good. 

20.936. {To Bohra Battan led.) I will ask you the 
same ciuestioii P — If a man takes it without any reason 
it is considered a vice, bat generally a man takes it 
when there is some illness, or when there is any other 
reason for it, when ho has to do some labour or mental 
work. 

20.937. (To Bohra Mcglilnliiiii.) How much opium do 
l)eople take when they visit their friends, habitual 
opium-eaters, when it is handed to them ? — It depends 
on the dose they usually take. When we do not know 
what (juantity a man takes we offer him two or three 
rattis at firsi, and if he is inclined to take more we 
give him more. Sometimes it is put into the palm of 
the hand. 

20,038. {Mr. Moiobrny to Bohra Meghbahan.) Do you 
wish to see the opium habit interfered with by law? — 
It is not advisable. 

20,939. {To Bohra Battan Lai.) Do you wish the 
habit interfered with ? — No. 



20.940. {Mr. ILiridas Veharida.s to Buhra Mcghhahan.) 
Do you take opium ? — Only on social occasions. 

20.941. {To Bohra Battan Lai.) Do you take opium? 

Yes. 

20.942. As a habit ? — Yes, since six months. 



{To Bolira: Meghbahan.) "Why do not yon take 

considered a good thing? — I do not feel in- 

It is no use taking it without any 



20,943. 
it if it is 
clincd to take it 
advantiige. 

20,94.k You would take it on account of health? — 
Yes.' 

20.945. {Mr. Fanshawe to Bohra Meghbahan.) How has 
the amount of Rs. 75,000, the estimated loss by traders 
in the Bundi statistics, been arrived at ?— The annual 
trade in opium is estimated at 2,000 maunds, on each of 
which a profit of Rs. 50 is made, so that the total loss 
would amount to Rs. 1,00,000. The capital if not 
invested in connexion with opium would only realise 
As. 4 per cent, pci- month, which would produce only 
Rs. 25,000, so that the total amount has been taken at 
Rs. 75,000 loss. 

20,916. When opium is handed round on social 
occasions may the man who is not accustomed totake 
opium only touch it and leave it? — He must take it. 

20,947. {Sir J. Lyall to Bohra Battan ImI.) Has the 
cultivation of opium fallen ofl a great deal during 
the last six years in Bundi? — Yes, there is a decrease. 

20,9 IS. What is the meaning of that? — On account 
of the fall in price. 

20,949. To what scales does the Bundi opium go ? — 
Through Indore to Bombay, and sometimes it goes 
directly to Bombay. The thin cakes are only sent in 
the native States, and the big balls go to Indore for 
Bombay. 



The witnesses withdrew. 



I'atel 

Sheobahsli. 

(^Bimdi State.) 



Paiel SuEOBAKsn called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.950. {Chairman.) You appear on behalf of the 
cultivators .'' — Yes. 

20.951. What information have you to give with 
reference to poppy cultivation ? — - The uses we 
make of the poppy plant are as follows : — I. — In 
the beginning, wo cook the young leaves which 
serve ns as vegetable. II. — The poppy heads {doda) are 
fried and eaten. III. — Opium is produced. IV. — 
i'uppy seeds {danas) are used in making pottage or 
'' sliira," "hhichree," &o. Y. — Oil is pressed from the 
seeds which is used in many useful purposes, such as 
eating, drinking, and as a liniment. The oil is also used 
for medical purposes. VI. — Oil cakes (IcJiol) that are 
left after pressing oil from the seeds are best food for 
cows and bnfl'aloes, ifec, which when fed with " khol" 
give more milk from which more butter is pressed. 
VII. — The shells (chhihas) when rubbed into water 
make a kind of drink. They are also used for medical 
purposes. Generally we employ ourselves for working 
in our fields, but when we have not sufficient number 
of men, we employ others for the pur[)ose, and the 
wages that we have to pay is average about Rs. 7 8 a. per 
one bigha. Sometimes we employ more and sometimes 
fewer men, and the average amount that every man 
derives from the poppy cultivation is Rs. 2 per mensem. 
Wheat, barley, gram, cotton, sugar-cane, cummin seed 
would most likely take its place. Whatever profit or 
loss will be to us in the event of our discontinuing 
poppy and growing other crops instead, is detailed in 
the statement submitted by us which may be seen. 
The details of the difference in profit on the cultivation 
of poppy and other crops, which will replace it, have 
been given in the statement submitted by ns which 
may be seen. Our credit will be seriously disturbed in 
the event of prohibition of cultivation of poppy. As 
opium is a commodity of great value to us, the Bohras 
give us loans very readily, and we can in our turn by 
sale proceeds of opium, poppy seeds, &c. easily pay 
them besides being able to carry on the expenses of our 
houses. We can, however, grow wheat, barley, &c. 
instead of poppy, but these crops which are already 
cheaper, will again lie lowered into value by over- 
production, and thus prove loss-giving crops to us, and 
if these crops will remain unsold they will get spoiled 
and will thus cause ruin to us. We can also grow sugar- 
cane, but as it wants a greater depth of irrigation, more 
expenses, and greater labour we are not confident 



whether the profit on sugar-cane will in any way be so 
much as on poppy crops. Poppy gets mature in about 
four or five months, while sugar-cane takes about the 
whole of the year for the purpose, and as we have for 
ages past been employing our labour in poppy cultiva- 
tion, which ripens by little labour and pays more, wo 
hope we will not be able, when our skill and labour will 
be transferred to the new undertaking of the growth of 
sngar-cane, to work as hard as we would be required to 
work for sugar-cane. Further, if irrigation, expenditure, 
or labour be in any way deficient the crops of sugar-cane, 
instead of being profitable to us, will not yield us even 
the expenditure incurred by us in growing it. Under 
these ciroumstanoes the Bohras will be less trustful, 
and we Avill be reduced to poverty. The loss that will 
thus befall us can in no way be revived, and we doubt 
whether wc will be able to pay the revenue demand 
safely. 

20.952. {Sir J. Lyall.) Has poppy cultivation existed 
in Bandi from time immemorial, or is there a tra- 
dition when it began ? — From tirhe immemorial. 

20.953. {Mr. Faiisliawe.) Will you tell us whether the 
habit of eating or drinking opium is common among 
the cultivators ? — They generally take it. 

20.954. What is your caste ?—Dhakar. 

20,956. Is that a caste allied to the Rajputs ? — No, it is 
a cultivating class, they do nothing else but cultivate. 

20.956. {Mr. Mowbray.) How many bighas do you 
cultivate ? — 11 bighas. 

20.957. How many bighas did you have under poppy 
cultivation last year ? — About 8 bighas. 

20.958. And this year ? — I came from my village to 
Bundi some time ago, and I do not know how much 
has been sown this j'ear. 

20.959. What is the whole size of your holding, how 
much have you got altogether, irrigated and not irri- 
gated ? — About 175 bighas. 

20.960. How much irrigated P— About 36 bighas. 

20.961. {Mr. Wilson.) All the cultivators asked you 
to give evidence ? — Altogether about 20 or 25 persons 
;isked me to come here, and there were representatives 
from nearly all the villages in Bundi. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



43 



20.962. Did you write the statement yourself? — 1 did 
not write it myself, I dictated it. 

20.963. To whom P- A clerk called Karpon. 

20.964. What clerk was ho ?— An official clerk. 

20.965. Is the habit of taking opium habitually a 
good one for young men in good liealth, from 25 to" 30. 



years of age? -In my country it is thought a good 
habit. 

20.966. Do you think it is a good habit P—?es. 

20.967. Arc there many cultivators who nave 175 
bighas ?— There arc any amount of them. 



Patel 

Sheobaksh . 

(Bnndi State.) ' 

1 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Pandit Bmj Natii called in and examined. 



20.968. {CUairman.) Yon are Chief Eevonue Official 
of the State of Ulwar ?— Yes. 

20.969. "What have you to toll ns with reference to 
the cultivation of poppy in your State P — The average 
area under poppy in Khalsa and alienated lands is I'M 
acres and 11 poles, as below : — 

Khalsa - - - 110 acres 1 rod 26 poles, 

Jagir and Muafi (alienated) 
lands - - - 19 „ 2 rods 25 „ 

The average area of Khalsa land is arrived at by 
Patwaris' papers, and survey records, while, the 
area of alienated lands under poppy shown abo\e 
has been ascertained by special inquiries through 
the Tahsildars. If opium were ertracted from the 
poppy cultivated in the above areas, it would come to 
20 maunds 32 seers 7 chittacks ; but, as a rule, opium 
is not extracted here. It would appear from the 
returns for the past few years that the production of 
opium, taking the average for the past iive years, has 
been 19 seers per year. It has been ascertained from 
inquiry that a bigha, on an average, yields 3, or 4 
maunds of the poppy, from which 4 seers of opium milk 
could be extracted; at this rate an acre would give 
6 seers 6 chittacks and 2 tolas of milk, or, in other 
words, 130 acres 11 poles would give 20 maunds 
32 seers and 7 chittacks of opium. There is no differ- 
ence in the area and produce under poppy so far as 
Khalsa land is concerned. The cultivation of the 
poppy in Jagir and Muafi villages was, however, not 
included in the returns sabmitted during the past 
years. This area has now been ascertained by special 
inquiries, and is included in the total area under poppy 
cultivation given in answer No. 1. Hence the differ- 
ence. If the cultivation of the poppy in above areas 
were prohibited, wheat, barley, vegetables, indigo, 
cotton, &c. in irrigated areas, and all kharif crops, such 
as maize, jowar, bajra, &c. in unirrigated areas would 
take its place, but wheat and cotton would most likely 
have a preference. The revenue rates in Khalsa 
villages generally are fixed according to the quality 
and growing power of the land, without regard to the 
kind of crops grown thereon, the cultivators being at 
liberty to grow any crops they liked. In some of the 
Jagir and Muafi villages and in a few Khalsa villages, 
the cultivation of the poppy is charged for at the rate 
of Es. 10 per bigha, while that of wheat, barley, &c. 
at Ks. 4 8 a. only. Thus there ivould be a diminution in 
the revenue demand of Ks. 5 8 a. per bigha, or 
Bs. 1,144-9-4 on the total area under poppy in Khals.i 
and alienated lands. The State revenue at the settle- 
ment was fixed according to the qualitj' and growing 
power of the land, without regard to the kind of crops 
grown thereon. The stopping of poppy cultivation 
would not, therefore, necessitate a revision of revenue 
or irrigated rates. As already explained, no revision 
of revenue rates would be necessary, but since the 
cultivation of poppy would be prohibited by order, the 
Zamindars would, as a matter of course, suffer a loss in 
revenue. The difference in the cevenue on production 
of the poppy as compared with cotton, which will 
replace it, is Ks. 24 per bigha. The annual loss to the 
Zamindars, Jagirdars, Muafidars, and cultivators on the 
total area under poppy cultivation would, therefore, 
amount to Bs. 5,000 annually, and they could reason- 
ably claim compensation for the loss they would be put 
to by the prohibition. As no revision of revenue rates 
would be necessary, no expenditure would be incurred. 
No customs or octroi duty is levied on opium in this 
State. A mixed contract for all drugs has been given 
to a contractor for three years, with effect from 
September last, for Bs. 10,550 per annum. It appears, 
however, from the examination of private accounts of 
the present and the late contractors that the State 
would lose Bs. 9,250, and that the personal loss to the 
contractors would be about Ks. 1,652 per annum if the 
consumption of opium and its productions be prohi- 
bited. The difference in profit per bigha on the 



cultivation of the poppy and the other crops which will 
replace it is shown below : — 



Pandit 

Brij Nuth. 

(Ulwar State.') 



Desoripton of 
Crops. 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


Not Profit. 


Poppy cultivation 


Us. a. p. 
63 B 3 


Es. a. p. 
31 


Es. n, p. 
S2 5 3 


"Wlieat 


25 8 


18 8 


7 


Cotton „ 


28 


20 


8 



It will thus be seen that the loss which would be caused by 
the substitution of wheat and cotton for the poppy ^\'ould 
be Bs. 25 and Bs. 24 respectively. There would be no 
loss in credit if poppy cultivation was stopped, as the 
cultivation of poppy is very limited in this State. 
Poppy leaves are used as vegetables. Its flowers are 
used in the preparation of medicine, such as gulkhand. 
Opium is extracted from poppy heads, which are also 
used for drinking purposes. Poppy seeds are used as a 
medicine. They also extract oil from them. The 
women and the children are employed in rooting out 
the weeds and watching the crops. The males are 
employed in doing all the other field work. 

20.970. You have shown us that if the cultivation of 
opium is prohibited in your State there would be a 
considerable loss of revenue and u, serious loss to the 
cultivators P— Yes. 

20.971. (Sir J. Lyall.) Is opium imported into the 
State from other native States ? — Yes. 

20.972. Is it imported free of duty ? — ^Thero is no 
customs duty upon it. 

20.973. Is there any excise duty on opium P — There is 
nothing on the opium. 

20.974. Is it included in the contracts for drugs ? — It 
is included in that, there is one contract for all drugs. 

20.975. How long has the system of having a 
monopoly for opium prevailed ? — Three, years. 

20.976. In some of the other Bajputana States we 
were told that there was no excise or monopoly on opium, 
that opium is freely sold, but apparently yon have n 
monopoly to licensed vendors — how long has that 
system prevailed in Ulwar p — Ten years. 

20.977. In that respect you follow the example of the 
British Government? — In some wa5rs, though not wholly 
upon the Excise Act. 

20.978. (Mr. Wilson.) Is it a very common custom to 
offer opium to visitors ? — Yes, among certain castes. 

20.979. As drink, or as opium itself? — Both ways. 
They take dry opium mixed with water. 

20.980. Do the visitors always take it, or do they 
sometimes just touch it and leave it P — Those who are 
not in the habit of taking it do not take it, they only 
touch it and leave it. I have been asked by the State 
Council to convey their views also, and I beg to hand in 
the following memorandum : — 

YiEWs OP THE State Council. 

Although the production of opium in this State is 
very limited, there is, however, an appreciable portion 
of the population which consume it, and they (the 
members of Council) think it would be very hard 
for those who take it regularly if the production and 
import of it is prohibited. Here is a statement of the 
loss which would be incurred to the State and its 
subjects in the event of the sale and import of opium 
being prohibited, and in that case the State would bo 
fairly entitled to a compensation of Bs. 16,577. 6 a. 
All the consumers would feel the prohibition keenly, 
and it is quite possible they might claim compensation 
for the loss sustained by them on account of the 
prohibition. Those who are accustomed to take it 

F 2 



44 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Pandit 

Brij Nnth. 

( Ulwar State.) 

1 Feb. 1894. 



regularly would suffer great hardsHp, so much, so that 
they would become quite unfit to hold up theh- occupa- 
tion, and, no doubt, suljjected to difl'ui'ent kinds of 
diseases caused by relinquishing the long-acquirrd 
habits. The Council is not in a position to estimate the 
amount of compensation wlii 'i the consumers would 
Ije reasonably entitled to, bia Lhey have no doubt that 
this loss would be very heavy, and beg to liring this 
point prominently to the notice of the Royal Commis- 
sion. Although there would bo no loss to the State 
revenue so long as the present arrangement continues, 
as the new settlement is shortly to commence, it is 
very probable the profits derived from poppy cultiva- 
tion will betaken into consiib'ration in fixing the new 
jama. 



Stathmekt showing the Loss which would be incurred 
by the State and its Subjects if the production and 
import of Opium were prohibited : — 



Thakur 
Bridhi Sinqh. 
{Ulwar Stcite.) 



Loss o[ Front 


Liis^ in Excise. 


Loss 
in 
Octroi 
IJuty on 
Poppy. 
Heads 

only. 




to the 
CuUiviitor. 


To the 
Stutc. 


To tlio 
Con- 
tractor. 


Total. 


Ci rand 
Total. 


Us. 
5,liu0 


Rs. 

9,231) 


Rs. 

1,(132 


Rs. 
11,203 


Rs. 

SV3 


Rs. 
16,677 



The witness withdrew. 



TiiAKUn Bkieiii Sinsh called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.981. You are a Chauhan Eajput, resident of Ulwar, 
aged 63 years, and a Jagirdar of Kishanpoj'e ? — Yes. 

20.982. Will yon give ua an account of the use of 
opium among the Rajputs ? — Some take poppy mixed 
with water, some take opium, others dissohe it with 
water and then driik the solution. Opium is ad- 
ministered to children np to the age of 2 or 2h years in 
quantity of half a seed. They are thereby protected 
from several disorders and look cheerful. Those 
women only who suffer from asthma, cold, hectic fever, 
or blood diseases take opium. Men take it ordinarily, 
because it proves beneficial in every way if taken in 
moderation after the age of 40 years. It is proved by 
experience that the use of opium preserves eyesight. 
Ten per cent, of the Bajpnts take it in this State. One 
or two per cent, only take it to excess. They take up 
to one chattak of opium daily. Ordinarily the quantity 
consumed is from a rati to a tola at a time. It is taken 
twice a day, morning and evening. Some take it 
thrice a day. It removes fatigue, and is taken to 
pacify the mind in pain, sorrow, and trouble. When a 
reconciliation is effected between two antagonists, 
opium is given to them as a mark that no ill-feeling 
would henceforth exist between them. It is considered 
absolutely necessary to use opium at the time of war, 
because it encourages warriors and soldiers to fight, 
and keeps the bowels light at the time of death. The 
moving of bowels at a time when one is killed at a 
battle is considered u disgrace. One who does not use 
it ordinarily takes it at the time of war, because, under 
its iofluence, he fights and dies bravely. It is very 
beneficial in cases of diarrhcia. This is a medicine 
known to everyone, and can be had everywhere. On 
Ihe occasion of a betrothal or Tika ceremony, the 
bride's relatives give opium to the bridegroom, and 
then the betrothal is considered complete. It is called 
" Amal Pilana." Among Rajputs opium is presented 



to friends and relatives, &c. on occasions of festivals, 
and when they go to pay a visit. It is often presented 
on ordinary days also. It is invigorating and infuses 
cheerfulness. If they do not make use of it they catch 
cold and suffer from diarrhea. Those addicted to the 
use of opium must take it in regular doses at proper 
times. If they cannot get it at the usual time they are 
sure to get ill. The state of their uneasiness can bettor 
be imagined than described. If they substitute liquor 
in place of opium there will be difficulties in the way ; 
firstly, according to religious scruples certain sects are 
prohibited from taking liquor ; secondly, liquor is as 
much injurious as opium is beneficial to health ; 
thirdly, opium is taken in small quantities, and is 
useful, while liquor is taken in large quantities, and is 
injurious. 

20.983. (Sir J. Lyall.) What is the value of your 
Jagir ? — It yields Rs. 5,000 a year. 

20.984. Are you of the same family as the Raja P — He 
belongs to the Naridci clan ; I am a Chauhan. 

20.985. When does the Jagir date from p — It was 
given to my ancestors Ijy jMaharaja Partab Singh. 

20.986. How long ago was thut P — 116 years ago. 

20.987. It is the custom on certain occasions, such as 
visits, among the Rajputs to give "Amal Pani," 
would it liC considered uncivil for a visitor to refuse it, 
or can they rofase it if they like ?— The host takes it 
ill if he does not take it. 

20.988. Are there not some Rajputs who do not take 
some Amal Pani ?— Liquor is prohibited by religion 
for certain sects and classes of people. There is no 
such prohibition for opium and it is offered to all, and 
the guests are expected to take it. They may take it 
in any slight quantity, but still they are expected to 
take it. The host takes it ill if they do not. 



The witness withdrew. 



Thahur 
Bahadur 

Sin(jh. 
CBikamr 

State.) 



Thakur Baiiadtje Singh called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.989. (Ghairman.) You are a Rahtor Eajput, late 
Pattadar of Bidasar ? — Yes. 

20.990. ^^'ill you tell us what j'ou know with regard 
to the consumption of opium in Bikanir P — I am 39 
years of age and was born in Bidasar. With the 
exception of four and half years, from the end of 1883 
to the middle of 1888, I have resided in the Bikanir 
State. I spent my time till 1883 in Bikanir itself and 
Bidasar, and since 1888 I have resided at Bikanir. I 
have, therefore, a full knowledge of the customs and 
circumstances of Rajputs in this State. I am myself a 
Rahtor, but I am connected with Bhatis, Kachwahas, 
Sesodias, and Ohanhaus. The Rajputs consume opium 
in four forms : (1) they take opium dry, pure and 
simple ; (2) they take it in the form of pills {tara hura 
or cleaned). Tliey pound it in a mortar, mix water 
■with it, strain it, boil the water till only a little is left, 
and then mix it with spices in the form of pills. The 
rich mis it with mrtsk, saffron, and gold leaves, and 
middle-class people mix it with garm-masala, s^uch as 
cinnamon and cloves. Poor people do not take pills in 
this way. They take it in the form of amal-pani, which 
IS simply opium mixed with water and strained. This 
they drink. They take it in the form oi post, that is, 
they mix poppy heads with water, rub them up and 
strain them, and then drink the liquor. For the most 
part in Bikanir opium is consumed dry. Some take it 
in the form of pills, but except for ceremonies it is 



rarely taken in the form of amal-pani. Post is cheaper 
than the other forms, and along the Shekhawati border 
people take it to some extent. Tn'o one smokes opium 
in this part of India. To smoke it i,s considered a vice 
It is eaten or drunk for the benefit of the person who 
takes it. There is no difference among the different 
tribes of Rajputs in Bikanir in respect of the eon- 
sumption of opium. Men, women, and children all 
take It, but men take it more than women and women 
more than children. To children it is generally o-iven 
either to stop illness, such as diarrhcea, or to \eep 
them quiet and prevent them from interferino- with 
their parents' pursuits. This goes on till the children 
are two or three years old, and then it is dropped when 
the children can take care of themselves a little 
Women take it owing to illness, in many of which it is 
of great benefit to them. They do not take it except 
for illness, a? they do not join on hospitable occasions. 
It is taken for hadi (wind) and sardi (cold). It is not or- 
dinarily given in confinements, as it makes them slower' 
unless there is diarrhoea or some special reason It is 
sometimes given afterwards when there is great pain 
It is given also for asthma, cough, neuralgia. Men as a 
rule, take it to give them strength when there is much 
work to do. One and a half men can with opium do 
the work of two without it. They also take it to nre 
vent weariness from long journeys or when they have 
to keep awake all night. They and women also take it 



MINUTES OP EVIDENCE. 



for pneumonia ; but the illness is more common among 
men. It is also taken for restlessness. Perhaps half 
the people who take it began to take it for this reason. 
I did so myself. In old age, when breathing is difficult, 
it is also taken. Besides it beii;g taken for illnesses, 
people begin to take it on ceremonial occasions, such as 
marriages, funerals, and betrothals. It is then given 
to guests. Fan docs not grow in these parts, so opium, 
either dry or in pills, is taken instead. It is given on 
these occasions to all to take it or not as they like. In 
this way people get into the habit of taking opium. 
Among Kajputs of all kinds 30 people in a hundred 
take opium. Taking men only, I should say about 40 
out of a hundred take opium, but this is a guess. In 
the same way I should say about 20 women in a 
hundred take opium, and perhaps 12 or 15 children in 
a hundred. Oharans, Mirasis and Golas all take opium 
to a greater extent than Rajputs do. Biahmans, 
Banias, and Jats take it less. Taking the Bikanir 
State as a whole, I should say 25 per cent, of the 
people take it. Chamars take it like Jats, but few of 
them can afl'ord it. Out of 100 opium-eaters about one 
takes it in excess, i.e., becomes lazy, feeble, and unable 
to do his work. To the rest it does no harm, and to 
those who take it in excess it is not dangerous to life. 
Ordinary opiam-eaters take opium twice a day, in the 
early morning and at 3 o'clock. Some take it only 
once and a few three times, morning, noon, and evening. 
One in a thousand may take it more than three times. 
The ordinary amount taken at a time is from 1 to 6 
ratis. Perhaps one in a hundred takes as much as 12 
ratis. So much as this would not be taken more than 
twice a day. I myself take it three times a day. I 
take about 3 ratis at a time. I have taken it for 18 
yea,rs. We Eajputs consider it necessary to give it at 
weddings, funerals, and betrothals, — that is, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to offer it to everyone. No one is 
compelled to take it unless he likes at weddings and 
funerals, but no betrothal is considered as binding 
unless the fathers of the parties both take opium. 
When enemies are reconciled opium is commonly taken, 
and then everyone who is reconciled has either to take 
it himself or to get one of his family to take it. It may 
bs only a very little for form's sake. It is the castes 



allied with Eajputs, such as Mirasis, Oharans, Darog- 
has, and Golas that take opium on ceremonial occasions. 
Other castes do not. Opium does no harm to persons 
who take it in moderation. It gives them strength. 
It is veiy good for wounds and lessons the pain. It is 
of great advantage, as I have said, for many illnesses, 
and it keeps off fever from cold. It is not taken here 
as an aphrodisiac, though I have heard it said to be 
one. I have not noticed any difference in respect of 
the numbers of their children between those who take 
and those who do not take opium. Those who take it 
praise it and those who do not run it down. If opium 
could not be procured except as medicine, I believe 
that one-half of the opium-eaters would die ; the other 
half would take to arsenic, dhatiira seed, bhang, liquor, 
strychnia, and such like substitutes. 'They would bo 
ruined by these things, as they are all more injurious 
than opium. As a general rule opium-eaters d» not 
drink liquor to excess. Those who drink and wish to 
give it up can do so if they take to opium, whereas 
those who take opium cannot give it up by taking to 
drink. Excessive opium-eaters do not care about 
liquor. For those who do not take opium at present 
the effect of prohibition would be to deprive them of a 
useful strengthener in old age, and that they would 
not be equal to as much exertion as if they could get 
opium. Opium is also given to horses, bullocks, and 
camels when much work is expected from them. If 
opium were stopped altogether there would be con- 
siderable loss of life ; if it were made much more 
difficult to procure there would be a largo increase in 
in the consumption of liquor. Speaking of my own 
condition I may say that two years ago I rode to 
Ajmere (160 miles) on a camel in 2J days. Only last 
month I went to my own home (80 miles) in three days 
and am quite ready to go 80 miles in a day now. I am 
at present a member of the Walterkrit and Brahman 
marriage committees, the horse and camel committees, 
and the legislative committee of the State. 

20,991. (Sir J. Lyall.) What do you mean by 
" restlessness," do you mean difficulty of sleeping or 
difficulty of sitting still P — A pain is felt in the limbs, 
it is uneasiness. 



Thakur 
Bahadur 

Singh. 
(^Bikanir 

State.) 

1 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



SliTTi EiKHAB Das called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



20.992. (Chairman.) Yon are a Bagri of Bikanir, and 
of the Mahajan caste ? — Yes. 

20.993. What information have you to give us with 
reference to the opium traffic in Bikanir ? — I am 30 
years of age. I have firms at Calcutta (Sheolal Har 
Dass), Indore (G-ambirchand Suraj Mai), Kotah 
(Kishori Lai Mayalal Das), Ajmere (Hansraj Gambir- 
chund), and here (Damodhar Das Gambirchand). My 
shops here, at Indore, and at Kotah, deal in opium. 
Here my business consists in importing opium and 
selling it in the bazar. At Indore and Kotah the 
firms purchase opium, sell it and forward it to Bombay. 
If the cultivation and import of opium were stopped 
my loss here would be considerable. I import yearly 
into Bikanir about 75 maunds of opium, the value of 
which is about Rs. 37,500, my profit on this is 12 per 
cent., so I should loose Rs. 4,600 a year. I generally 
have also 250 to 300 pailas of opium, i.e., about 45 
mautds in stock, which lvalue at Es. 22,000, and which 
would become unsaleable. This, with the interest for 
a year, which I should lose also, would be a loss of 
about Rs. 26,000. The other traders in Bikanir would 
lose in the same way. The circumstances of the Kotah 
and Indore firms are the same, and I will show together 
the loss which I should suffer in regard to them if the 
production and export of opium were prohibited. I do 
not give advances to cultivators, but I purchase from 
them. I buy the juice of the poppy from them at the 
rate of 6 rupees a seer to the extent of about Rs. 50,000 
a year, I then manufacture it with oil. The manufactare 
costs me Rb. 13 for every five seers of poppy juice. 
The weight of the opium is the same as that of the 
juice, as the oil put in makes up for the loss by drying. 
I thus get about 11,000 seers of opium. This I sell 
ao-ain at Indore or Bombay at an average proiit of about 
10 per cent. My annual income from Kotah and Indore 
thus comes to about Rs. 6,500 a year. Besides this, I 
make a profit by commission on the purchase of opium, 
which amounts to about Rs. 4,000. I receive com- 
mission at varying rates which amount on the average 
to about 12 annas per cent. I have accounts for three 



or four years, but the figures which I have given repre- 
sent an average over a series of years. Besides the 
Rs. 10,500 which I should lose in the manner stated, 
I should also lose about a lakh of rupees, the value of 
opium which I have in stock, and which I should not be 
able to sell. This would be a very heavy loss, and I am 
not prepared to say what the general effect of it on my 
trade and credit would be. I shoiild incur a further 
loss also in the way of Rs. 25,000 or Rs. 30,000 a year. 
The customers who buy opium through me frequently 
do not send me money in advance. I buy for them 
with my own money which is considered as a loan to 
them, on which they pay 8 annas per cent. There are 
some 25 other shops in Indore which would suffer loss 
in the same way that I should. There are also eight or 
ten similar shops in Kotah. There is no way in which 
I could compensate myself for the loss which would bo 
caused by the stoppage of opium. Mahesris take opiurn 
dry and in pills, but not in the form of amal-pani and 
post. Just as they take it, so Brahmans, Oswals, and 
Agarwalas take it also. Men, women, and children all 
alike take opium. It is given only to children under three 
years. It is given as a remedy for pains in the stomach, 
diarrhoea, cough, and other illness, and to keep children 
quiet. Grown up people generally begin to take it 
again at about 30 years of age. They take it as a 
remedy for illness only and not for pleasure. Once 
people begin to take it they do not give it up again. I 
should say about 20 per cent, of the men of the caste 
and 10 per cent, of the women take opium and 50 chil- 
dren oat of every hundred. I should say that perhaps 
6 per cent, of the consumers take enough to weaken 
them, but that not that pr3|)ortion is seriously injured 
by opium. I have never come across a case of a man 
who has bten rendered unfit for his work by opium. 
People take opium generally twice a day, some once, 
and some three times a day. None more than 
three times. People generally take from ^ a ratti to 
three rattis at a time. I do not take opium myself. 
We have no occasions whatever on which the giving or 
taking of opium is compulsory. We take it only as a 



Seth 

Tiikhab Da.1t 

(_Bikanir 

State.) 



46 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Seth 

Mikhah Das. 

(^Bikanir 

State.') 

1 Jeb. 1894. 



remedy for illness and for the good -wlnRli it does us and 
the strength which it gives lis. There is no doubt, in my 
opinion, that it gives strength. It is certainly good for 
old people. I should not begin it unless I were weak, 
then I should. In my opinion, the moderate eating of 
opium does no harm whatever, on the contrary it does 
good. If opium were only procurable a.s a medicine, the 
effect on present consumers would be very bad. A few 
would die and the rest would become weak and useless. 
They would not, I think, take to any other stimulant. 
In the case of non-consumers, there would be no injury 
till occasion for taking to opium arise from weakness, 
illness, or old age, and then they would suffer. 

20,99-1. (Sio- J. Lyall.) I understand that, although 
you are a Bikanir man, yet you have dealings in opium 
outside Bikanir P — Yes; I have shops in other places, 
and I deal in opium through my agents. 

20,995. Is there any opiirm produced in Bikanir P — 
No. 



20.996. Does any opium pass through Bikanir into 
Bhawalpore P — I do not know that it does. 

20.997. Who are Mahesris .?— It is a, caste of Banias. 
Bagri is a sect of the Mahesri. 

20.998. (Mr. Faashawe.) Do you follow the Jain 
religion ? — I am a Hindu. 

20.999. Tou state that there are occasions on which 
the giving or taking of opium is compulsory, does 
that apply to Mahesri Banias ? — Yes. Among the 
Mahesri Banias. 

21.000. (Mr. Tease.) When you say 20 per cent, of 
the men take opium, do you mean 20 per cent, of your 
own caste P — Among my own caste. 

21.001. Do they take more or less than the other 
people in Bikanir ; are there more opium-eaters among 
them per hundred, or fewer ? — Among the Mahesri 
there is a smaller number of opium-eaters compared 
with Eajputs. 



The witness withdrew. 



Seth Milap 
Chand and 
Seth Nemi 

Chand. 
{^Bikanir 

State.} 



Sexd Milap Chand and Seih Nemi Ohand called in and (Seth Milap OHAND^examined through an 

Interpreter). 



21.002. (Gliairmcm to Seth Milap Ghand.) You are 
head of the Customs Department of the Bikanir State ? 
—Yes. 

21.003. (To Seth Nemi Chand.) You are Nazim of 
Sujangarh in Bikanir ? — Yes. 

21.004. (To Seth Milap Ghancl.) Will you tell us what 
you know about the import of opium into the Bikanir 
State ? — I am 60 years of age. I have been for 10 years 
in the service of the Bikanir State, and have been in 
charge of the Customs Department continuously save 
for three years when I was a member of the Council. The 
average import of opium into the Bikanir State has 
been 355 mauiids and 21 seers for the past eight years, 
i.e. : — 



1885-«G - 
1886-87 
1887-88 - 
1888-89 
1889-90 
1890-91 - 
1891-92 
1892-;i:! - 



VIds. 


Srs. 


361 


32 


209 


10 


377 


32 


221 


18 


365 


20 


564 


15 


40:] 


8 


280 


36 



2,841 



11 



The average of the first four years of the series is 292 
maunda and 39 seers, and that of the last four years is 
418 maunds and 19 seers. I attribute the increase in 
the last fonr years to the fact that formerly the duty on 
opium was not more than Ks. 70 a mannd. Conse- 
quently there were large stocks, and these were con- 
sumed in the first four years. ISince that it hns been 
necessary to import more largely to meet the demand. 
When I first camo the duty on opium imported was 
Rs. 70. In 1885 it was raised to Rs. 90. In 1890 it was 
raised again to lis. 150, and this yuar to Rs. 200. 
Possibly also there was more smuggling f(ji-merly than 
now. Another i-eason also is that opium has been 
cheaper lately than formerly. I do not think that there 
arc large stocks of opium at present m the city. In the 
present year 325 maunds have come up to the present 
time. As the population increases, there is likely to bo 
an increase in the im])ort, but not, I think, otherwise. 
I should say that 375 maunds would be about the con- 
sumption of the next few years. I arrived at this 
calculation by taking the average of the past eight 
years and allowing 25 maunds a year for the previous 
stocks. I have not made any allowance for future 
increase in population, in as much as I believe that, as 
opium gets dearer owing to increase of duty, the 
nnmber of consumers will become proportionately 
smaller. I do not think that the price will affect the 
consumption till it is twice as heavy as at present. I 
Ijave heard that in Me.rwar the duty has been raised by 
another P^s. 50 a maund, i.e., to Rs. 250 a maund. 
Assuming that it is similarly raised here, and that 375 
maunds is the annual import, the annual revenue loss 
to the Durbar would be Rs. 93,7."i0. The Jagirdars 
would not suffer at all. as they no longer levy customs 
dues. In my opinion it would not be possible to make 
up the loss caused by the prohibition of opium by other 
customs. As it is the customs dues are higher than 



they used to be. They are high as it is, and could not 
be raised. If the customs were raised the effect would 
be to interfere with trade and reduce the revenue 
instead of raising it. The duty on piece goods is at 
present Rs. 5 a maund, and on cloth manufactured in 
India from English thread Rs. 4, that on country cloth 
Rs. 18a., sugarcane pays 8 annas, gur 9 annas a maund, 
sugar 12 annas a maund, ghi Rs. 2 a maund, rice 
8 annas a maund, corn 3 annas a maund, wool Rs. 2 a 
maund, oxen exported 10 annas a piece, sheep 2 annas 
a piece. There would be no loss in excise owing to the 
prohibition of opium as there is no excise. The actual 
price of opium in Bikanir to traders is about Rs. 500, 
and the profit on its sale is 10 or 12 per cent. The 
whole loss to traders would thus be about Rs. 20,000 or 
Rs. 25,000. This is merely the direct loss, and does not 
include the loss which Bikanir traders, who have firms 
elsewhere, would sufler. It also does not include the 
injury to their credit, and so to their other trade, 
which would result from heavy loss in opium. They 
would also lose enormously by failure to recover 
advances. It would be impossible for the traders to 
compensate themselves in any way for the loss which 
thoy would suffer by opium. I know all about this 
matter, because I was Munim to Seth Mai Chand Soni, 
Rai Bahadur of Ajmere, both at Ajmere and Karaoli^ 
and I am myself a Bania by caste, though I do not 
trade myself. 

21,005. (To Seth Nemi Ghand.) Will you tell us from 
your own pesrsonal experience what you know in con- 
nexion with the opium trade in Bikanir ? — I am 45 years 
of age, and have been 10 years in the employ of the 
Bikanir State. I was at the head of the Customs 
Department from the middle of S. 1941 to the middle 
of S. 1944 (1883-84), after that I was two or three 
months in the Council, and then for three years at the 
head of the Accounts Department, since which I havo 
been for throe years a Nazim, first at Surajgarh and 
since at Sujangarh. I had opportunities of seeing the 
import of opium when I was in the Customs Depart- 
ment, and I have also seen the replies given by my 
brother, Seth Milap Chand, yesterday. 1 have also a 
knowledge of the opium trade from my own personal 
experience when I was engaged in it, before I entered 
the service of the Durbar. With reference to the state- 
ment which Seth Milap Chand made, I wish to say that 
I think he made a mistake in taking an average of 
eight years. The Customs Department was re-oro-anised 
m Sambat year 1942, and traders knowing that a re- 
organisation was about to take place, imported lar<^e 
quantities. In Sambat year 1941 (1883-84) 556 maunds 
were imported, and nine years is the proper average 
to take, which gives 378 maunds a year. It is 
impossible to take a longer series of years, as correct 
figures are not available prior to Sambat year 1941 
If it be assumed that the duty on opium will be 
kept, as at present, at Rs, 206. the revenue on 378 
maunds would be Rs. 77,490. Besides this, there is a 
prospect of a further increase of revenue in the future 
The present duty is very low, and is hardly feltfcy con- 
sumers. It has been gradually raised from Rs 70 to 
Rs. 205, and would probably be raised again in future 
Also the population of Bikanir is increasing and if it 
continues to increase in the future, the revenue from 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



47 



opium will increase of itself without raising tlie duty. 
Without relying too much on the figures of the census 
of 1881, I should say from my own experience of 
Bikanir that the population has increased at least 20 
per cent, in the past 10 years, and a similar inrrcnse 
may be expected in future. The duty might easily bo 
raised to Rs. 300 a maund, and allowing for an increase 
of 20 per cent, in the population, the future loss to the 
State by stopping the consumption of opium would not 
be less than one and a half lakhs of rupees. Compensa- 
tion for the customs duty taken by them was given to 
Jagirdars in S. 1942 and the following years, amounting 
to Rs. 50,000 or thereabouts a year. A very small 
portion of this, not more than 0'02 per cent, represented 
customs duty on opium, as these dues were taken by 
weight or camel loads, and opium was valuable in pro- 
portion to its weight. In my opinion the revenue from 
opium could not be replaced fairly by additional taxa- 
tion, because it is a revenue derived from the consumers 
of the drug and to replace it would bo necessary to tax 
other people. Neither is there any source from which 
it could be replaced. The customs duties are high 
already and could not be raised. The only grains free 
from duty are the common ones which form the staple 
food of the poor. The customs tariff was carefully con- 
sidered that taxation shonld fall on those able to bear it 
to the extent of their means, and any increase would bo 
injurious. 

21.006. {Sir J. Lijidl to 8eth Milap Ghand.) Why 
has the datj' on opium, been raised so much lately ? 
— Thoy follow the example of Jodhpore. When I first 
came the duty was Rs. 70. 

21.007. What was that duty called?— Mahsul. 

21.008. Has there always been a customs duty on 
apium in tho State ? — The charge was not so heavy 
before. 

21.009. Now that the duty has gone up to Rs. 200 is 
it not very difiicult in a country like Bikanir to stop 
smuggling? — -They make arrangements as far as 
possible, but every now and then people are caught. 

21.010. Do you not think a great deal must come in 
like that — who looks after it P — There are police 



stations. The inspector goes round in each village and 
inquires, and if anybody is found to liavc failed to pay 
the duty on opium it is put up for auction, and the man 
is fined for it. 

21.011. Are informers used or not ? — It is a rule when 
the opium is put up to auction and sold that the Raj 
takes only the duty leviable on the quantity, and the 
rest of the price is given to the informer as a reward. 

21.012. [Mr. Fanshawe to Beth Milap Ghand.) 
Are there not a largo number of Banias in the Bikanir 
State P — A large number. 

21.013. Is the habit of taking opium in moderation 
common amongst them P — A few take opium. 

21.014. Can you tell me how many per cent, take it ? 
— Eight or 10 per cent. 

21.015. Is it the case among the Banias that the use 
of opium is generally begun in middle life ? — They 
generally take it in old age, but in middle age a person 
takes it as medicine to remove some illness, 

21.016. {Mr. Earidas Veharido.s to Seth Milap Ghand.) 
Do you take it ? — No. 

21.017. {Mr. Mowhray to Seth Nemi Ghand.) Where 
does the opium imported into Bikanir come from ? 
— Prom Kotah. 

21.018. What is the retail price?— Rs. 12 a seer. 

21.019. {Mi: Feasa to Seth Nemi Ghand.) When 
the duty was raised in 1890, and again in 1894, was it 
in the hope that the consumption of opium would 
decrease ?— Opium in these years has become cheaper 
on account of its production in China. The increase of 
duty has had no effect, and the consumption is tho 
same as bofove. 

21 .020. The price was raised to increase the revenue 
without opium becoming any cheaper ? — The custam 
has been raised for revenue certainJy, but, as in these 
years, opium became cheaper on account of the pro- 
duction in China, the tax is not felt by the people — ^it 
is felt too little because they pay only about 8 annas 
per head during the year. 



The witnesses withdrew. 



Adjourned to to-morrow. 



At Daulat Bagh, Ajmere. 



SIXTY-SECOND DAY. 



Seth Milap 
Chand and 
Seth JVemi 

Chand. 
QBiAanir 

State.') 

1 Feb. 1894. 



Friday, 2nd February 1894, 



The Right Hon, LORD BRASSET, K.C.B,, Chaikman, presiding. 



Sir James Lyall, G.O.I.E., K.CS.I. 
Sir William Roberts, M.D,, F.R.S. 
Mr. R. G. C. Mowbray, M.P. 
Mr. A. U, Fanshawe. 



Mr. Arthur Pease. 

Mr. Haridas Veharidas Desai. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Prescoit Hewett, C.I,B., Secretary, 



Surgeon-Major D. Ffrench Mullen called in and examined. 



21,021. {Sir W. Boherts.) Tou are, I believe, Civil 
Surgeon at Ajmere ? — Yes. 

21,022 P — How long have you served in Rajputana? — 
I have served 16 years in Rajputana, and the greater 
part of that timo in an opium-growing district (Udai- 
pur). 

21,023. What have been your impressions with regard 
to opium P — I have no prepossession in favour of opium. 
I do not think its use is necessary as a prophylactic, or 
for the treatment of malaria in Rajputana. I do not 
think healthy young people are any the better for taking 



opium even in moderation. At the Mayo College, where 
tho young Raj put nobles are educated, no boy is allowed 
to take opium in any form, and they are as healthy a lot 
of youngsters as you would see .inywhere. I consider 
that the Mayo College is having and will have a decided 
effect in bringing up tho young Rajputs to do without 
opium. The people who exceed in the matter of 
taking opium would take to alcohol or ganja if deprived 
of it. 

21,024. Speaking generally, do you consider opium a 
harmful stimulant P — If the Rajputs must have a stimu- 
lant, I think opium the least harmful. 

F 4 



Surgeon-Major 
, jD, Ffrench 
Mullen. 

2 Feb. 1894, 



48 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



Surgeon-Major 

■O. Ffrench 

Mullen. 

2 Feb. 1894. 



21.025. Does it incite to crime, do yon think P — I do 
not believe it incites to crime. We get very few opium- 
eating prisoners in the Ajmero Gaol. I consider it 
would be qaite impossible for Government to prohibit 
opium growing; they must trust to education. 

21.026. How long have you been in civil practice in 
this district ? — About 13 years. 

21.027. Amongst what classes of people havo you 
practised? — Amongst Rajputs, Bhils, and Banias, all 
classes. 

21.028. Have you had dispensaries under your 
charge P — Yes, from 12 to 15 dispensaries, besides one 
where I always work myself. 

21.029. There you see the patients yourself? — Yes ; I 
have had that under my charge for 16 years. 

21.030. Have you noticed the efi'ect of opium as a 
producer of much disease ? — I say it produces very little 
disease, if any. 

21.031. You recognise, I presume, the difference 
between moderate consumption and excessive consump- 
tion ? — Yes, there is a decided difference. 

21.032. Have you noticed anything in the way of 
disease produced in moderate opium-eaters P — Never. 

21. 033. But you have from excess P — Yes. 

21.034. Have you noticed the efi'ect of excess on the 
people who do not get enough to eat, who are poor and 
insufficiently fed ?^It keeps away the feeling of 
hunger more or less ; a man can do with less food if ho 
takes opium. 

21.035. You think it enables a man to do with less 
food? — Yes, it dulls the sensation of hunger. 

21.036. What effects have you noticed in well fed 
people from the excessive use of opium p — I do not 
think I havo ever met a man who ate opium iu excess 
that had not some disease aa well. 

21.037. You mean some disease independent of 
opium ? — Yes. 

21.038. Have you seen them use opium merely as a 
restorative or comforter p — The people do use it in 
moderation as a restorative; I was referring to excess. 

21.039. You have not seen that class of consumers 
go to excess P — Except where there was some indepen- 
dent disease. 

21.040. The people who have exceeded havo generally 
had some disease? — Yes, 

21.041. What is your impression with regard to the 
use of opium in malarial conditions as a mi ti gator or 
as a prophylactic ? — Wherever you can get quinine or 
medical treatment, I consider opium is quite un- 
necessary. 

21.042. But in cases where you cannot get quinine? 
— Indirectly it will act by preventing ohillu which leod 
to fever. 



21,043. It prevents recurrent attacks ?- 
chills. 



-It prevents 



21.044. In that respect yon consider it a prophylac- 
tic ? — Indirectly only. 

21.045. What is your general impression as to the 
opium habit in Eajputaua ; is it on the whole a habit 
that dooB more harm than good or the other way — I 
mean the habit as it is practised iu liajp'jtana ? — My 
position with regard to that is, that a lot of the people 



are badly fed, have very insanitary surroundings, and 
are poorly clothed, and that with these people opium 
does a certain amount of good. It prevents them 
getting colds, and stifles the feeling of hunger to a 
certain extent. 

21.046. Do you think that the good does counter- 
balance the evil ? — I think the good does counterbalance 
the evil in their present state. 

21.047. Have you any experience of the practice, 
which I understand is prevalent here, of giving small 
quantities of opium to infants ? — Yes. 

21,04-8. Hare you seen accidents from that practice ? 
— Whenever I attend a case myself I always stop the 
opium while the child is under my treatment. I have 
had cases of pneumonia and cases of bronchitis, where 
if the opium had been continiied the child would have 
probably died. 

21.049. If the opium had been continued ? — Yes. 

21.050. Speaking generally, does the habit appear to 
you to interfere with the growth and nutrition of in- 
fants ? — No, the children are a very healthy looking 
lot. 

21.051. Does the practice load to accidents or 
fatalities amongst the infants ? — 1 have no doubt it does 
lead to a certain number of accidents from overdose, but 
so it does in England. 

21.052. Even under medical prescription P — Yes. 

21.053. Then you do not think the accidents from the 
practice here are more frequent than the accidents that 
occur in England ? — I was one and a half years in 
Wales, and I had quite as many accidents there from 
these patent medicines containing opium. 

21.054. (Mr. Fansliawe.) With reference to what you 
said about the Eajput nobles at the Mayo College, it 
would not be usual, would it, for boys of that age to 
consume opium, even in their own homes ? — A lot of 
them do, just as schoolboys smoke, on the quiet, and 
sometimes when they want to get into the Zenana they 
take a dose. It is not a regular habit. 

21,056. It would not be a regular habit, but it would 
be an occasional use at that age ? — Yes. 

21.056. In your experience are the cases of excessive 
consumption amongst the Rajput Thakurs common or 
not ; few or many P— I suppose in my experience I have 
met about six that exceeded. 

21.057. Would that be few or many looking at the 
thing in its totality ? — Some 3 per cent. 

21.068. Some 3 per cent, of the Thakurs whom you 
know would take it to excess P — Yes. 

21.069. {Mr. Haridas Veliaridas.) You have said that 
the people who exceed in the matter of taking opium 
would take alcohol or ganja if deprived of opium ; do 
you mean by that that the habit of taking alcohol or 
ganja is more injurious than that of taking opium in 
excess ?— What I mean is that the men who take opium 
iu excess feel that they cannot do without a stimulant. 
They have not strength of mind to deprive themselves 
of it. If they did not take opium the)' would take some 
other stimulant, and alcohol or ganja would bu worse 
for them. 

21,060. (Mr. Fease.) You think it a matter of regret 
that so many of the people here who are in heallh take 
opium?— Yes ; just as I think a man need not take 
liquor if he does not require it. 



The witness withdrew. 



Singhji 
Surajmal. 
(,Marwar 
, State.') 



Singhji Subajmal called in and examined (through a-i luterpretjr) 
believe, Customs 



21.061, (Ghairman.) You arc, I 
Superintendent at Marwar ? — Yes. 

21.062, What is your caste ? — I am a Mahajan. 

21.063, What have you to toll us in reference to 
the consumption of opium at Marwar ? — I have served 
11 years in the Customs Department, Comparison of 
customs returns of the past five years with those of 
the preceding five years shov. s an annual decrease of 
93 i-niinnds in the annual import of opium, and I can 
prove thereby that its consumption is decreasino-, 
which decrease, I tliink, is mainly due to the gradual 
decrease of immoderate opium-eateis, as also the frugal 
tendency of the opium-eating rich in the use of opium 
in festival and courteous hospitalities. In my opinion 
the annual import of opium cannot go lower than 1,000 



maunds a year. Prom the records of the past five 
years, for the accuracy of which I can vouch I find an 
average of 1,241 maunds opium imported, and this 
cfuantity, with the duty at present levied, Ks 200 
would bring in an income of Es, 2,48,200 'but while 
comparing this figure with that of import of precedino- 
five years, I find an average annual decrease of 93 
maunds, and allowing this decrease to continue the 
import of opium cannot, as already stated, go lower 
than 1,000 maunds, which amount in my opinion is 
essentially necessary for cousniuptiun in" Marwar 1 
therefore fairly estimate the Durljar permanent loss 
(on the reduced quantity of import, maunds 1 000 uitii 
the duty at present levied) at lis. 2,00,000, Besides this 
transit duty on opium for Jaisalmir brings to the Durbar 
an average annual income of about Es. 500 Taking 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



45 



both items together the Durbar loss is estimated by 
me at Es. 2,00,500. I believe the import of 1,000 
maunds per annum would not decrease even if the 
import duty were still further raised, a measure which 
would likely create dissatisfaction in Marwar, as the 
duty on opium has amply been raised. I consider the 
above fairly represents the Durbar loss, as it could not 
be made good by other changes. My experience enables 
me to judge that loss in excise (mapa) to Jagirdars by 
the prohibition of opium would be about Es. 5,000. 
The average annual import of opium in Marwar is 
1,241 maunds, out of which 641 maunds is consumed 
in Khalsa and other villages where no excise is charged 
on opium. I consider the average of Jagirdar's charge 
of excise dues to be three pies on every rupee worth of 
opium in Marwar. At this rate the total charge of 
excise on 600 maunds comes to Es. 5,000. 

21.064. (Mr. Fanshawe.) I understand that there is 
no poppy cultivation in Marwar ? — No. 

21.065. Will you kindly tell us from what States the 
opium is chiefly imported into Marwar ? — The juice 
comes from Tonk, and the balls come from Kotah and 
Udaipur. 



21.066. Is the quantity of 1,000 maunds, which you 
mention, intended for actual consumption in Marwar 
territory P — Yes. 

21.067. Is there any excise for opium in force in 
Marwar P — No. 

21.068. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) You say that the 
present consumption is 1,241 maunds, and you estimate 
that at some distant date the consumption will fall to 
1,000 maunds, but not lower ; do you think that next 
year the consumption will be less than it is now ? — Yes, 
I think that it will be lower. 

21.069. But not lower than 1,000 maunds? — No, 
certainly not, under any circumstances. 

21.070. (Mr, Fease.) To what do you attribute the 
gradual decrease of opium-eaters P — They levied extra 
duty on opium, that is one thing. People who used it 
in excess gradually decreased the dose. Another thing 
is that the people used to ofler opium -vshen they met, 
and they do not do it now to the same extent. 

21.071. Do you think there has been a reduction in 
the number of persons who take opium ? — From 93 
maunds decrease, it seems that theje must have been 
some decrease in the number. 



Singhii 
Surajmal. 
(JMarwar 

Stale.) 

2 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



ICiBlEAJ MuBABDiiAN Called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



21.072. [Mr, Fansliawe.) You are a Member of Coun- 
cil of Marwar, and a Oharan by caste P — Yes. 

21.073. Will you tell us what you know about the 
habit of opium' eating in Marwar p — I have had experi- 
ence of opium-using classes in Marwar for the last 
35 years, during which I have seen almost all the 
Farganas in Marwar. Opium is mostly used among 
Eajpuls, Oharans, and Bhats, who are followed by the 
criminal and forest tribes, and miscellaneous classes 
of Dholhis, Nais, Bambis, and Kumars. After them 
come the Mahomedans (especially Sindhis, Kaimkhanis, 
and Desi Sipahis), Hindu cultivators, Prohit Brah- 
mins, and last of all the Mahajans. They use opium 
in four forms ; — 

1. Dry mostly used by all classes. 

2. Opium dissolved in water used by the rich. 

3. Opium pills mixed with aromatic spices used by 
few of the rich. 

4. Tejara cold infusion of poppy heads used rarely 

by the poor when opium is not available. 

Men mostly, and women rarely, are habitual opium 
eaters. Seventy-five per cent, of infants above two months 
are daily given a dose of -^ lati till they are weaned, and 
this dose not only benefits them in preventing dysentery, 
chill, and evil effects of unwholesome milk, but also 
gives time to enable their mothers to work at house 
and in the fields. Twenty per cent, of opium eaters 
take it in excess. Its moderate use per day is 4 ratis, 
but with rich diet and good exercise it may be taken 
up to 6 ratis a day. More than this is an excess which 
goes up to 4 tola a day. It is taken moderately by the 
labouring classes with benefit. The number of moderate 
opium-eaters in Marwar is about 125,000 and that of 
immoderate 30,000. About 6 per cent, of the popula- 
tion of Marwar are habitual opium-eaters, taking into 
consideration only 2 per cent, of the females as habitual 
eaters. It is mostly taken twice, but a few take it 
once and thrice. Its use is obligatory among men of 
almost all creeds and classes in Marwar (with the 
exception of a few sects of Brahmins, Mahomedaus, 
and Mahajans)— on betrothal, on wedding day, during 
mourning days, and for rccoticiliation, and at the first 
visit of the son-in-law to his father-in-law's house. 
This usage is binding from a long standing custom. 
The succession of a Jagirdar ii! formally recognised by 
the head man of the village offering opium. To 
propitiate all festival days its use is customary, par- 
ticularly the Akhatij (new year), Holi, and Dewali 
festivals. Moderate use of opium after 40 is useful 



to cultivating and labouring classes. Even its im- 
moderate use is not so bad as the habit of taking 
alcohol in excess. Few can keep the use of liquor in 
moderation, and hence that substitute will lead to the 
moral, material, and physical ruin of the people. If 
the use of opium is stopped, mothers with infants will 
not be able to find time, till they are weaned, to share 
in the field or out-door labours. Those who are already 
opium-eaters will become useless without it. Culti- 
vators and labourers after 40 will not be able to perform 
their tiresome duties without it as they do it now. In 
fact, its prohibition will create discontent if its usage 
is stopped in confirming and propitiating ceremonies. 
Moderate use of opium is increasing owing to the 
increase of cultivation and population in Marwar, 
whereas the rich are using less opium and the number 
of immoderate consumers is decreasing. 

21.074. In speaking of Mahomedans you refer to 
Sipahis ; are any large number of them in Marwar ? — 
They are not more numerous than Hindus, but still 
there are thousands of them. 

21.075. What class of work are they employed upon P— 
The greater number of them serve the State. Some 
of them cultivate, others do carpenters' work, and so 
on, 

21.076. In saying that more than 6 ratis a day is 
an excessive use, will you kindly explain what you 
mean by excess ; do you mean that this amount 
causes harm to the health, or merely that you con- 
sider it as an excessive use P — I consider it does harm 
to health. 

21.077. Do you wish us to understand that there are 
30,000 men in Marwar who are causing harm to their 
health by taking opium P — It does not affect their health 
so much, but the people are rendered lazy, some people 
it does not afleot at all, but the greater number of them 
are rendered lazy. 

21.078. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) You say that the 
number of immoderate consumers is decreasing. Is 
not one reason for that the fact that those who use it 
in excess get old and die, and no new peojjle who take 
opium in excess come in their place P — Yes, that is 
what I meant. 

21.079. {Mr. Fease.) You say the moderate use of 
opium is increasing owing to the increase of cultiva- 
tion ; what do you mean by that ? — On account of the 
increase of cultivation the people have to work harder 
now, and therefore We inclined to take more opium. 



Kabiraj 

Murardhan. 

(Marwar 

State.-) 



The witness withdrew. 



(LoBD Bjsassey here left the Chair, which was taken by Sir James Ltall.) 
Pandit Mabho Prasad called in and examined. 
are Superintendent of 



21.080. {Ohair'eimn,) You 
Jalore in Marwar P — Yes. 

21.081. What is your caste ?— I am a Brahmin. 

O 8258S. 



21,082. What has been your experience of the opium- 
eating classes in Marwar ?— My experience of opium- 
eating classes in Marwar is founded on 2 J years 

G 



Pandit Madho 

Prasad. 

{Marwar 

Stale.) 



50 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION; 



Pandit Madho 

Prasad. 

(^Marwar 

State.) 

■2 Feb. 1894. 



service of the State in different official capacities. 
It is mostly used by Eajputs, Oharans, Bhats, criminal, 
forest arid misdellaneous tribes of menial "labouritig 
classes (Bambis, Knmars, and Naia) ; the nexb 
greatest consumers are Mahomedana (Sindhis and 
Kaimkhanis) ; then come Hindu cultivators Mats and 
Kablis), Prohifc Brahmins, and last of all come Maha- 
jana. Opium is mostly used in the dry crude form, 
called "kora amal," but a few take opium pills, dis- 
solved opium and tijara (i.e., poppy head) infusion. 
Men are more generally habitual opium-eaters, but 
only 2 per cent, of females when old and sick use it as a 
habit. Seventy-five per cent, of infants, till they are 
weaned (generally up to three years), are given a dose of 
Jth grain daily with no harm to them. On the contrary, 
it protects them from cold and against the ill-effects 
of poor milk, while it enables their mothers to continue 
their labours in the field or elsewhere. I roughly 
estimate 6 per cent, of the population as habitual 
opium-eaters in Marwar (not reckoning infants), calcu- 
lating that about 10 per cent, are men, and 2 per cent, 
women ; 20 per cent, of consumers take immoderate 
quantities, that is, from 13 grains to sometimes 80 
grains a day ; they are mostly rich persons, or those 
brought up in luxury. It is mostly taken twice a day 
and rarely once or thrice. Its use is essentially necessary 
in confirming betrothal and reconciliation among all 
classes, except some classes of the Mahajans, Mahome- 
dans, and Brahmins. The use of opium for the first 12 
days of mourning, as also in marriages and on festival 
days, is customary ; it is held socially respectable, and 
is the symbol of courtesy and hospitality to all. In 
particular, betrothals and reconciliations cannot be 
held binding without its use. The use of the drug on 
marriage festivals and mourning days is of long stand- 
ing, and people would consider misfortune and degrad- 
ation had overtaken them if its use were prohibited. 
The labouring and cultivating classes, deprived of it, 
would be unable to withstand fatigue and exposure 
as heretofore. Opium-eaters generally would become 
miserable and dependent on their neighbours without 
it. Mothers would not find time to attend to their 
labours in the house and field, and the people of Mar- 
war would take to liquor and other intoxicants. To 
my knowledge drunkards have been saved from alcohol 
by using opium. I am convinced that excess in drink- 
ing is worse than the immoderate use of opium. I 
believe up to 8 grains a day a moderate quantity, 
which benefits the labouring classes who use it after 
the age of 40. It helps them to bear the fatigues of 
their calls, and to prolong their existence. With rich 
diet it may be taken up to 12 grains a day with little 
or no harm. If opium were to be prohibited, I believe 
most of the opium-using classes would take to liquor, 
which they cannot use moderately, and thus far more 
fatal and wor.se consequences than even from the 
immoderate use of opium will ensue, degrading the 
morals, physique, and prosperity of the people. Its 
essential and customary use on ceremonies has taken 
the form of religious obligation, and hence the prohibi- 
tion of opium cannot be regarded by the people without 
great alarm and dissatisfaction. I believe that the 
lavish expenditure of opium on ceremonies by the rich 
and the number of immoderate eaters (most of them 
becoming so by the society of the rich) is decreasing, 
and that of moderate users, owing to the increase of 
population, is increasing. As the duty on opium is 
already sufficiently raised, I do not think it advisable 
to raise it further, as the object of decreasing its 
injurious use by the immoderate and the rich is already 
being attained. On each paila (7 seers) of opium the 
wholesale dealer makes a profit Rs. 4, and the retail 
sellers who sell about half of the total import (1,241 
maunds) again make the same profit ; the total profit to 
wholesale and retail traders is therefore calculated at 
Es. 4-2,648 per annum. Loss to wholesale traders : — 

Rs. 

(o.) Total average import per year, 1,241 
maunds, equal to 49,640 seers, at 
B-s. 4 profit per 7 seers - . 28,365 

(J.) Kctail sellers, half of above 14,183 



42,548 



All the traders are unanimous in saying that it will be 
very hard for them to change their hereditary pro- 
fession of trading in opium. 

21,1 ly:'. Are you a native of Marwar ?^No, I am a 
native of Kashmir. 

21,084. You are a Kashmiri Pandit ?— Tos. 



21.085. How long have you been in Marwar ?— This 
is rny 24th year. I was educated in Ajmere College. 

21.086. Is the sale of opium for internal consumption 
free in Marwar F — Yes, anybody can sell opium. 

21.087. Do you know at what price it sells ? — ^Vbout 
five and half or six tolas a rupee. 

21.088. It is imported into Marwar? — From Kotah 
and Malwa, it is not produced in Marwar. 

21.089. You say that the number of immoderate 
consumers is decreasing ; what do you think is the 
cause of that ? — At one time the rich people were very 
much applauded for their liberality in distributing 
opium in their hospitalities, but they have not such a ten- 
dency now to .show their extravagance on such occasions. 

21.090. Can you explain why you think it does good 
to the labouring and cultivating classes P — As far as I 
have seen and heard from these opium-using men I 
have found them all unanimous in saying that if they 
did not make use of opium after the age of 40 they 
would not be able to carry on their work and earn their 
living as they do now, and I believe it from what I 
have seen and heard. 

21.091. I suppose those labouring and cultivating 
classes consume very small amounts, do they ? — Yes, 
moderate quantities, because they would be unfit if 
they used it in excess. 

21.092. Is Marwar a very healthy country or a 
malarious country p — A very healthy country, com- 
paratively far healthier than Patna and the JS[orth- 
Western Provinces. Its dry, healthy climate is well 
known. 

21.093. What is the system as regards liquor in 
Marwar? — It is under Abkari rules and is well con- 
trolled. 

21.094. Do licensed vendors get contracts? — Yes, 
without a license nobody can distil. 

21.095. Is the duty upon the still or upon the liquor 
turned out ? — There is one contractor. He is the only 
person who can distil it, and he can sell liquor from his 
distillery to retail dealers. 

21.096. Is the license for the districts put up to 
auction? — Yes, public auction. 

20.097. Can he establish as many stills as he likes P 
— No, he can only establish one still, and out of that 
he can sell liquor through retail dealers. 

20.098. What classes drink liquor ?— Almost all 
classes, except Brahmins aad Mahomedans and 
Mahajans. All Rajputs, Oharans, criminal tribes and 
forest tribes use it. 

21.099. Do the same people drink liquor and cat 
opium generally ? — They can. Opium is not forbidden 
in any religion, but very few take both together. Of 
course, those who are in a, very bad condition by the 
excessive use of liquor and who are on the point of 
death, are saved by exchanging it for opium, no doubt, 
and have lived for a good many years. 

21.100. Are there many towns in Marwar ?— About 
22. 

21.101. Small towns P— Small towns, from 10,000 to 
20,000 inhabitants. 

21.102. {Mr. Pease.) Kabiraj Murardhan said he be- 
lieved that about 6 per cent, of the population take 
opium habitually ; is that your estimate ?— Yes. 

21.103. Then the great bulk of the population, the 
labouring and cultivating classes, do not take it habitu- 
ally?— Yes, they take it habitually, but in moderate 
quantities. 

21.104. By far the largest proportion of the labour' 
ing and cultivating classes are not habitual opium- 
eaters ?— Very few use it habitually. 

•20,105. You estimate also that of the females only 2 
per cent, take opium, and another witness, taking the 
same estimate says that 2 per cent, are very old and 
sickly ? — I agree with that. 

21.106. It is not at all taken by healthy women ? — 
Not at all for the sake of pleasure. 

21.107. {Clminnnn.) Is it quite clear that it is (i per 
cent, of the population that you mean who are habitual 

opium consumers, or 6 per cent, of the adult males .f* 

6 per cent, of the total population, including women. 
If adult males only are taken, 10 per cent, is the rough 
estimation. 



MINUTES OF EVrOENCK. 



61 



21,208. (Mr. Fanaliawe.) In speaking of the use by 
the menial classes do yon include Minas and Bhils 
among the menial class ? — Yes, criminal classes. 

21.109. Ton have a large class of Banias, generally 
called " Marwari traders," have you notP — Yes. 

21.110. In saying that as regards the consumption of 
opium Mahajans come last, do you wish to include 
under Mahajans this Bania or trading class ? — ^Yes. 



21,111. Is the use, so far as yon know, amongst them 
generally later in life, do they begin at the £ige of 35 ? 
— Yes, generally later in life. That is my experience. 



21,112. (Ghairman) Is any customs duty levied on 
opium when it is imported into Mar war ?— Yes, Bs. 
200 per maund'., 



The witness withdrew. 



Bhati Eaghunath Singh called in and examined (through an Interpreter) 



21.113. (Ghairman.) You are a Eajput and Jagirdar 
of Osian in Marwar ?— Yes^ 

21.114. What is the size of your Jagir? — About Es. 
10,000. 

21.115. Inside your Jagir you exercise, I suppose, 
the offices of magistrate and judge ? — Yes, to a certain 
extent. 

21.116. What experience have you had of opium in 
Marwar? — My experience of the last 30 years, during 
which I have seen all the Parganas, of Marwar, enables 
me to affirm that opium is mostly used in Sheo, Shergarh, 
Sankra, Malani, and Sanohoro districts, that is, the 
desert districts ; 15 per cent, of the males among 
Eajputs are habitual opium-eaters, of whom 30 per cent, 
take ic to excess. " Opium is used in three forms : — 1. 
Dry mostly uSied; 2. Solved in water and strained, used 
by the rich ; 3. Opium pills used only by some rich 
people. Men use it mostly, women rarely. Only 2 
per cent, of the females on the whole, i.e.; very old and 
sickly, make a habit of it. Seventy -five per cent, of 
infants between two months and under three years are 
given a small dose up to ^th grain daily with benefit. I 
roughly calculate the population of Eajputs, including 
Charans in Marwar to be about 2 lakhs. It is gene- 
rally taken twice a day, but a few use it once or thrice 
also. Its use is obligatory, and is considered sacred in 
confirming betrothal, reconciliation, as also : during 
the first twelve days of mourning, in marriage, and on 
" Muklawa," i.e., on son-in-law's first visiting father- 
in-law's house to fetch his wife. Its use is considered 
propitious : — 

1. At Akhatij 1 

2. ,, Dewali [ festivals. 

3. „ Hoh J 

4. When friends meet. 

Its daily use up to 8 grains, and with good exei'cise 
and rich diet up to 12 grains, is beneficial ; over and 
above 12 grains is excess. The use of opium protects 
from chills those of the cultivating classes engaged in 
irrigation. If opium is prohibited, Eajputs would 
substitute the worse and far more expenp.ive stimulant 
of alcohol, for it. Immoderate drinkers who have 
saved themselves by substituting opium must die with- 
out it. Mothers with infants will find no tinae to 
attend to daily domestic duties as hitherto. Habitual 
consumers will become useless or die. Betrothal and 
reconciliation will not be convincing and binding to 
parties concerned. The number of eaters in excess, 
and the expenditure of opium by the rich for courteous 
ofiices, is diminishing, but owing to the increase of 
population the number of moderate eaters is increasing. 



21.117. You say in your evidence that the use of 
amal-pani is considered sacred at certain ceremonies, 
like betrothals, reconciliations, &c. Do you know 
what the origin of that idea is — why people began first 
to take opium at those times P — It has been for genera, 
tions the custom among Eajputs to take opium on these 
occasions, and the betrothal is not considered to be 
binding until they have taken opium. I cannot give 
any origin of the custom. 

21.118. (Mr. .Pease.) You say that 15 per cent, of the 
males among Eajputs are habitual opium-eaters, of 
whom 30 per cent, take it to excess. Do you mean by 
excess that they take more than 12 grains a day, or 
that they take it to the injury of their health ? — I 
estimate those people who take over 12 grains to be 
immoderate eaters ; but it does no harm to their 
health. 

21.119. Why do you call it excess if it does no harm 
to their health ?• — I take about 60 grains of opium 
myself, and it is not injurious to my health at all. It 
is the custom to call a man an immoderate eater if he 
takes beyond 12 grains. 

21.120. (Ghairman.) How long have you been taking 
so much as 4 mashas P— For the last 10 years. I began 
taking opium 16 years ago. 

21.121. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Do you charge any excise 
duty on opium in your Jagir ? — I take " mapa " on 
opium. 

21.122. At what rate do you take " mapa "? — About 
an anna or so on a seer. It is not sold in large 
quantities in my 'Jagir. 

21.123. (Ghairman.) You say it is mostly used in the 
desert districts in Marwar. Can you give any reason 
why it should be more used in the desert districts ? — 
They do not take any liquor there, and so they take 
opium. 

21.124. Liquor, perhaps, is not available there ? — 
It is not available, and therefore they take opium. 

21,126. You say that 16 per cent, of the males 
among Eajputs are habitual consumers. Hoiv many of 
the other 85 per cent, are oooasional consumers ; are 
they all occasional consumers, or how many? — About 
30 or 35 per cent, take it on some occasions, and about 
40 or 50 per cent, never take it, 

21,126. Do you mean merely on ceremonial occasions, 
or when they go on journeys, and when they are ex- 
posed to fatigue ? — They take it when they go on 
journeys, and when they are fatigued. They also take 
it at marriages, and on other occasions of rejoicing. 



Pandit Madho 
Prasad. 
(^Marwar 

State.') 

2 Feb. 1894. 



Bhati 
Raghunath 

Singh. 

{Maricar 

State.) 



The witness withdrew. 



Mehta Eatan Lal called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



21.127. (Ghairman.) What is your occupation ? — lam 
a paymaster of the army, and I keep all the records 
and the accounts of all revenue and expenditvire. I am 
State Accountant of Jaisalmir. 

21.128. Will you give us your views in reference to 
the importation and consumption of opium in Jaisal- 
mir? — If the import of opium into Jaisalmir were to 
cease the Durbar's loss (taking the average of past five 
years only) annually would amount to Es. 21,340. Im- 
port duty at (Es. 195 Bijeyshahi rupees =) 198. British 
currency on 107f British maunds (average of past five 
years), 21,264 plus Es. 75, on account of import duty on 
poppy seed = Es. 21,339. But if the average of the past 
10 years be taken, the total loss would be about 60 per 
cent, more, i.e., about Es. 32,000. This loss cannot be 
recouped by any revision of the State customs tarifi". 
I am a moderate consumer of opium since 27 jyears. I 



take it in the form known as " mawa" twice a day. 
Opium is taken in five forms : — 

1. Crude, or " mawa," in any quantity up to one 

tola. 

2. "Masaladar" (or spiced) golia, pills weighing up 

to one " ratti." 

3. " Golis," plain pills of same weight. 

4. "Bhian," i.e., pounded and strained through 

cotton soaked in water. When strained through 
cotton or woollen cloth it is called " G-alwan." 

5. Smoked (by sick people only) in small bits in 

" hukka." 

The different forms of taking opium are made use of 
in the following proportions :— Oruile, or "mawa," 
60 per cent. " Bhian," 20 per cent. " Gralwan," 10 per 
ceut. " Golis," 7 per cent. " Masaladar golis " 3 per 

G 2 



Mchta Ratan 

Lal. 

(^Jaisalmir 

Slate.) 



52 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Mehta Ratan 

Lai. 

{Jaisalmir 

State.) 

.2 Feb. 1894. 



cent. Fifty per cent, of the male population are con- 
sumers. Ten per cent, of the female population are 
consumers ; 80 per cent, of children under three, those 
over that age do not take it. The different castes con- 
sume opium to the following extent : — Eajpats and 
Charans, 65 per cent. Lower castes, 60 per cent. 
Musalmans, 40 per cent. Mahajans, 25 per cent. 
Brahmins and the rest, 20 per cent. Of the above con- 
sumers the following proportions probably exceed: — 
Rajputs, Oharans, and Musalmans, 10 per cent. Ma- 
hajans, 5 per cent. Others, 2 per cent. Children 
under three years of age are given opium in very small 
quantities to send them to sleep or to keep them quiet, 
to enable their mothers to work. Moderate consumers 
take a morning and evening dose of from 1 to 3 
ratis ; the dose of those who take to excess varies from 
1 " masha " to 1 tola. About 5 per cent, of the con- 
sumers take it only once a day, and about 2 per cent, 
once a week only in small doses. The occasions on 
which it is obligatory to take opium, are: — 1. 
Betrothals. 2. Weddings. S. The visit of a son-in- 
law to his father-in-law's house. 4. After a death, for 
12 days by Bajputs and Charans, and for the same or 
lesser periods by other castes. 5. On the birth of a 
male child among Bajputs and Charans. 6. First 
removal of hair of a male child among Bajputs and 
Oharans. 7. On the parting (or shaving in the 
middle) of the beard by Bajputs and Charans. 8. On 
the Akhatij " festival." 9. On reconciliations. It is 
also considered the right thing to do at other festivals, 
friendly greetings, and on fixed days at the temples. 
When taken modeiately opium improves the appetite, 
invigorates the body, gives courage, removes fatigue, 
and keeps off cold. If the supply of opium were 
suddenly stopped nearly all consumers over 50 years 
of age (moderate included) would be dead within a 
month ; those who survived would perish during the 
succeeding rains or cold weather ; at least 20 per cent, 
of the younger consumers would die in a year or two, 
and nearly all the remainder would become impotent or 
bo attacked by consumption and such like diseases. 
Only recent consumers and robust young people would 
retain their health, but would be incapacitated for hard 
work. Liquor would be substituted for opium, but 
cannot take its place as a stimulant. 

21.129. Is any poppy grown in Jaisalmir.P — No. 

21.130. How long has the import duty on opium been 
Bs. 198 per maund p — For the last three years. 

21.131. What was it before that ? — Bs. 160 per 
maund, and before that Bs. 90 per maund, and before 
that Bs. 70 per maiind. 

21.132. When was this duty first imposed ? — In 
1883. 



21.133. Before that was there no duty P— Duty was 
levied in difiterent forms. 

21.134. When Sind was under the Amirs did opium 
ever go to Karachi through Jaiealmir ? — Yes. 

21.135. Much ? — I cannot say exactly. 

21.136. You say that 65 per cent, of the Bajputs and 
Charans consume opium. You mean the adult males, 
I suppose .P— Yes, men only ; women take it but little. 

21.137. Does that 65 per cent, include all, whether 
they take it occasionally or habitually ?— -It includes 
all, habitual aa well as occasional eaters. 

21.138. Do you mean that 35 per cent, never take it.? 
— That is so. 65 per cent, are habitual consumers, and 
of the remaining 36 per cent, some take it on occasions 
when it is offered at ceremonies, betrothals, &o. 

21.139. (Mr. Wilson.) Yon say that " only recent con- 
' ' sumers and robust young people would retain their 
" health." Does that mean robust young people who 
have been in the habit of taking opium ?— Yes, robust 
young people amongst the consumers. 

21.140. You give nine occasions on which it is obliga 
tory to take opium. Is it not vciy common with many 
of them not really to take it, but just to touch it, and 
profess to take it ? — Those who are habitual consumers 
take it ; of the others, some touch it only, and some 
take a little. 

21.141. (Mr. Fansliawe.) In speaking of these obliga- 
tory occasions, are you referring to Bajputs and 
Chajans only ? — Mostly it is done amongst Bajputs and 
Charans, bat it is also the custom among Mahajans ; 
they ofi"er opium on such occasions. 

21.142. (Oliairman.) Is liquor much consumed in 
Jaisalmir p — It is used, but not to a very large extent, 
because Mahajans and Brahmins are prohibited by 
their religion from taking liquor. Others do use it, 
but to a small extent. 

21.143. Is there an excise system in Jaisalmir ? — 
Yes, there are two shops, and they get licenses from 
the Baj. 

21 .144. By auction P — Yes. 

21.145. Do the same people take liquor and opium 
generally, or different people P — Those that do not take 
opium drink liquor, and some opium consumers also 
take liquor. 

21.146. (Mr. Wilson.) You have given us a great 
many per-centages ; \\\\l you tell us whether those per- 
centages are the result of your own opinion or the 
result of any definite inquiry or statistics P — -It is my 
own opinion. 



The witness withdrew. 



Thaknr 

(Jaisalmi 21,147. (Oliairman.) What is your caste p — lama 

State.) Bhati Bajput. 

21,148. You are, I believe, Jagirdar of Jingali, in 

Jaisalmir ? — Yes. 

21.149. What is the size of your Jagir p — I own four 
villages, and when there is a good rainy season they 
yield about Ks. 1,200 or 1,300 a year ; in other cases 
they yield less. 

21.150. Will you tell us what you know of the opium 
habit in Jaisalmir P — I have habitually consumed 
opium in solution and strained through cotton, locally 
called " Bhian " for the last 20 years, and twice a day. 
Opium is taken in five different ways : — 1. Crude, dose 
up to one tola, called "mawa." 2. Pills mixed with 
cream and spices, called " masaladar golis" (taken by 
the rich only), made of any weight up to a rati. 
3. Plain pills called " golis." 4. Pounded and strained 
through cotton soaked in water called " Bhian." When 
strained through cotton or woollen cloth it is called 
" Galwan." 6. Small bits smoked in a hukka, used by 
sick people. The difi'erent ways of taking opium are 
made use of in the following proportions : — Crude, 60 
per cent. ; solved and strained through cotton, 20 per 
cent. ; solved and strained through cloth, 10 per cent. ; 
plain pills, 7 per cent. ; spiced pills, 3 per cent. Of 
the male population of Jaisalmir, 60 per cent, are con- 
sumers, 10 per cent, of the women take it, and 70 per 
cent, of children under three years of age are given it 
in very small quantities to send theiji to sleep or Jteep 



Thaktjk Bulidana called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



them quiet while their mothers are at work. It is 
seldom, if ever, used by children over three years of 
age. Opium is consumed by the different castes to the 
following extent : — 65 per cent, of Bajputs and Oharans ; 
66 per cent, of Musalmans ; 40 per cent, of lower 
castes ; 25 per cent, of Mahajans ; 20 per cent, of 
Brahmins and others. Of the above consumers the 
following proportion probably exceed: — Mus.ilmans, 
15 per cent. ; Rajputs and Charans, 10 per cent. ; 
Mahajans, 5 per cent.; others, 2 per cent. Moderate 
consumers take a morning and evening dose, which 
may amount to a masha, i.e., two mashas in the day. 
The doses of those who take to excess vary i'rom two 
mashas to a tola. Of the consumers, some 5 per cent, 
take it only once a day, and some 2 per cent, only once 
a week in small doses. The occasions on which it is 
obligatory to partake of opium are: — 1. Betrothal. 
2. Weddings. 3. Visit of a son-in-law to his father-in- 
law. 4. Birth of a male child. 6. First shaving of a 
male child's head among Rajputs and Charans. 6. 
Shaving the parting of a beard by Bajputs and Charans. 
7. For 12 days after a death among Rajputs and 
Charans, and for the same or a lesser time among other 
castes. 8. The Akhatij festival. 9. At reconciliations. 
It is also customary at other festivals, at temples on 
certain days, and at friendly gatherings. The moderate 
use of opium improves the appetite, invigorates the 
body, gives courage, removes fatigue, and keeps off" 
cold. If the supply of opium were suddenly stopped 
nearly all consumers over 50 years of age (moderate 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



53 



included) would be dead within a month or so ; the 
succeeding rains and cold weather would kill the rest. 
Of the other consumers, at least 30 per cent, would die 
in a year or two, and nearly all the remainder would 
become impotent or be attacked by consumption and 
such like diseases. Only recent consumers and robust 
young people would retain their health, though incapa- 
citated for hard work. Lic[uor would be substituted 
for opium, but cannot take its place as a stimulant. 



21,161. What proportion of the total population of 
Jaisalmir do you think are Eajputs, and what belong 
to other castes ? -I cannot say. 

21,152. {Mr. Fanshawe.) You say you arc «, habitual 
consumer yourself. What amount of opium do you 
take? — I take 4 grains in the morning and 4 grains 
in the evening, 

21,1-53. Why did you begin the habit ? — As it was the 
custom of the country, I often took it at ceremonies, 
and thus got into the habit of eating it. 



Thahur 

Bulidana 

(Jaisalmir 

State.') 

2 Feb. 1S94. 



The witness withdrew. 



Mehta Hamikmall called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



21.154. {Chairman.) You are, I believe, an opium 
trader and money-lender of Bap in Jaisalmir ? — Yes. 

21.155. And a Mahajan by caste P — Yes. 

21.156. Will you tell us what you know of the opium 
trade and the consumption of opium in Jaisalmir? — I 
have carried on the opium trade for 15 years. Opium 
is imported in its crude state known as " Amal-ki-goli " 
from. Kotah, where it costs per British maund about 
Rs. 245 (British coin) ; the customs duty is (Rs. 203 
(Marwar and Jaisalmir). At Jaisalmir it is sold at 
about Es. 570 per maund, which yields us a profit of 
three annas in the rupee, or Es. 90 per maund. Our 
total yearly profit, taking the annual average import at 
about 160 maunds, comes to Rs. 13,500. Add to this — 

Rs. 

Profit on other articles sold to con- 
sumers of opium ... IjOOO 

Profit derived by accepting payment in 

kind instead of in cash - - 500 

Profit on other articles bought with 

opium without much extra cost . 1,000 

Profit on sale of " Khar Bhanjan" (dry 
fruit, &c.) necessai-ily taken after 
opium ----- 500 

Sale of " Panni " or poppy leaves, &c. 
received with opium - . 350 



Total annual loss, &c. 



16,850 



The unsaleable stock, about 100 maunds, would put 
us to a further loss of Es. 48,000, and Es. 5,000 more 
would be lost as unrecoverable debt, total Es. 53,000. 
Opium traders of Jaisalmir cannot possibly compensate 
themselves by any other business. I am a habitual but 
moderate consumer of opium. I take it in the form 
"mawa" twice daily since lOs'ears; I tried to leave 
the habit off more than once, but ocmld not succeed. 
Opium is taken in five forms : — 1. Crude, from J 
of a "rati" to a tola at a time, called "Mawa"; 
2. Spiced pills, " Masaladar Golis," taken by the rich 
only ; and 3. Plain pills, " G-olia," weighing 1 or 2 
"ratis " each; 4. Pounded and strained through cotton 
soaked in water, called "Bliian " pounded and strained 
through woll en or cotton cloth, called "Galwan;" 5. 
Small bits smoked in a " huhka," used by sick people 
only. Eighty per cent, take it in the form of " Mawa " 
or crude. Ten per cent, solved and strained through 
cotton. Five per cent, solved and strained through 
cloth. Remained pills. Sixty per cent, of male pcipu- 
latiou are consumers, 16 per cent, of females, and 80 per 
cent, of children under three. These last are given it 
in very small quantities to send thcTi to sleep or keep 
them quiet while their mothers are at work. Children 
over three are seldom, if ever, given opium. Different 
castes consume opium to the following extent :— Rajputs 
and Charans, 60 per cent. Musalmans, 56 per cent. 
Lower castes, 45 per cent. Mahajans, 36 per cent. 
Brahmins and the rest, 25 per cent. Of these the 
following proportions probably exceed : — Rajputs, 
Charans, and Musalmans, 10 per cent, j Mahajans, 5 
per cent. ; others 6 per cent. Moderate consumers 
take a morning and evening dose which may amount 
to 2 mashas, i.e., 4 mashas in the day ; those who take 
to excess take doses up to 1 tola. About 4 per cent, 
of the consumers take it only once a day, and 2 per 
cent, once a week in very small doses. It is obligatory 
to partake of opium on following occasions : — 

1. Betrothals. 

2. Weddings. 

3. The visit of a son-in-law to his father-in-law's 

house. 
4i. After deaths for 12 days by Rajputs and Charans, 
and for the same or leaser periods by other 
castes. 



5. On the birth of a male child amongst Rajputs 

and Charans. 

6. First removal of the hair of a male phild among 

Eajputs and Charans. 

7. On the parting (or shaving in the middle) of 

the beard by Rajputs and Chatans. 

8. On the " Akhatij " festival. 

9. On reconciliations. 

It is also considered the right thing to do at other 
festivals, friendly greetings, and on fixed days at the 
temples. The moderate use of opium improves the 
appetite, invigorates the body, gives courage, remove.=! 
fatigue, and keeps off cold and cough. If the supply 
of opium were suddenly stopped, nearly all consumers 
over 50 (moderate included) would die within a month ; 
the succeeding rains and cold weather would kill the 
rest. Of the other consumers 30 per cent, at least 
would die in a year or two, and almost all the remainder 
would become impotent or be attacked by consumption, 
asthma, and other diseases. Only recent consumers and 
robust young people would retain their health, though 
incapacitated for hard work. Liquor would be Eubsti- 
tuted for opium, but cannot take its place as a stimulant. 

21.167. You have eaid in your evidence that you are 
an habitual but moderate consumer ; do you mind say- 
ing how much )ou take daily ? — Two ratis at a time 
twice a day. 

21.168. What is the duty upon opium when it is 
imported into Jaisalmir? — Rs. 198 per maund. Jodh- 
pore charges Rs. 6 extra on opium passing through their 
territory. 

21.159. Transit duty ?— Yes. 

21.160. How does it sell to the consumer in Jaisal- 
mir? — They sell to the consumers at an average rate of 
Rs. 14 4a. a seer, or Es. 570 a maund. 

21.161. Is the sale perfectly free ? — Yes, quite free. 

21.162. {Mr. Pease.) You say "I tried to leave the 
' ' habit off more than once, but could not succeed " ; why 
did not you succeed? — I could not give it up, because 
whenever I tiicd to do so I suffered from diarrhoea or 
cough, and I felt uneasy. 

21.163. Have you tried to redvico the dose? — Yes; 
but whenever I did that, after a space of three or four 
months I sometimes suffered from diarrhcea, cough, and 
so on. 

21.164. {Mr. IVUson.) Why did you try to leave it 
off? — Because I commenced at an early age. 

21.165. Did you think it was not a good habit ? — The 
propel- age for taking opium is about 35 or so. As I 
commenced it earlier I tried to give it up. 

21.166. Then you do not think it was a good habit for 
a young man, is that so? — It depends upon one's 
religion. 

21.167. Was it against your religion to take it ? — No. 

21.168. Then why did you want to leave it off? — I 
tried to give it up because my father reprimanded me 
for taking it at such an early age. 

21.169. Who translated your evidence? — A man 
known as Kazi. 

21.170. Who is this man ?— He was at Mount Abu in 
Government service, and now he is a Raj servant at 
Jaisalmir. 

21.171. Did you write your evidence yourself, or did 
somebody write it down for you ?— Another person took 
it down. 

21.172. Who was tj^at P^It was ib,e head clerk to tha 
political agent. 

a 3 



Mehla 
Hamirmall . 
(Jaisalmir 

State.) 



54 



INDIAN' OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Mehta 
Samirmall. 

(Jfaisalmir 
State.) 

2 Feb. 1894. 



21.173. Do you know tlic name of the clerk ? — I do 
not know. 

21.174. "WTiere was it taken down ? — At Jaiaalmir. 

21.175. A.t the house of the political agent or where ? 
— The Prime Minister of Jaisalmir and Kazi and myself 
went to the political agent's camp at Jaisalmir, and 
there it was taken down by the head clerk. 

21.176. A-re you awaro that the language of some 
parts of your statement of evidence is almost word for 
word the same as the language of some part of two or 
three other witnesses' evidence P — ^I do not know that. 

21.177. What do you think would happen to robust 
young people who haye been in the habit of taking 
opium if the supply were suddenly stopped ? — If it be 
prohibited all at once they will be rendered lazy, they 



will not be able to work, and very likely they will suffer 
from colds, coughs, and other diseases. 

21.178. What proportion of the women do you think 
are consumers of opium P — 15 per cent. 

21.179. And of the men P— (JO per cent. 

21.180. And of the children ?— 80 per cent. 

21.181. (Mr. Mowbray.) How many opium traders are 
there in Jaisalmir ?— About 30 or 40. The retail dealers 
are quite separate from these. 

21.182. What do you estimate your own profits at?— 
Rs. 1,000 a year in opium and other things. 

21.183. What else do you trade in besides opium P— I 
deal in cloth and grain as well, but only to a small 
extent. Opium is the principal thing I deal in, 



The witness withdrew. 



Singhji Jowan 

Mai Sayar 
(^Sirohi State.) 



SiNGiiJi Jo WAN Mal Sayar called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



21.184. (Ohcdrman.) Are you a resident of Sirohi ? — 
Tes, I am a native of Sirohi. 

21.185. You are Superintendent of Sirohi; what 
duties have you as superintendent ? — I am Superin- 
tendent of Customs. 

21.186. For the whole territory ?— Tes. 

21.187. What has been your experience of opium in 
Sirohi ? — Though the cultivation of the poppy is not 
prohibited, very little is grown, as opium can be easily 
and cheaply obtained without the trouble of cultivation 
and preparation. Were it otherwise, opium would 
certainly be produced as the people consider the use of 
it at festivals, marriages, and funeral ceremonies so 
important. In the hilly tracts of this State the climate 
is so malarious that the inhabitants called G-rassias 
almost all use it with very good effect, and they would 
greatly dislike the prohibition of its use, which feeling 
\vould be .'^hiired by the people in general. I submit a 
statement showing the yearly average amount of opium 
imported into Sirohi, as nearly 176 maunds, which 
amount at the present rate of duty of Rs. 175 per maund 
would yield an income of about Rs. 30,525, to which 
must be added transit and export duties amounting to 
Rs. 14, making a total sum of Rs. 30,639. But from 
former estimates it seems the full consumption within 
the State is estimated at 200 maunds yearly. The full 
amount has not been imported lately, as traders have 
kept extra stocks in order to improve the opium by 
keeping. As the duty on the drug has risen in the past 
from Rs. 80 to Rs. 175, it may be assumed the duty 
would be raised hereafter to Rs. 400 a maund, to in- 
crease revenue without diminishing the demand. Two 
hundred maunds at a duty of Rs. 400 a maund would 
yield Rs. 80,000, which is the yearly loss the Durbar 
customs revenue would sustain if opium import into 
the State ceased. There is no way in which the Durbar 
could revise its customs tariff so as to compensate itself 
for this loss. The small amount of dues on opium taken 
by Jagirdars is included in the above estimate of loss. 

21.188. Who are the Grirasias you mention ? — They 
are supposed to have descended from Rajputs originally, 
but they are considered to be low people now, and they 
live in and cultivate the hilly tracts. 

21.189. They are not Bhils p— No. 

21.190. Does the opium imported into the State pay 
anything else besides customs duty ? — Nothing else. 

21.191. How does it sell to the consumer p — From 
Rs. 12 to Rs. 15 a seer. The thin cakes are sold at 
Rg. 12 a seer, and the big balls Rs. 15 a seer. 

21.192. Are there any liquor excise arrangements P — 
Yes ; there is excise on liquor in Abu and districts. 

21.193. How does liquor sell ; at what price per seer 
or per bottle ? — Five bottles a rupee. 

21.194. Do these Girasias drink liquor? — Yes, they 
do drink, but not so much. 

21.195. Do the same people who take opium generally 
take liquor too, or not ? — Generally the people who take 
opium do not take liquor ; sometimes they do. 

21.196. {Mr. Pease.) When was the duty raised from 
Rs. 80 to Rs. 1 76 ?— in the month of Joth, or May last. 

21.197. What effect ]iad that upon the consumption 
of opium? — In order to check smuggling to Gujarat 
the duty was rfvised. 



21.198. (Oliairman). Is Sirohi under the Raja or 
under the British Government?— Under the Raja. 

21.199. Did the Raja make this change of his own 
accord, or did anyone suggest it to him ? — Some in- 
struction went from the political agent that smuggling 
ought to be stopped somehow or other, and then the 
Raja of his own device raised the duty with that object. 

21.200. {Mr. Pease.) What effect had the raising of 
the duty on the consumption of opium by the people of 
Sirhoi ? — The people who take opium take just the same 
quantity as they did before. It did not affect them. 

21.201. What reason have you to assume that the 
duty will be hereafter raised to Rs. 400 ? — Even then 
there will be no effect on consumers. 

21.202. What would be the effect if it was raised to 
Rs. 1,000? — Even then there would be no difference. 
Those who do consume it will have it. 

21.203. {Mr. Wilson.) Is the income of the Durbar 
from all sources very large indeed P — It is large enough. 

21.204. They have no need or desire lor more money ? 
— If he can get more it will be all right, but not other- 
wise. 

20.205. Why do you not raise the duty to Rs. 400 at 
once ? — It cannot be raised at once, it would be dis- 
tasteful to the people. 

21.206. Has the Durbar contemplated still further 
advances in the duty ? — There is no contemplation by 
the Durbar, but I gave my opinion to the Durbar that 
it could be extended to Rs. 400. 

21.207. Are there many offences in connexion with 
smuggling opium ? — There are not many. 

21.208. How many in a year? Four or five cases. 

21.209. Are those offences in the State of Sirohi? — 
Yes. 

21.210. What is the difference between cake opium 
and the big balls you spoke of ? — The cakes are covered 
with dry and rotten leaves, and the balls arc pure juice. 

21.211. What is the difference in price ? — Rs. 3. 
One is sold at Rs. 12 a seer, and the other at Rs. 15 a 
seer. 

21.212. {Mr. Mowbray.) Is that the price at present, 
Rs. 12 and Rs. 15 a seer ? — Yes. 

21.213. At what price was it sold in the bazars before 
the ,duty was raised last year ? — Rs. 10 and Rs. 12 
respectively. 

21.214. Where does the opium imported into Sirohi 
come from? — It comes from Kotah, through Beawar, 
from Udaipur, and from Nimahera. 

21.215. {Mr. Saridas Velmridas.) When did yon give 
your opinion to the Durbar about raising the duty to 
Rs. 400? — About two months ago. 

21.216. In connexion with this inquiry p — Yes, when 
the inquiry was being carried on. 

21.217. Are there Dungri Bhils as well as Girasia 
Bhils in Sirohi ? — Yes. 

21.218. (O/iciirmcm.) Do you yourself use opium P — 
No, I do not. 

21.219. When Sind was under the Amirs did the 
trade in opmm to Karachi go through Sirohi ? — Tes. 

21.220. Do you know how big the trade was ? Was 
it a large trade ? — It was a big trade. 



The witness withdrew. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



55 



Eaj Prithi Eaj called in and examined (throngh an Interpreter.) 



21.221. {Oludrman.) What Rajput are you P— Deora 
Rajpnt. 

21.222. Are you of the same tribe as the Eaia of 
Sirohi.P— Yes. 

21.223. What have you to say about the consumption 
of opium among Rajputs P— In my brotherhood and 
among other Rajputs opium is taken in small pieces, 
swallowed in a little water. There are some who take 
it in the form known as " Amal-pani " also. Very few 
Of our females take opium ; those who do, take it in the 
same way as the males. Children are given it in a very 
small quantity mixed with their mother's milk. One- 
sixteenth of our community are opium-eaters, of whom 
one-eighth take it to excess. Opium is taken twice a day, 
morning and evening. Those who take it in excess, 
take up to J- of a tola at a time, i.e., i tola per day; 



others take about yV of a tola at a time, i.e., about i of 
a tola per day. The occasions on which opium is taken 
are festival days, births, betrothals, marriages, funerals, 
reconciliations, and on long journeys. It is also taken 
by those who suffer from asthma, cough, diarrhoaa, 
dysentery, general debility, &o. Its eifects are re- 
freshing and invigorating. Moderate consumers keep 
healthy, and I know of no case of opium-eating with 
bad result. Those who take it in excess even keep their 
health and show no signs of bodily or mental exhaustion ; 
on the contrary, they look stronger and healthier than 
they actually are. If consumption of opium is stopped, 
except as medicine, the opium-eaters will suffer 
greatly and be useless. No treat or feast can be con- 
sidered complete without opium. If consumption of 
opium is prohibited all the Rajputs would be dis- 
satisfied, and no betrothal can be regarded as complete 
without the customary " Amal-pani." 



MajPrithi Raj 
(_Sirohi State.') 

2 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Rao Bahaduk Vinayek Rao Ganesh Samamh called in and examined. 



21.224. {Ohairman.) You are, I believe, finance mem- 
ber of the Tonk Council ? — Yes. 

21.225. How long have you been in the service of the 
Tonk, State? — Seven years. 

21.226. Where is your real home P — Poena. 

21.227. What caste are you?— I am a Kayasth 
Prabhu. 

21.228. Will you tell us what you know in regard to 
the cultivation of the poppy in Tonk ? — The area under 
poppy cultivation is acres 14,010. Jagir and other 
alienated lands are included in this total for the whole 
State, and form nearly a sixth of it. The districts 
totals are as follows: — District in Gentral India.— 
Ohhabra, 4,893-33 ; Pirawa, 3,870-83; Seronje, 413-40. 
District in Majputana. — Nimbahera, 4,330-33; Tonk, 
443*60; Alligarh, 58-83. The area of cultivation stated 
above is the average of the ascertained area for the last 
six years, a period which as a whole was under average. 
The average of production of opium for the same period 
is 2,548 maunds. The expanse of poppy cultivation 
and its yield in opium both fluctuate very considerably, 
according to the character of rains and the state of 
weather, while the crop approaches maturity, ignoring 
other causes. The maximum area of the poppy land is 
about 25,000 acres, and the maximum yield about 
5,000 maunds. It is solely to secure a share of the 
foreign opium trade of India that poppy is cultivated 
on its present scale in the district of Pirawa, Ohhabra, 
and Nimbahera. The average of the State exports for 
the last six years is 2,542 maunds. Excepting a small 
quantity taken to Sirohi and Marwar the whole of the 
exports join the general foreign trade of India after 
crossing the British India barriers at either (Jjjain or 
Indore, or at one of the minor opium scales in Central 
India. Any action that may be taken with the opium 
trade to starve the cultivation of poppy in this State 
out of its present margin of profit would amount to its 
actual suppression, and entail on the State a deprivation 
of its share in the foreign trade and a loss of revenue 
derived from it. The area occupied by poppy cannot be 
wholly placed under other crops equally remunerative 
to both the State and the cultivators. Therefore, 
where by reason of its extensiveness and relative im- 
portance, poppy cultivation has formed the basis of 
the land revenue settlement of the irrigated lands, as 
in Ohhabra, Pirawa, and Nimbahera districts and 
parts of Seronje, Tonk, and Alligarh districts, the 
entire settlement demand on irrigable land will, in case 
of the stoppage of poppy cultivation, call for a revision 
and re-adjustment at loss of about Rs. 132,900 per 
annum. This reduction of Rs. 132,900 should, it is 
cp.lculated, enable the State and holders of alienated 
land to take off an area of 25,000 acres, Rs. 5-5-1 or so 
per acre, leaving the demand at Rs. 6-7-11 or so against 
present Rs. 12 or so per acre. The reduced assessment 
is just likely to keep up cultivation of the poppy land 
for less remunerative crops. The cost of revising the 
settlement of irrigated area concerned will be about 
Rs. 19,700. Besides the loss on land revenue, the State 
and holders of alienated lands will lose in customs 
collections a sum of about Rs. 59,!}16. The loss of 
Jagirdars included in the total is Rs. 6,000. Even after 
every e3"ort that may be made to turn opium land to 



best advantage possible in other ways, the loss to culti- 
vators both as landholders and field labourers, by the 
stoppage of opium traffic and therefore poppy cultiva- 
tion is estimated by the local ofSoers to be very con- 
siderable. Local traders estimate the loss of their class 
at Rs. 94,600, the incidence of which per maund 
exported is about Rs. 37, and the export value of one 
maund being about Rs. 200, the per-centage of profit 
is about Rs. 18 5a. Bohras or agricultural money- 
lenders fear that the stoppage of poppy cultivation will 
entail upon them an annual loss of Rs. 104,050, besides 
placing in jeopardy their debts and investments of 
capital to the value of Rs. 3,000,000. Though con- 
siderably larger than the present state of poppy cultiva- 
tion can warrant, the Durbar is naturally reluctant to 
reduce the estimates of the local officials, traders, and 
Bohras without possessing the means of scrutinizing 
them with the aid of special inquiries. It is impossible 
to estimate beforehand what influence will the large 
accession of rich area to food crops, which must follow 
the withdrawal of it from poppy, exercise on the market 
for those commodities. Should the influence of over- 
production be to trench permanently on the cu Itivators' 
profits from growing food-grains, and thus to disturb 
the basis of the settlement made with them, the 
revision of the entire settlement affecting both the 
irrigated and nnirrigated la.nds will become necessary 
at a further heavy loss of annual , revenue to the State, 
and the holders of alienated lands, and a further 
charge for a revision of the settlement. A further 
loss on the customs collections is also appre- 
hended for when opium and poppy-seed cease to be 
exported and are no longer available to sustain the 
present foreign imports, these must fall ofi" leading 
to a loss of customs collections on foreign imports. 
Unless the cultivation of poppy be replaced by some 
other irrigated crop the wells provided for the irriga- 
tion of the land would become useless, and the capital 
spent in sinking and constructing them prove a dead 
loss. The ownership of the wells sustains the credit 
of the landholder, but when they cease to be useful 
their hypothecation cannot support the owner's credit, 
whether poppy cultivation can be replaced by other 
irrigated crops is therefore a very important question. 
In the Tonk and Alligarh districts, which have the 
least area under poppy growth and where this crop is 
not the most paying, sugar-cane and early cotton as 
single crops, or cummin seed and barley after Indian 
corn may take place of poppy, but it is not likely that 
in all cases the wells would prove equal to the demand 
of sugar-cane for a greater depth of irrigation, a longer 
duration of it, and at a time when the water level is at 
its lowest, i.e., during the hot weather. In Sironje 
sugar-cane or vegetables may take place of poppy — as 
in Central Provinces, 'Khandesh, and Gujarat cotton 
does here without irrigation and therefore cannot 
replace poppy. In Nimbahera, sugar-cane or early 
cotton as single crops and barley or wheat after Indian 
corn may replace poppy, but for reasons stated in the 
case Peerawa, further on a contraction of the irrigated 
cultivation is probable. In ;Chhabra and Pirawa to 
replace the staple crop of poppy by sugar-cane or early 
cotton as single crops, the irrigated cultivation may 
have to be seriously contracted, because the majority of 
wells which now irrigate poppy cultivation would fail 

G 4 



Hao Bahaduf 

Vinayeh Bao 

Ganesh 

Samarth. 

{Tonk State.) 



fiG 



IXDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



r.-io Duladur 

i'niniick Rao 

Cancsh 

Xri" (itih. 

{Tonli State.) 

2 Feb. 1894. 



to irrigate even a third of the poppy area nrheu placed 
under sugar-cane, which not only requires a greater 
depth of waterings but some of them during hot months 
when the loss of water level is at its highest. In these 
districts irrigated cotton is more liable to damage from 
excessive rainfall, and yet irrigation must be available 
during June for the sowing operations when all wells 
cannot afford it. Barley is not a staple food crop of 
the Parganas. Wheat is not generally irrigated, and 
when irrigated it is more susceptible to the attack of 
rust. Cummin seed, tobacco, ground nuts, and other 
crops can be grown on the poppy land, but more as 
experimental than as established cultivation. Kot to 
seriously reduce the cultivator's means of earning wages, 
which even now are far from adequate to their wants, 
every effort will have to be made to keep up cultivation, 
occupying as large an area as possible for poorer crops 
in the absence of poppy. The stoppage of poppy culti- 
vation will produce at first a complete dislocation of the 
monetary relations subsisting between the cultivator 
and his money-lender on the one hand, and the money- 
lender and his banker on the other; and unless the 
State is able to advance funds liberally to the cultivators 
to keep them in work, a wide-spread distress must ensue 
in districts as such Pirawa, Chhabra and Nimbahera. 
Large sums will have to be spent on the construction 
of tanks and carrying out of agricultural improvi5- 
ments before any approach can be made to the existence 
of normal economic conditions. Local consumption 
being under no control whatever, and the consumption 
of the cultivators, Bohras, large landholders, taking 
place out of what they retain for that paipose out of 
the quantity they handle, without in most oases 
including the quantity so retained in the returns they 
make of the production, the quantity actually consumed 
cannot be stated except very roughly. It is estimated 
to be about maunds 174. This is not fully covered by 
the diti'erence between the amount of production and 
that of export as stated before ; the discrepancy being 
due to causes already indicated. Should the action 
which it may ultimately be decided to take with poppy 
cultivation and opium trade result in raising the price 
of the drug required for local consumption, the con- 
sumers in the State will be placed under a new form of 
taxation, and correspondingly their capacity to pay 
existing taxes would be curtailed, for where the use 
has been Icng there would be little option left in the 
use of opium. It will be very very long if at all that 
it will be completely withdraw? n from infant life. On 
the whole, compulsion will be exceedingly difficult to 
enforce, and would be too irritating. In the case of 
grown-up men actually in work, the sudden withdrawal 
of opium wholly or in part is likely to paralyze industry, 
and unless they secure the drug at about its present 
price they are more likely to go without it than possess 
the means of purchasing it. 

21.229. What is your system of land revenue in 
regard to Khalsa lands ? — The revenue is collected in 
cash rates. 

21.230. Is it a fixed settlement P — 20 years settle- 
ment introduced last year. Before that in part of the 
State the revenue was collected in kind ; but now it is 
a cash rate, and it is fixed for 20 years. 

21.231. When you say it was taken in kind, was that 
on grain crops ? — Yes, even then there were some cash 
crops and some grain crops. Opium was a cash crop. 

21.232. What was the rate on opium in those days? — 
Prom Es. 26 to Hs. !• per bigha. 

21.233. What sort of poppy cultivation would ]iay 
only Ks. 4 ? — It depended upon the soil and the water 
supply, and upon the yield of opium. In an area where 
the production was only about 3 or 4 seers per bigha 
less was paid ; and where it exceeded 10 or ^!j seers, 
more was paid. 

21.234. These rates were fixed for the Talnka P — Yes. 
They were the local rates according to the physical 
conditions of the area. 

21 .235. Does the old system still exist in Jagirs or do 
the Jagirs still have a fixed settlement ? — The Jagirs still 
adhere to the old system and collect in kind on all grain 
crops, especially food grain^crops ; and collect cash rates 
on cotton and opium and Indian corn. Indian corn goes 
before opium. The first crop on poppy land is Indian 
corn, and opium is the second crop. 

21.236. Do you remember what cash rates were taken 
on the Indian corn ? — About Es. 6 an acre. 

21.237. At (hat same time poppy fields paid from 
Es. 5 to Es. 8 per acre ?— Yes. 



21.238. The Indian corn was about Es. 6 an acre ?— 
Yes. 

21 .239. Do you know what it is on cotton ?— About 
Es. an acre, the same as Indian corn. 

21.240. That is an immense difference between the 
rate on opium and the other crops ? — Yes, becau.'ie the 
price of opium was very high then 5 seers cost very 
nearly Es. 60, and 10 seers nearly Es. 100., now the 
price of opium has fallen. It has gone down 50 per 
cent. That makes all the difference. 

21.241. Is poppy grown only in irrigated land ? — 
Yes. 

21.242. Is it changed about P — Yes, there is a rotation. 
For instance, if the total area irrigated by a well is 20 
bighas it is not necessary that the whole 20 bighas 
should be placed under poppy cultivation every year. 
It depends upon the conditions of the water supply. 
In a very good year, when the rains close with a heavy 
fall it is possible to put the whole area irrigated by a 
well under poppy. The rain may be very heavy in 
August, but if it closes with very light showers, or no 
showers, in September, that would not help. It must 
close with a heavy rainfall. The actual cultivation is 
generally less than the total poppy area, because by 
rotation the poppy is grown on a larger area than the 
actual cultivation of any one year. 

21.243. In making the fixed assessment now in force, 
would the whole of the well land be assessed at one 
rate P — Yes, because in an area where poppy cultivation 
is the largest the settlement demand is based upon the 
profits of poppy. All irrigated land is valued according 
to what it will yield in poppy. 

21.244. Do yon know what is the general rate used 
in assessing poppy land ; does it vary very much P — 
Yes, because the produce varies very much. 

21.245. You said "any action that may be taken 
" with the opium trade to starve the cultivation of poppy 
" in this State out of its present margin of profit would 
" amount to its actual suppression " ; what do you 
mean by that ? — Starve it out of profit ; that is to say, 
a part of the profit has been intercepted by raising the 
Imperial duty. For instance, when the price of a chest 
was Es. 700, and the Imperial duty was Es. 600, the 
profit gained by the cultivator was Es. 100. If the 
duty was still increased it would be starving the 
cultivator out of his profit. 

21.246. {Mr. Pease.) What do you estimate the 
weekly expenditure of a consumer of opium at the 
present prices ? — I am not prepared to say anything on 
that. I have not given much attention to that. 

21.247. What is the present retail price of opium ? — 
It varies from Es. 5 to Es. 10. Where it is grown 
very largely, and there is absence of any control, the 
retfl.il nrice and the wholesale nrico does not varv 



-ary 



Argaiy , auu buexe la itubence ui any cuutro 
retail price and the wholesale price does not 
much. 

21.248. What do yon. think is the average consump- 
tion of an opium consumer ? — I have not given any 
attention to that subject. 

21.249. You say that if the price of opium was 
increased the consumers would not be able to pay their 
taxes ; if a person takes 8 grains a day it would not 
come to 1 pie per day? — I have said the total con- 
sumption is 174 mannds. At Es. 200, taking the lowest 
price, Es. 5 a seer, that means opium worth Es. 40,000. 
The total consumption comes to Es. 34,000. If the 
price goes up because the cultivation is under restric- 
tion, tbe price would be twice that. It would mean 
that people would have to buy the same quantity of 
opium and pay nearly a lakh of rupees instead of what 
they pay now. Instead of Es. 34,000, they would pay 
1 lakh. Sixty thousand rupees would be the additional 
burden placed on them. 

21,2-50. {Mr. Wilson.) I understood you to say that 
you think the local officials and traders and Bohras have 
put their figures rather too high ? — Yes, because their 
private interests are so much concerned, and it is quite 
natural that when a man estimates the sum which he is 
to receive he is liable to over-estimate. Not having the 
means of checking those calculations, I could only say 
what I said. 

21,251. Do you think the habit of taking opium every 
day is a good habit for a young man who is in good 
health? — As I said before, I have never given any 
attention to that subject, and I am not prepared to say 
anything about that. 



MINUTES OF EVIJJENCE. 



0( 



21.252. But you liave a large acquaintance with the 
people, and you can tell me whether you think the 
habit is a good habit? — I can only look upon the habit 
by comparison. I have not compared it with 'the liquor 
habit, iHid cannot say whether it is a bettor or worse 
habit than the liquor habit. I have no personal opinion 
that can be serviceable to you. 

21.253. Would you be glad for your son, or any young 
man in whom you are interested, to begin the habit of 
taking opium P — It depends on circumstances. If I 
found he was suffering from anything, and was likely 
to find relief, under proper advice I would not object to 
his taking opium. 

21.254. I was asking you about young men in perfect 
health ; would you like your son, or any young friend 
who is in perfect health to commence the habit of 
taking opium ? — I would not wish him to take opium, 
simply because I would not wish anyone in whom I 
take interest to be addicted to a habit which he 
cannot give up at a moment's notice. 

21.255. (Mr. Mowbray.) You say that for the last six 
years the area under poppy cultivation has been under 
the average ; can you give us any reason why poppy 
cultivation seems to have been falling off during the 
last six years ? — First, owing to the deficient supply of 
water ; secondly, owing to the falling off of the prices ; 
thirdly, the falling off of the prices has so affected the 
condition of the people, their means of manuring the 
land, their credit, &c. that even the same supply of 
water and the same character of soil sometimes pro- 
duces more or less according to whether it is manured 
fully or partially. These three things have affected 
poppy cultivation. 

21.256. You think that the falling off in prices, which 
I anderstand you attriViute to a diminished dc-miuid in 
China, has already affected the condition of your 
cultivators? — It has alrjady reduced their profits, and 
a further reduction of profits would simply make their 
condition worse. 

21.257. Do you import opium into Tonk ? - 'I'hcre 
are no imiorts which are officiallj' recognised as such, 
but where the frontiers are so mixed up that the agri- 
culturisti of one State do business with the cultivators 
of other States, a certain quantity is ox3hanged. It all 
depends upon their expert rates. If the neighbouring- 
State levies a large export duty, it is likely that a small 



quantity is smuggled into the State where the duty is 
less. There is a heavier duty in Marwar State, and 
from my personal inquiries I find that some quantitj' is 
exported ; bat it does not enter into the official records 
as imported. 

21,258. What is your customs duty on export ; is it 
steady ? — No, it varies from Rs. 25 to Rs. 29 a chest of 
opium. 

21,2•^9. Is that a full chest or half a chest?— A full 
trade chest of 70 seers of opium or 140 lbs. ; full 
consistency. 

21,2b0. Is it 140 lbs P— Yes, 140 lbs. of the fullest 
consistency. 

21.261. It is the same for which the British pass duty 
is its. 600 ?— Yes. 

21.262. Has your export duty been altered at all of 
recent years ? — It has. In 1877 the prices went very 
high, and just about that time, I think, the Imnerial 
duty was increased, and the native States took advan- 
tage to intercept a part of the cultivators' profits by 
increasing their own export duty. 1877 was the famine 
year. There was a small rainfall and a great scarcity 
of water, and the produce being less Ihan tlie demand 
the prices went up. 

21.263. (Mr. Jlaridas Veharidas.) Am I right in 
understanding that you would not have allowed the 
cultivation of poppy in your territory had it not been 
for the sake of foreign trade P — Qaite so. 

21.264. As the cultivation paid, it was really not so 
much for the benefit of the foreign ti-ade aa for your 
own benefit ? — The benefit we derived from foreign 
trade. 

21,20."). (Mr. Faiishawe.) Can you tell me now loni? 
the foreign export trade to China from your State has 
bf^eii going on ? — E\'er since the opium tr.idu between 
India and China began, the Tonk territoi'y has had a 
share in it. 

31,266. Can yon say anything more definite in regard 
to it ? — I can go back to 18.30. I have been looking 
into the matter to find out whether iliero was any 
mention of the opium trade. Before the advent of ihn 
British in India there existed some trade ; but from 
18o4 there is evidence to show that the whole of Central 
India has shared in that part of the trade, including 
Tonk. 



Rao Bahadur 

Vlnayek Rao 

■ Ganesh 

Samartli. 

{Tonk State.) 

2 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



21.267. (Chairman.) I believe you are aManotidarp 
—Yes. 

21.268. That is an agricultural money-lender or 
banker, is it not P — Yes. 

21.269. You are a resident of Somla, in the Bargana of 
Piarwa P — Yea. 

21.270. What have you to say with regard to the 
opium question? — Out of my former capital about 
Ks. 20,000 are in arrears. I at present deal in money 
lending with a capital of Es. 9,000. Out of this, 
Ks. 4,000 are paid to the State on behalf of the culti- 
vators as Mauoti, and Bs. 5,000 are advanced to culti- 
vators for seed, manure, and implements. If the poppy 
growth were forbidden, the recovery of the above sum 
would be impossible. It was given in hope of opium. 
Opium alone would enable the cultivators to repay the 
debt. In case of growing other commodities in place of 
poppy, they would not be able to pay even taxes to the 
Raj. How, then, can they pay our debts ? Our annual 
income, exclusive of expenses, amounts to Es. 2,000. 
Wo shall lose this sum annually should poppy culti- 
vation be stopped. Besides this, our great loss, conse- 
quent on stoppage of opium, will be the loss of greater 
portion of our capital ; while, on the other hand, we 
shall have to pay the debts we owe to our bankers. 
When we suffer loss in our trade, our credit with our 
sahukars or bankers will be ruined. In such a case pur 
creditors will try to recover their debts at once. 
Whether they realise their money from us or not we 
shall be ruined in a year or two. When the opium 
trade is gone we cannot take up any other trade, 
because the bankers lend money to us on the security 
of opium. When its production is forbidden they will 
not trust us with their money. There are 29 Bohras, 
and their invested amounts are as shown below : — 

O 82588. 



ined (through an Interpreter). 


Seth 
Nand Ram. 




Jig. ( Tonk State.} 


1. Seth Sameer Mall Raj Mai of Ajmere 


12,000 


2. Govind Das LachmanDas of Mathura 


4,000 


3. Sheo Bukhsh Girdhari Lai 


10,000 


4. Hans Raj Hameer Mai 


5,000 


5. Bachh Eaj Gh ameer Mai 


10 000 


6. Ram Lai Sheo Lai 


3,000 


7. Har Bishna Ganga Bishna 


6,000 


8. Uttam Chand Kashi Ram 


10,000 


9. Hira Lai Kanwar Lai 


2,000 


10. Ram Rakh Earn ISfarain - 


2,ono 


11. Nathu Eam Nanak Chand 


2,000 


12. Kalloo Eam Kanwar Lai 


3,000 


13. KalooPatel 


1,000 


14. Hans Raj Bakhtawar Mai 


2,000 


15. Sujan Mai Umed Mai 


1,000 


1 6. Ram Chandar Bam Ratan 


2,000 


17. Oonkar Mohan Lai 


1,000 


18. Ram Lai Panna Lai 


1,000 


19. Chauth Mai Girdhari Mai 


20,000 


20. Boolidan - 


2,000 


21. Nand Ram Patwari 


4,000 


22. Har Lai Lakhman 


2,000 


23. Chunni Lai 


1,000 


24. Behroon Brahmin 


1,000 


25. Amra Ram 


1,000 


26. Goodar Patel 


3,000 


27. Baldeo Mani Ram 


1,000 


28. Dunga Sah 


1,000 


29. Bhajan Lai 


1,000 


Total 


1,14,000 



Besides the above-named persons there are about 
25 Bohras whose investment exceeds Rs. 100, but doe.s 
not exceed 1,000. The loss of their arrears as well as 
their annual income will be like mine. 

R 



5H 



INDIAN (iPILIjM com MINSK in 



Seth 
Nand Ram. 
{Tonk State.) 

•1 Feb. 1894. 



21.271. Have you capital of your own, or do yoti 
boiTOW r.apital Cor your business from the Sahukars? — 
I borrow money from the Saliukars. 

21.272. Is that the general way in which the Mano- 
tidars carry on business.'' — Some of them have their 
own capital, and others borrow money from the 
Sahukars. 

21.273. What other agricultural produce is there in 
Tonk which is exported besides opium ? — Cotton is the 
only thing produced. 

21.274. Where does that go to? — It goes from Tonk 
to Indore. I do not know where it goes afterwards. 

21.275. Is cotton dear or cheap now? — Last year it 
was dear, but it is cheaper this year. 

21.276. Has opium become very cheap ? — It is just 
the same as it was last year. ^ 

21.277. Has there been less profit lately in the opium 
trade than there used to be, or is it much about the 
same ? — It has )ieen less during the last two years. 

21.278. (Ifr. Te,ase?j Dp the Bohras lend money on 
other crops besides opium ? — They only lend their 
money on opium in my particular district. 

2ij279. Do the cultivators who do not grow opium 
borrow money from anyone ? — They do borrow, but 
they get very little. 



21,l!80. (j)/i-. TFiVso//.) Is a Manotidar the saiiio as a 
Bohra ? — Yts, the same. 

21.281. Is your own name in the list you have given ? 
—Yes. 

21.282. Why do you speak of your capital as Bs. 9,000, 
and then of your invested amount as Bs. 4,000 't — The 
Bs. 4,000 which I have mentioned are paid to the Tonk 
Durbar on behalf of the cultivators ; the Es. 9,000 
includes that and the money lent to the cultivators for 
seed, &c. 

21.283. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Are the 29 Bohras, including 
your own firm, which you have mentioned, Bohras of 
the pargana of Pirawa ? — Yes. 

21.284. Besides those, do the other 25 Bohras which 
you have mentioned also belong to the same pargana ? 
—Yes. 

21.285. {Chairman.) How many parganas are there 
in Tonk P— Five. 

21.286. Are the other four parganas about the same 
size as Pirawa? — I do not know. 

21.287. When a Manotidar advances money to the 
cultivator, is the crop of that year pledged to him ? — 
Yes. The cultivator must give as much produce as 
would cover the amount advanced. 



The witness withdrew. 



Seth 
Ratan Lall, 

{Tonk State.) 21,288. [Chairman.) I believe you are an agent of 

— _ Ram Lall Chattr Bhuj P — Yes. 

21.289. And you are a Mahajan and a resident of 
Chhabra P — Yes. 

21.290. Is Chhabra the name of a pargana or the 
name of a town ? — -It is both the name of a town and of 
a pargana. 

21.291. What have you to tell us P — My master's 
agency at Chhabra deals in opium since 40 years, and 
the average dealings are about 40 bags, weighing 
120 maunds, valued at Es. 25,000, at Es. 575 to Es. 600 
per bag. We purchase at Es. 200 per maund; we get a 
net profit of Es. 75 per bag. This gives a net profit of 
Es. 3,000 according to the average of the last five years. 
We export opium juice (crude opium) to Indore, where 
it is manufactured into trade opium. Three mauuds 
of crude opium yields 2 maunds and 10 seers of trade 
opium, and after payment of the Imperial duty fetches 
the followiug price : — 



Seth Eatan Lall called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



One year old opium 
Two years' old opium - 
Three years' old opium 
Pour years, or sting hard 



Es. 
1,125 
1,1(55 
1,210 
1,300 



Traders. 



No. of Bags. 



Prohit Chaman Lall, son of Baldeo 

Jot Mall Jatan Lall 

Kam Ratau, Ram Partap 

Poorun jVIall, Babcha 

Bhoico Eighodiu 

Balabuksh Dhonr(,ra 

.lagan Nath Pardhan 

Baij Raj Balot 

Goti Lall 

Dull Chand Maheshri 

Govind Ram 

Buchi Lall Baija 

Govind Ram Motporya 

Shaiikar Ilalvai 

Kalu Ram 

Mangi Lali Porwal 

Ram Chaudar Jowahlv Mai 



Total 



A'aliie. 





U.S. 


15 


9,000 


7 


4,2U0 


20 


12,000 


10 


0,000 


1 


COO 


] 


coo 


1 


600 


i 


2,400 


2 


1,200 


1 


COO 


1 


600 


2 


1,200 


2 


1,200 


2 


1,200 




1,200 


1 


600 


65 


39,000 


137 


82,200 



Our firm suffered a loss of about Es. 4,000 in Sambat 
1946, or 1890 A.D., but as long as I was the firm's 
agent there was no loss at all. The profit I have stated 
already is the average of fluctuating profits. As we deal 
in actual quantity in hand, and not in time or specu- 
lation bargains, we do not lose like the speculators. 
There is no other trade more secure than the opium. 
We have no trust in bankers to keep out our money at 
6 per cent., and therefore there is no other way but to 
invest in 4 per cent, securities, thus incurring a loss of 
Es. 2,000 annually. The names of the other traders in 
the pagaua, as far as I know, are given below : — 

The witness 



21,2;j2. What was the reason of the loss of about 
Es. 4,001 » in Sambat 1946?— When I purchased the 
opium it was very dear, and when I got to Indore the 
price fell very suddenly. 

21,29;;. (Mr. Wilson.) What is the ordinary rate of 

interest that cultivators pay for borrowed money P 24 

per cent, sometimes, and sometimes 12 per cent.', and 
sometimes 18 per cent., in accordance with' the 
cultivator's circumstances. 

21,294. What does "sting hard" mean ?_lt means 
that it is hard enough to break a stone. 

21.29.V (Chairman.) Do the other traders you have 
mention. 'dm the parganas trade in nothing else but in 
opium .-'—They trade only in opium. 

21,296. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Is it a fact that in the Tonk 
territory opium is chiefly cultivated in the two par- 
ganas of Chhabra and Pirawa P — Opium is also 
cultivated to a great extent in Nimahera. 
withdrew. 



Dr. W. 

JSuntly. 



Dr. William Huntly called in and examined. 



21.297. (Chairman.) I believe you are a medical 
missionary P — Yes. 

21.298. Will you give us your opinion generally upon 
the i.pium question ? — In a question such as the opium 
one the value of personal investigation depends greatly 
on lieing friendlj- and in touch with the natives. A 
close ao(,|uaintance with the home and bazar life of the 
people must be gained. The sources available for in- 
formation rest among the common people, the opium 
cori3uni"rs and their relatives, the sayings extant on the 



subject and- the existang customs and institutions 
related to the habit. During my seven years' Indian 
residence, chiefly spent m Nusseerabad and .lodhpore 
Marwar, I have taken an uctiv,. interest in every phase 
of this question. The general impressions of mv first 
year m India, b.'fore I knew the languar^c were if 
anything, not unfavourable to opium. One° missed the 
reeling drunkard so common at home. Yet when an 
occasional opium-catej came before me, I began to see 
that the opium-eater fills tb.at gap in the estimation of 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



59 



the natirc. This oondomnation of the habit expressed 
openly in my hearing led me to undertake a special in- 
vestigation of each case. In my hospital experience in 
India, with the exception of one Englishman, I have 
not been consulted by opium-eaters for tne cure of the 
habit, but amongst my ordinary patients I have had 
many who were addicted to it, and these I was soon able 
to recognise at a glance. The universal belief of the 
incurability of the habit, and the sufferings that ensue 
on an attempt to quit the drug, keep the opium-eater 
from even thinking of a cure ; though, when suggested, 
each would gladly submit wore it not for the agony he 
knows will follow the process of cure. After a brief 
experience, the hang of the head, and the look about the 
eyes and face, made it possible for me in many cases to 
tell the man, without asking, that he was an opium- 
eater. That a confirmed opium-eatei is recognisable is 
borne witness to by the native proverb which runs thus, 
"Afimchi tin manzil se pahchana jata hai." — "The 
opium-eater is known or can be known three stages off." 
Diet, constitution, habit, or disease may modify this 
more or less; yet this was the first clear conclusion 
forced in on me during my investigation. To each 
opium-eater were put questions regarding the age, 
quantity eaten daily, the duration of the habit, the 
reasons for beginning it, &c. As the opium-eater 
carries his supply with him, the amount in each case 
was weighed. The data up to the hundredth case were 
duly written down. While the hundred were recorded 
with the view of finding the per-centages, a less number 
would have sufficed to establish the general results ; 
and in examination of many more since, 1 have not 
found subsequent evidence conflict to any material ex- 
tent with the conclusions then reached. These con- 
clusions appeared as an article some four years ago in the 
" United ipresbyterian Magazine," along with an article 
on opium smoking as seen in the Nusseerabad opium 
den. The habit of opium-smoking is, I believe, with 
the exception of one or two extremists, on all sides con- 
demned, and on it I need not enter. I simply add my 
condemnation. *The figures of the investigation into 
the hundred cases of opium-oating are given in an 
appendix. In my present evidence, for a clearer under- 
' standing of the subject, 1 purpose taking up the points 
to be considered in the following order : — 
(I.) — The Habit in Infancy. 
(II.''— The Habit in Youth and Manhood. 
Til.)— The Habit in Old Age. 

(XV.) — The Habit as related to certain prevalent 
diseases. 
(V.) — The Habit as related to Crime. 
{VI. ) — The Habit and the Customs of the People. 
(VII.) — The Opium and Alcoholic Habits compared. 

Before taking upi these points seriatim, I would here 
remark that it seems to me that the present agitation 
exemplifies the gregarious nature of man. A cer- 
tain section, in their zeal for reform, has indulged 
in somewhat incautious and to the reader exaggerated 
language, and this has provoked a spirit of opposition, 
and we see one man after another, like sheep leaping in 
succession through a hole in the hedge, going to the 
extreme in minimising the evils, and even in seeing no 
evil in it at all. Reasons condoning a habit ought 
never to be adduced as proofs of its harmlessness, and 
while they may influence our attitude towards it, they 
should not be allowed to bias our judgment. (I.) The 
Habit in Infancy. — The merest speck is rubbed by the 
mother on the gums or tongue of the infant to stop its 
crying or put it to sleep while she does her work. This 
practice may begin as early as the flrst month, and is 
generally continued till the child is over two years. 
The dose is increased a little as time goes on, and 
specially so during the teething period. Crying from 
any cause becomes an indication for exhibiting the 
drug. The people also know its value in diarrhcsa, and 
very often in cases of stone the pain and irritation are 
assuaged by the drug. Par above all other reasons, how- 
ever, the mother begins the practice, not for the child's 
sake, but to save herself the worry which children give. 
Now the medical uses of opium in the case of infants is 
guarded by warnings of their susceptibility and their 
liability to be poisoned from even a small dose. Deaths 
from overdose are extremely common, and short of an 
immediate fatal efi:ect the practice leads to infantile 
marasmus in a large number of cases. The child be- 
comes stunted and emaciated, the face becomes pinched, 
the skin withered and dry, the bones protrude, and the 
whole appearance is that of the decay of age rather 

* For these dfita, see Appendix IX. t« this Volume. 



than dimpled childhood. When this becomes advanced 
the fatal end may come either from inanition, fever, or 
an attack of diarrhoea. The stoppage of the drug in 
time is often followed with an astonishingly rapid 
return to health and plumpness. When diarrhoea 
attacks an opium-fed child its chances of recovery are 
less than ordinary. While we can excuso its use in 
atone cases, those who get no opium, as I have seen, 
appear healthy in spite of the disease ; and my only 
death in 80 stone cases occurred in a child who had 
been dosed with the drug for over four years. Opium- 
fed children generally fare worse when disease comes ; 
and when the opium complication is met with in acute 
ailments, I am always more anxious and less hopeful of 
the termination. (II.) The Habit in Youth and Man- 
hood. — When we pass from the habit in childhood to 
the habit in youth and manhood, we enter on a totally 
different phase of the question. The drug, as is well 
known, difiers in its action according to the difl'erence 
in development of the nervous system. Differing in 
animals as compared with man, its effects will also in 
man differ in degree in infancy, manhood, and old age, 
and in different types of men. This point lias, I think, 
been overlooked. It foUowa, then, that in the em- 
bryonic state of the nerve elements in childhood, the 
habit will be fraught with more immediate risks to life 
and health. And in old age, on the other hand, with 
the retrogression of the nervous system, the practice 
may be adopted witli less harmful effects thiin in . 
youth. If, for example, there is rapid wasting in child- 
hood, consequent on the opium habit, wo may expect 
less rapidity of emaciation in those who begin the 
habit later in life, and we may also look for a greater 
toleration of larger doses. My experience bears out 
this reputed action of the drug, that its influence is 
more marked in youth than in manhood, and in man- 
hood than in old age. The craving for excitants which 
distinguishes youth and manhood from old age also 
leads to the excessive users of the drug being found 
in their ranks. The earlier the habit is acquired the 
more likely is a man to crave for larger doses, when 
toleration of the smaller has been cstabli-<hed, and, in a 
short time, become an excessive consximer of the drug. 
And this in actual experience is wliat happens. From 
this class are lurnished the wrecks we hear of, about 
whose existence doubts have been expressed. Natives 
themselves use the term " posti " to mean a worthless, 
lazy, good-for-nothing fellow, the derivation of the 
word showing that the cause of the worthlessness is the 
opium habit. In this class, too, we find those who have 
lost their position or situation, and been reduced to 
poverty. The beginning of the habit at this period of 
life is connected with the temporary aid it gives to the 
sexual powers. From my own investigations about 40 
per cent, admitted this as a reason. A native gentle- 
man who had looked into this, Avithout any promptings 
on my part, stated that 60 per cent, began the habit on 
this account, and over and over again have natives 
informed me that sexual excess and the beginning of 
the opium habit in youth" are intimately associated. 
Temporary stimulation paves the way for sexual debilit}' 
and impotence, and among other etfects these hold a 
prominent place. In a country whore se.xual excess 
due to premature marriage leads to debility, it would 
not be just to attribiite all sexual debility to the use of 
opium, or to say that impotence and the loss of the 
sexual appetite must inevitably follow the habit ; yet it 
so often follows the habit that it is confessed to by the 
opium-eaters themselves, and is noted in the proverbial 
sayings and rhymes of Marwar. One of the rhymes 
runs thus : " I should not blame Grod for having made 
'■ me a woman, nor ought I to blame Bidhata for having 
" destined such .a husband to my lot . . . may the 
" friend die an untimely death who has taught my 
" husband to drink opium ' ; the whole purport of this 
and several other songs being confirmatory of this 
opinion. The consequences of the opium habit are 
summed up in the old Persian proverb, " Afim khud 
marz o marzhara dawast," — " Opium, which is a 
remedy for many diseases, is itself a disease." This 
disease may be summed up in the phrase — deterioration, 
physical, mental, moral. (III.) The Habitin Old Age. — 
The growing decay of the nervous system brings with 
it an inability to respond and react as in youth to ex- 
citants of all kinds, and this decay in a measuie some- 
what preserves old age from the full influence of the 
drug. Hence neither the response nor the consequent 
reaction is eo marked. This is well known in the cano 
of alcohol. A glass of spirits stimulates to intoxication 
the youth, whereas it only produces a sense of comfort in 
an old man. In this way we can understand how the 

H 2 



Ih: W. 
H until/. 

2 Feb. 1H94. 



GO 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Dr. W. 
Huntly. 

2 Feb. 1894. 



opium habit is credited by the natives with supplying 
to (ill age tbe vital warmth and energy lost by nn.tural 
decay. Those who are inclined to liold that old age 
requires home excitant, and who are willing to pay the 
])enalty of the depression which iu youth, manhood, and 
old age characterises opium much more than alcohol, 
will approve the habit in old age ; those who, like 
myself, l)elieve that the penalties incurred far out- 
weigh the comforts derived from it, will yet condone 
where they cannot approve. Many old men are met 
with, consumers for 30 or 40 years, who look as if they 
had suffered little ; iu the same way, there are thousands 
in England who have with seeming impunity drunk 
alcoholic liquors for a like number of years. In both 
cases the deduction is the same, namely, that both 
habits may be continued for many years without loss of 
life ; but they prove nothing more. (IV.) Ojjium as 
T-elated to certain prevalent Diseases. —Among diseases 
its reprited prophylactic powers in malaria first call for 
notice. During the presenr. opium agitation some of 
tlioso who have spoken in defence of the habit have 
adopted this line of excuse for it. Now it would be 
inceresting to see the hospital records and prescriptions 
of those medical men who have taken up this position, 
and to note how many of them have prescribed the 
habitual use of opium to those patients who are liable to 
malarial attacks. Further, if it be good for natives, 
the presumption is that it would benefit Europeans in 
like circumstances. I have only been seven years in 
India, but have talked on this subject with other medical 
men of much longer Indian experience, and I have never 
heard or read of any European doctor prescribing the 
opium habit to either European or native for this pur- 
pose. Moreover, in all who have come before mej no 
native ever urged malaria as the reason for beginning 
or continuing the opium habit. The habit exists in 
districts like Marwar and Meywar, where malaria in 
ordinary years is not very prevalent, and during the 
last two seasons of excessive rain when malaria was 
unusually sevei'e in Marwar, the opium-eafers suH'cred 
equally with the non-eaters. Even if it were a pre- 
ventive, of which I have seen absolutely no evidence, 
the fact that it so enslaves its consumers would render 
its adoption indefensible so long as we have in quinine 
a drag which is admitted by all to be the best prophy- 
lactic iu malaria, and can be discontinued at pleasure 
without discomfort. The grain of trath underlying 
all this talk of the beneficial use of opium in malaria 
is its power of lessening the discomfort felt in the cold 
stage of the attack. In tbe case of .asthma the habit, after 
producing a brief amelioration, very often produced in 
patients who came before me a state of matters much 
worse than before. Guided and guarded by medical 
skill, the drag is serviceable in asthma; as used by the 
natives in asthmatic cases the habit often wrecks the 
patient. A? with alcohol, the rule may be laid down 
that tbe presence of the opium habit constitutes a grave 
complication in many illnesses ; this to me is a matter 
of strong conviction, the result of close observation of 
every case of disease complicated with the Ijabit which 
has come before me, and this conviction is corroborated 
by native testimony and belief. (Y.) The Habit as re- 
lated to Crime. — It will be readily admitted that the 
brutal assaults and crimes traceable to drink cannot be 
laid at the door of the opium-eater. Crime by opium- 
caters I have icon little of. All that can be said is that 
the facilities for procuring opium are such that it adapts 
itself as a vehicle in poisoning and suicide cases, and is 
largely employed in India for these jiurposes. The opium 
and not the opium eater must here bear the blame. (VI.) 
The Habit as related to the Customs of the People. — It 
is needless to go into the details of the customs of the 
Rajputs. Opium is proffered by a host to his guests on 
occasions ; it is used in the settlement of quarrels, and 
is a seal of reconciliation. It is not a custom among 
the Rajputs to take opiuai or smoke the opium pipe 
after dinner as asserted by Sir William Moore ; and 
social habits which sanction its use are being given up. 
'^I'he above st itements are based on i eliable native autho- 
rity. (VII.) The Opium and Alcohol habits compared. — 
This matter cannot be settled off-hand. We may com- 
pare opium iu ludia with alcohol iu Britain, or opium 
in India with alcohol in India, and we would not lilceiy 
get the same answer in both cases. In any comparison 
the varying effects of the two habits on the iudividual, 
on society, and on the race would require careful 
deliberation. Opium in moderation would require to 
bu compared, not with alcohol in excess, but with 
alcohol m moderation, and opium iu excess with alcohol 
in excess, and. with the same premises, the conclusion 
drawn migh t differ according to the importance placed 



by one person on one aspect, and by another on some 
dift'erent aspect of the question. What Britain is, in 
spite of alcohol, all know ; what she would become 
under opium we might conjecture. Very little is re- 
quired, in conclusion, to show in what direction the 
above evidence tells. Some .^0 years ago, long before 
this agitatio]! was thought of. Colonel Tod, in his 
" Annals of Rajasthan," stigmatised the opium habit 
among the Rajputs as a "debasing" one. At the 
present day, as far as my experience goes, the habit is 
discountenanced. I have never met a single opium- 
eater who praised it ; I have never seen a proverb or 
song which recommended or approved it ; and I have 
never seen a case in which the habit appeared beneficial. 
A native authority informed me that as a general rule 
it might be said that the habit deprived men of one- 
fourth of their usefulness. This language cannot be 
styled immoderate, and it gives no support to the habit. 
As a habit, it is to the healthy man unnecessary, 
generally injurious, and more or less deteriorating ; it 
leaves no part of a man's nature unaffected ; it is un- 
manly, and in harmony with the efi'ects of the drug on 
the secretions, its tendency is towards atrophy. 

21.299. (Bir W. Roberts.) Do you recognise the 
difference between the moderate use of alcohol or 
opium and the excessive use ? — Certainly. 

21.300. Do your remarks chiefly apply to the ex- 
cessive use .? — JSTo ; they apply generally to the use of 
opium, whether in moderation or in excess. It is a 
difi'erence of degree. The efi'ects of the opium habit 
simply vary in degree according to the amount taken 
and according to the age of the patient. 

21.301. And according, I presume, you would agree 
to the individual tolerance ? — Certainly. The idio- 
syncracy of the patient has to be taken into account. 

21.302. I presume you recognise immense difi'erence 
in the tolerance P — Yes. 

21.303. Have you seen injurious effects from what 
may be called the moderate use of opium, that is to 
say, fj'om the use oi' such a quantity as is well below 
tbe tolerance of the individual ? — I have certainly 
found that the effects of moderate doses are not. 
beneficial but rather injurious. Tbe reaction of the 
opium invariably sets in, as far as my experience goes. 
I have seen native friends of mine who have taken 
opium, and I have found that during the period of 
reaction they were certainly unfit to do their work. 

21,3(11. When they had not the opium p — Yes. 

21.305. That is rather a different point. Supposing 
a moderate opium-eater hss his dose regularly night 
and morning, have you. observed any injurious effects 
on his healohP— Yes. The general effects are a ten- 
dency towards emaciation. Most of the opium-eaters 
tuat I have seen have come to me for some other 
disease, and I have generally found that the opium 
habit rendered the treatment of their case to me more 
difficult than it would otherwise have been. 

21.306. Have you had any large acquaintance with 
opium-eaters who were not patients ? — I have met 
with a number of friends who have become my patients. 
Wheu they have anything wrong with them they come 
to mc. ^ Of course most of the individuals with whom 
I come into contact arc my patients. 

21.307. Your study and knowledge of the opium 
habit standing by itself (except with regard to patients) 
would be very limited, would it not p— The patients do 
not come on account of the opium habit. 

21.308. But does a man come to you to treat him for 
bronchitis or stone in the bladder on account of the 
opium habit p— They were not patients who came to 
me on account of opium-eating ; they came and con- 
sulted me for other diseases. Thev did not consult me 
with regard to the opium habit, so that they could not 
be called patients in that sense. I have only met with 
those opium-eaters who came as patients on other 
grounds. Their coming was not connected with their 
opium habit. 

21.309. We have had samples of people here befoie 
us this morning, strong, healthy looking men, who 
told us they had been using opium, some for 10, and 
some tor a longer number of years. Are you able.' as a 
medical man, to say that those persons are sufferino- 
from the habit P — I do not see how anyone can say so" 
My judgment may be flatly contradicted by their own 
statement. It is a matter of their own statement 
whether they are suffering or not. I venture to say 
and T hold that they are suffering. ' 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



61 



21 ,31 0. Do not you think that a man knows when he 
i.f well ? — No, I do not think a man does always 
know when he is well. 

21,1)11. Unless j'ou can find some organic disease, I 
presume, the sense of feeling wt'll is the best ivideiicc 
that a mnu is well ? — A man addicted to the alcohol 
habit may fuel quite well only a few minutes before he 
has a paralytic attack. 

21 .312. You can find evidence of that by physical 
examination ? — T. do not think we can say that a man 
is well because he simply feels well. 

21.313. Are you justified as a medical man in saying 
that a man in whom you can find no organic disease 
whatever is not well simply becauso'he is in the habit 
of taking opium ? — I never said he had organic disease. 
How are we to know that a man has no organic 
disease from his own statement ? 

21.314. I mean from your own examination P— If I 
find no organic disease, then I would say that that 
opium-eater is free from organic disease ; but I do not 
think that that implies that the opium has exercised no 
injurious cfTeots upon him. 

21.315. If he continues living on and on in comfort, 
what sort of evidence have you that the man is not quite 
well P — I have met a number'of opium eaters who did not 
come to me specially for any disease, but v/ho were 
friends, and the more I became acquainted with them 
they told me that thej regretted ever beginning opium 
habit. 

21,31 (). But they continued well P — No, they did not 
necessarily continue well. They continued fairly well, 
wc will say ; but they olten eomplained to me that this 
or that was the matter with them, and very often they 
said it was due or brought about by this habit. 

21.317. Could you give any suggestion to the Com- 
mission explaining how it is that we have had medical 
witnesses, skilled observers, who have had three times 
your experience in this country, and who have told us 
that they cannot tell an opium-eater who does not go 
to excess from anybody else, and they cannot tell that 
he is suff'ering from any disease p — [ think I might 
explain it in this way. Wc all know that the habit of 
taking (junja and hhang is also common among the 
natives. 1 have also come across many people who are 
habituated to eating Indian hemp. If 1 were asked by 
the Commission whether I knew anything about ganja 
or hhang, although I have met hundreds of cases, I 
should say, "I cannot tell you anything about it 
" authoritatively, although I have seen cases, because 
" I have not paid the same attention or entered into 
" the matter in so exact a manner as I have with 
" regard to the opium habit." We are so far removed 
from the natives that casual observation, as a rule, can 
give no very reliable opinion concerning any of their 
habits unless we lay ourselves out to a painstaking 
investigation of each individual case. 

21.318. With regard to giving opium to children, we 
have been assured by medical observers who are in a 
position to know, that this habit is extremely rarely a 
cause of accident, as rarely as the use of opium under 
medical prescription. We have also been told that it 
does not interfere with the nutrition of infants, but 
that they grow up into healthy children. Could you 
give us any information which would reconcile ihose 
statements with your own ? — I have read those state- 
mtints myself, and I do not see how any medical man 
with a knowledge of the action of opium on the various 
secretions, beginning with saliva and going down, and 
with his eyes open, can say that opium has no efEect upon 
children. 

21.319. But that is a theoretical objection ? — It 
naturally follows that opium must have some influence 
upon the secretions. 

21.320. But it is a question of fact P- -It must be based 
upon facts concerning the drug. 

21.321. We have been tola that as many as 80 per 
cent, oi' the infants have opium given to them, and yet 
that those infants grow into healthy children and 
healthy men P— That may be, but I know that I have 
come across many deaths in children owing to an over- 
dose of opium, and still more die from the continuance 
of the habit. Within a radius of half a mile of Jodh- 
pore Hospital I certainly can produce 20 cases. 

21.322. Such deaths in England would require an 
inquest ?— Yes, but it is not known in India. Not 
having inquests the death escapes notice, and the cre- 
mation of the child takes nlace within a few honrs of 



death ; but I think it is generally recognised that a 
great deal of wasting and marasmus accompanies the 
giving of this drug to children . 

21.323. You are, of course, aware, or you must have 
learnt from what you have read, that marasmus in 
childicn is common enough in England from faulty 
digestion. How would you distinguish the marasmus 
produced by the opium habit in infants from the 
marasmus with which wc are familiar in our own coun- 
try from digestive disorder? — I think you are aware 
that marasmus in infants in England has generally a 
constitutional basis of struma, or of some inherited weak- 
ness of the system, but here in India we meet with 
children, otherwise healthy, who from no other reason 
than the giving of the drug by their mothers, have been 
reduced to this state which has only been jiartially de- 
scribed by me. 

21.324. You have said, " The stoppage of the drug in 
" time is often followed with astonishingly rapid return 
" to health and plumpness." That is a good diagnostic 
mark that it is opium marasmus ; but in your experience 
how often has it been the case that the stoppage of the 
opium habit has restored the child U< health p — I am 
sorry I could not give you the exact number of cases. 
T can recall to my memory a dozen, or perhaps a score 
of instances in which acting on my advice the parents 
stopped the opium, and the child recovered health and 
plumpness. 

21 ,32.5. Why do you think the opium habit produced 
marasmus in these few children, and not in the mass ? 
— I can only speak of those I have seen ; I cannot say 
as to the mass of children. A gieat many children do 
die from it who are never brought before any doctor. 
Of course, poor parents cannut supply their children 
with all manner of fattening foods, and those children 
will necessarily be more liable to marasmus than the 
children of richer people. It is among the common^ 
people of the country that these cases of marasmus 
generally occur, although I have seen oases where the 
parents were rich. 

21.326. Has it ever struck yon that there was an 
initial difference of tolerance in infants, and that these 
cases of marasmus were due to a congenital lack of 
tolerance p — While admitting that there may be a 
difference of tolerance, that would only necessitate the 
giving of a larger dose to produce the desired effect by 
the mother ; but, on the other hand, lack of tolerance 
does not, I hold, explain the marasmus. 

21.327. With regard to the efEect of opium as a 
remedy for various ailments in malarial districts, I 
suppose you are aware of the prevalence of the belief in 
many parts of the country that opium is effective in 
some way or other against the various ills incident to 
those malarial districts p — The first I ever heard of that 
was when reading the opinions of European medical 
men. I never heard of it from a native. 

21.328. Are you aware that even 50 years ago that 
opinion was prevalent amongst the professional circles 
in India, and that narcotine, the most abundant 
constituent of Bengal opium, was provided for the 
dispensaries p — I have never heard of it from a native. 
I have only heard of it from European medical men. 

21.329. Have you ever heard of its being used, not 
as a prophylactic in the strict sense, but that persons 
who have a little fever about them take it to prevent 
the chills which bring on recurrent febrile attacks ; 
have you met with that opinion in this neighbourhood P 
. — I would like to say that I had, but I am sorry to say 
that I have not. I maj' have hoard that some natives 
who take opium increase their dose during the cold 
season or when a cold is coming on. As a medical 
man, I have often prescribed opium myself in cases of 
chills (not, however, of recurrent febrile attacks), but 
that does not refer, I think, to the habit lasting on 
from day to day, or for years. 

21.330. I suppose your experience has taught you 
that opium is a very common household remedy in this 
part of India p — Yes ; it is a very common remedy, 
there is no doubt about that. 

21.331. And it is present in almost every house, is it 
notP — It is considered as a common remedy, but I 
would not say that it is present in every house. In all 
the jillages you will find opium in seme of its forms. 

21.332. {Mr. Wilson.) Yoa have said: "To each 
" opium-eater we put questions regarding the age, 
" quantity eaten daily, duration of the habit, the 
" reasons for beginning it," &c. Do you mean to each 

H 3 



Vr. W. 

Huntly. 

2 Feb. 1894. 



INDIAN OPI [JM COMMISSION : 



Dr. W. patient who came to ynu, or do you mean that you 

Buntly. madf tomu other iiiV(j;-ligatiuu ? — The questioDB were 

■ put the patient who was an opium-eater. Later on, in 

2 Feb. 1894. putting the question, I seldom asked the man if he was 

an opiuiii-eutcr ; I simply asked him: "How many 

" grains of opium do you tak(> ?" lie then told me thr: 
number of grains he took, and frequently he produced 
the opium from some part of his person. The first 
thing I did was to weigh it. His age was taken down, 
the duration of the habit, the reasons for beginning it. 
and so on. 

21,333. Why did you change the form of yOTir 
question ; you said when you get a little further on 
instead of asking a man if he took opium you asked 
him how much he took ? — There are one or two reasons. 
One reason was that very often at first the men denied 
that they took it, more especially if there were one or 
two others standing around us, as they do stand around 
in an open dispensary. Another reason was because 
I was able to recognise that there was a likelihood that 
the man before me from his appearance was an opium- 
eater. 

21,3.34. You used the term "marasmus." "^Vhat is 
that in plain English ? — It means infantile wasting;. 

21.335. Tou have referred to a native gentleman who 
has looked into this matter. I think yon got some 
definite information from him ? — I endeavoured to get 
my information definitely. 

21.336. Is he the same gentleman that you have 
mentioned to me in conversation ? — Tes. 

21.337. Tou have also said : "In all who have come 
" before me no native eve)- urged malaria as the 
" reason for beginning or continuing the opium habit." 
What do they give as the reason? — 'I'here are three or 
four rrasous. Of those whom I examined about 6ll i^er 
cent, began the habit between the ages of 20 n.nd 40. 
Sometimes the habit was commenced at a Mela, some- 
times at times of fasting, and s(_)mctimes because it was 
supposed to give some aid to sexual powers. Some- 
times, also, the habit was bi'gun by taking opium for 
some little trifiing aihueut, and then when the 
ailment passed away the habit was established. 

21.338. Fou say, " The social habits which sanction 
" its use are being given up.'' Do you think you have 
that on distinctly reliable authority p — Yes, I think so. 
I have it on quiti; reliable native authority. 

21.339. Does your information enable you to say 
within what period it has been abandoned, whether it 
is now being abandoned, or whether it has been gradu- 
ally going on for some years p — I think evidence has 
already been laid before the Commission that there has 
been a decrease in the consumption tif opium in Marwar, 
generally speaking, within the last decade. English- 
men are not at the social gatherings, &c. as a rule ; 
but so far as I have heard from native gentlemen, what 
I have stated is the case. 

21.340. A great many witnesses, both here and at 
other places, have told us that persons who are mach 
exposed, such as night-watchmen, camel-drivers, and 
others, are in the habit of constantly taking opium, and 
that it is the greatest possible comfort and advania.ge 
to them. Do you know anything about that? — T have 
seldom come across a camel -driver ivho took opium, 
though I believe that several of them do, who say they 
take it for long inarclies and when exposed tf) the night 
air. As a rule, I do not think they' take opium, nor do 
they give it to their camels. In the times of Dacoity, 
if a nia,n wanted to get airiiy from his pursuers, he 
could, by giving a piece of opium to his camel, get more 
work out of it foi' that day, his aim being to get a,s far 
away from his pursuers as possible. The life or health 
of his camel would be of no consequence. Now-a-days. 
the habit is changed. They give their camels alum and 
coarse brown sugar, Ac. Thisc things are now more 
commonly given than opium in the case of horses and 
camels that have been fatigued by long journeys, and 
are required to go on further. 

21.341. Have you seen the evidence given by Bishop 
Thoburn in Calcutta, in which some questions were put 
to him with reference to the abolition of the tobacco 
monopoly in I'ersia ? — Yes. 

21.342. I believe you wish to make a short statement 
to the Commission on the subject? — 1'he question has 
^■efcrcnoe to the possibility or feasibility of the British 
(.loverument ta,xir.g the Indian ryot in tobacco, b'efer- 
enoe was made to the Shah of Persia taxing tobacco and 



a revolt following. The fact is that the Shall of Persia 
did not tax tobacco. 

21.343. Do you know that P —As far as I can gather from 
those who have been in Persia (lie facts are these. 
The Shah of Per.-ia receiv-ed at first a tum of money 
from a single gentleman to have control of the 
cultivation, &c. of tobacco in Persia. The whole 
aft'air was transferred by the single individual to a 
huge company, which launched out with full powers 
to stop all other cultivation of tobacco save by this 
oompan}'. Then the people rose, practically on 
account of the afiairs of the country being handed over 
to foreigners, it being an English company. The 
element of revolt was due to the feeling against the 
foreigners. The "Shah had to pay 500,000L to the 
company. 

21.344. (Chairman.) Arc you sure it was a monopoly 
of cultivation or a monopoly of tobacco, like the mono- 
polies that exist in many foreign countries, monopoly 
of sale ? — It -was somewhat similar to the monopoly 
existing in Turkey ; I believe it included cultivation. 
There were huge buildings put uj) all over Persia to 
carry on the business of the company. 

22,346. The company might themselves intend to 
cultivate without having the monopoly of cultivation P 
— There was a monopoly of cultivation ; it had to be 
sanctioned. 

22,346. On what authority do you state this ? — On 
tlie authority of a medical man who was in Persia for a 
number of years, and who has quite recently come to 
Iiajputai:a. 

21,317. (Mr. Mowbray.) Is it your suggestion that if 
opium wore prohibited it would be safe to put a tax 
upon tobacco, is that the point ? — Perhajis Mr. Wilson 
will explain. I must refer yon to him. 

21.348. You have told us, .speaking of the opium 
habit generally, that "it is to the healthy man un- 
" necessary, generally injurious, and more or less 
" deteriorating." I suppose you would admit that 
there are many habits besides the opium habit which 
are to healthy men unnecessary, very often injurious, 
and in many cases deteriorating P — Certainly. 

21.349. I presume you would hardly propose to pro- 
hibit all these habits by law ? — As a medical missionary 
I do not believe that the people of any country can b'e 
reformed by law altogether. I think rather, that the 
regeneration of any company or class of men should 
begin from within rather than from without. 

21 ,3.50. I rather gather from what you have told us 
with regard to the social habits which sanction the use 
of opium being given up ; that, in your opinion, there 
is something in that direction being done at the present 
moment? — I do not associate, so to speak, with the 
people, during their festivals. I can only take this on 
native authority. It is somewhat similar to the differ- 
ence in habit with regard to alcohol among the Scotch 
people now as compared with 50 years ago. Fifty 
years ago, after Holy Communion in ocrtainchurches, 
there was often practically a debauch in drinking wine 
and spirits. That habit has changed. A like change 
is taking place with the use of opium in connexion with 
the customs of the people here. 

21,3r,l. That is to say, in your opinion, there is in 
Rajputana an influence working in the direction which 
you y.inr>elf wish it to work?— Certainly; it seems to 
me that the habit is being discontinued. 

21.352. As a practical man, with your experience of 
the habits, cnstnms, and feelings of the people here, are 
yi.u prejjared to advise this Commission to rocommend 
a i)olicy of prohibition by law p— I should prefer to s;iy 
that I would recommend to the Commission a policy of 
discouraging the use of opium. If the policy of non- 
prohibition be based upon the alleged beneficial action 
ot the drug, I would say that the Commission, in recom- 
mcndnig sucli a policy, were committing' a moral 
wrong. The policy I should like to see would Ijc in the 
direction of di.cournuiiig the use of the drug ; showing 
that the habit is discountenanced, and thus helping the 
people to free themselves from the Imhit; that is 
different from prohiljitiou at once )jy law. 

21.353. [Mr. Fan«li<i,Kr.) You have stati'd tliat in this 
couiilry the opium-eater fills the giip which is occupied 
by the diunkard at home; are you there referring to 
the excessive opium-eater ?— I 'am referring to the 
feeling that seemed to me to be held with regard to the 
drug ill the case of tbo.?e who have come lipforo me. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



63 



21.354. The drunkard at home is the excessive con- 
aniiier of wine or alnohol ; do yoa niean in the same 
way the cxrfssiTe opium-cater ? — Yes, certainly. 

21.355. "Sou have referred to Sir William Moore, and 
you say that it is not a custom among E,aj])uts to take 
opium after dinner. You are aware that Sir Williiim 
Moore was speaking ol' the Thakurs, the Eajput gentle- 
men, as he calls them ? — The Thakurs do not take it 
after dinner as we take wines or liquors. 

21.356. You say not as a habit? — Not as a social 
habit. 

21.357. I suppose in Sir William Moore's own ex- 
perience there may have been occasions on which he had 
kn(jwn this done ? — My own experience is that it is given 
on the occasion of first meeting, together with spices, 
set on silver plates. It is also given on some other 
occasions ; but it is not taken, as a social thuig after 
meals. 

21,358. Your information has been that it is jiot 
taken as a habit after dinner by any class of Eajputs P 
— That is so. 

21,369. And further, that it is not taken, as wine 
would be taken at home, after dinner ? — No. 

21.360. With regard to the social habits ; you have 
stated that the social habits which sanction the use of 
opium are being given u}) ; what social habits do you 
mean ? — I mean so far as opium is connected with the 
social habits, that those habits are altered, in that there 
is not the same necessity for 1^1: e presence of opium as 
part of the social function. I do not mean that all the 
habits are being abandoned, but so fai' as relates to the 
opium part of them. 

21.361. You mean, I think,inot that certain social habits 
are being given up, bat rather that the use of opium on 
various occasions which has been common in the ])agt 
is now less (lommon ? — Yes. A nvimber of the habits 
are changed. 

21.362. Can you instance any other habits which are 
being given up ? — Alterations have been made in the 
" holi " festival at Jodhpore. In that case the " mela " 
has been abandoned, and the opium goes with it. 

21.363. In the table of the cases which you have given 
you have not mentioned the occupation of your patients P 
— No. Ill the register of oases we gcneially put down 
the caste, ^vhether Hindu or Mussalman. This was kept 
in the hospital register. I might have put down the 
occupation, but at the time I did not think it was 
necessary. 

21.364. Were these cases mainly obtained in Nus- 
aeerabad ? — Yes. 

21.365. The proportion of young men who have taken 
to this habit, from what you have called sexual reasons, 
is unusually large according to other evidence we have 
had. Do you think it has anything to do with the class 
of men to bo found at a cantonment like Nusseerabad r — 
I should say it would refer to the regular inhabitants, 
taking them as a whole. It was only by accident that I 
received that statement from a native gentleman as to 
the per-centage being higher than I myself had put it. 

21.366. You have made a reference to Tod's Rajasthan, 
and to his strong views in regard to the opium habit. 
I think it right to put this before you. It is stated in a 
book* that has been sent to us that Sir Henry Lawrence, 
who ^vas agent for the Governor-General in Rajputana 
for some time, wrote that, m his opinion, there was little, 
if any, truth in the statement made in Tod's Rajasthan ? 
— I was not aware of that. 

21.367. {Lord Brasseij.) Looking to the peculiar diffi- 
culties which attach to any interference by a foreign 
Government, such as the government of India by 
England, with the personal habits and social customs 
of the people, do you not think that the general argu- 
ments which you have recognised in your replies to 
Mr. Mowbray in favour of accomplishing moral re- 
forms by social and religious agency, have a peculiarly 
marked application to the ease which is Ijefore this 
Commission. If you think that is true generally, isit 
not particularly true when the interference sought for 
is interference which must be exercised, as in the case 
of this Government, by a foreign Government P--I think, 
certainly, that any reform should be a matter of very 
careful consideration, and, as far as possible, it is a thing 
that must be brought about gradually. 



♦ Note bv Ml'. Vaiishawe.— This statement will be found at |)a!ro 12 of 
A Vindiontioii ol UnKlamVa Policy with regard to the Opium Trade," 
yC R lliines- but 1 lunu bet'ii uimiile to verily the quotation from 



byC 

Sir H. Lawrence's letter. 



21.368. Especially where the Government is con- 
stituted as is the government of India by Englishmen, 
and the case involves interference with personal habits 
and ancient customs ? — It would be more desirable if it 
were so brought about— if the natives themselves 
moved first in the matter of legislation — 1 certainly 
perfectly agree with you there. 

21.369. From what you have said, I gather that you 
regard the use of stimulants generally, unless when 
medically prescribed, as of doubtful advantage ? — Yes, 
I certainly do, unless under medical supervision. 

21.370. You have made it evident that in your view, 
whatever Great Britain is in the world, is not because, 
but in spite of alcohol ? — Yes. 

21.371. Do you not hold that the remarks which you 
would apply to the use of alcohol in England apply in 
so far as alcohol is used at all, even more strongly in the 
case of India ; and is it not the case that alcohol when 
used in India is used with oven a less degree of impunity 
than in England P — There seems to be a tendency 
amongst those who take alcohol to be very liable to run 
into excess. 

21.372. That being so, do you think it woula be 
desirable to put the utmost restriction in the case of 
alcohol as in the case of opium P — Yea ; so far as it ifi 
possible or feasible. 

21.373. In short the arguments that prevail with yoa 
in regard to opium apply equally to alcohol P — Yes, 
generally ; but in the habitual moderate consumer of 
alcohol, there is no experience of the period of re-action 
which characterises every case of even the moderate 
use of opium. 

21.374. (Ohairman.) Do you think it is at all probable 
that opium smoking has the effect of prolonging life in 
the case of consumption? — 3t) or 40 years ago in 
England there was a, feeling that alcohol was valuable 
in the case of consumptives in prolonging life. That 
was the opinion held at that time as far as my teaching 
has gone. My teacher was Professor Gairdner of the 
Glasgow University, and he taught us that it is of no 
use. 

21.375. When opium is drawn into the lungs of the 
opium-smoker, do you think the opinion held by the 
Chinese of the benefit of such smoking in cases of con- 
sumption may be right p — I do not think so. 

21.376. You say, "all that can be said is that the 
" facilities of procuring opium are such that it adapts 
' ' itself as a vehicle in poisoning and suicide cases, and 
" is largely employed in India for these purposes." As 
regards poisoning, that is new to mo. Isit not a fact that 
opium, having a strong taste and smell, is net a good drug 
for the purpose of poisoning. If a man died from it 
the cause would be at once apparent, would it not? — 
(j'pium is taken along with other pungent condiments 
used by the natives. The odour might be easily con- 
cealed. Moreover, every case of death is not noticed. 
There is no registration of deaths before disposal of 
the body, and many deaths escape investigation. There 
is not the dread of an inquest following as there is at 
home. 

21.377. Is that the result of your experience, or is it 
merely a theory ; it is a. new thing to me ? — It is a 
matter of experience in a number of cases that have 
come under my observation. I happened to visit Tonk 
Goal three or four years ago, and there were five or 
six women there who were all concerned with the deaths 
of their husbands, and opium had been used either by 
them or by their paramours. Opium had been the 
vehicle in those cases.* 



* The following letter \v;is subsequently addressed by the witness to 
Sir James Lyall : — 

"In my evidence at Aj men' you raised the question of opium being 
used us a poisoning agent, and held the taste, &C. was against it being 
thus used. A.t the time I thought you had missed my point, which was 
to lay no stress on the poisoning, but to free the opium-eater from tlie 
iilanie of it. Prom my wording of the sentence, you will see that I was 
careful not to write liajputana but India. 1 was simplyacceitting what 
many hold all over India (vcc :\litra of Cashmere, in " Indian :\Iedi( al 
Ilerurd," February 1894). While I have seen poisoninsr by opium in 
tiajputana, J affree with i/onr conf'-iU'on Uiat the t:iste slioiild be, 
and likely is, against it being extensively nseil. In Hajputana the root 
of the joarj dhatuia, and sometimes arsenic are grea'j r favounres than 
opium for poisoniitir purposes. Opium is said to be used more in the 
cise of children, and in poisoiiina: an opium-tater by the administering 
of anc-xcesSive dose.. If I \iad been discussing suicile and homicide 
comparatively I would not have jilaced th-m together, bur my wish to 
Ijc concise, aiid my purpose, as I say ah ivc being of hrrwi.M-, I wrote it 
as it was read. Ton «-ill see t hat the sentence begins, " All I hat can be 
said." I wish to write to you to say that your contention was a just 
one, and your ciuestion emiiiiig in at tin- end of the questioning did not 
perhaps at the time recei\e the foiisidcration it .shimld h.ave done by 
me. Vou may use this note before the t'oiniuissioii should you think 
lit." 

H 1 



Dr. W. 
Huntly. 

2 .Feb. 1894. 



64 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Dr. W. -21, 378. How could a person get a man to take opium 

Huntly. without his Icnowing it ? — I have never tried it. It is 

left to the poisoner to find out the best means to ton- 

2 Feb. 1894. ceal the poison which is given. I have not given any 
attention to that part of the subject. 

21.379. Do you know whether the opinion you have 
given as to ihe bad effects of the opium habit is shared, 
so far as you know, by the other gentlemen who are 
working in Eajputana as missionaries, or whether there 
is a difl'erence of opinion ? — They might differ in detail, 
but, as far as the medical men I have met with are con- 
cerned, 1 think their opinion generally accords with what 
I have said. They discountenance the habit generally. 

21.380. (Ml-. Peiise.) With reference to what passed 
between you and Mr. Fanshawe, I Ijelieve there are 



certain occasions when it is obligatory to take opium such 
as betrothals, shaving, and parting of the beard and 
other various occasions. Js it not a lad, that these are 
obligations rather in the less enlightened districts of 
Eajputana? — At some of the lesser ceremonies, as far 
as I have been informed, opium is not taken so much as 
it was in the past in the larger towns. In the out- 
lying villages the villagers retain the older customs 
more rigidly than the people in the towns. 

21,381. Do you think that with the spread of educa- 
tion and enlightenment these customs are passing 
away, and that the obligation is not felt to the same 
extent as it was in the past P — Those people whom I 
have met who are educated do not I'ecognisc these 
obligations. 



The witness withdrew. 



The Bev. C. H. Plomeu called in and examined. 



TheRev.C.H. 21,382. [Mr. Wilson.) I believe you are connected 
Plomer. with the Methodist Episcopal Mission, Ajmere P — Yes. 

21.383. What have you to say with regard to the 
opium habit ?— I am a native of India, and have li^'ed 
all my life in this country. I have laboured as a 
missionary in the Central Provinces and the Punjab, 
and came to Ajmere last year. Wherever I have been 
I have seen the evil effects of the opium habit. It is 
almost invariable, especially amongst the poorer classes, 
for those who begin with small doses to go on increasing 
the quantity of opium consumed. The effects on the 
system of taking even u, small quantity is such that the 
consumer is unable to endurefatigue without increasing 
the quantity taken. The habit often originates in 
opium being taken for fever or for bowel complaints, 
but the continuance of its use deprives the patient of 
the relief which he at first obtained from it. Poor 
men who have acquired this habit are compelled to 
spend on opium money that ought to be spent on food. 
I have conversed on this subject with many in this 
neighbourhood and in the Punjab, especially amongst 
the poor. They own the evil of the habit, and would 
be pleased to see the stoppage of the traffic, except for 
medicinal use. 

21.384. Tou say, " The consumer is unable to endure 
" fatigue without increasing the quantity taken." We 
have had a great deal of evidence of exactly the con- 
trary character, namely, that those who have to undergo 
considerable fatigue take it for the express purpose of 
enabling them to do so. Can you in any way explain, 
or reconcile, or add anything to that p — Both from 
observation and investigation I have found that they 
must of necessity take opium in order to cope with the 
task before them. I have seen them myself as they 
have been pursuing their own avocations resort to 
opium. 

21.385. Would it be right to put it in this way, that a 
man who has been in the habit of taking regularly 
four grains a day, and then has to undergo some special 
fatigue, will increase the quantity to enable him to do 
his work ; is that what you mean ? — Yes. 

21,38(1. Do you say that the habit of taking opium in 
the Central Provinces is looked upon with favour or 
with disfavour by the people P — It is looked upon with 
disfavour, most certainly. 

21.387. Would you say that it was looked upon as 
disgraceful ? — They do not put it exactly in that form. 
Those who are habituated to the use of 0]3ium very 
gladly admit the fact that they would rather have it 
entirely discontinued. 

21.388. Wonld the same reply apply to the Punjab? 
— Yes, and to these provinces as well. 

21.389. (Mr. Mowhray.) Your experience of these 
provinces, about whicli you speak so confidently, is a 
year ? — Yes, just a year. 

21.390. How long have you been in the Punjab? — 
Seven years. 

21,3ia. Where P— Lahore. 

21.392. Have yon been in the city of Lahore all the 
time ? — I did not confine my labours solely to the city ; 
I went to the adjacent villages. 

21.393. How long wore you in the Central Provinces P 
— Two iiT.'d a half years. 



21,394. (Mr. Fanshawe.) In what districts of the 
Central Provinces have you been ? — I have been in the 
Niiiiar district. 

21,39.5. Was all your time spent there ? — I spent some 
part of my time in the Hoshangabad district. 

21.396. Dr. Rice, who was in the Central Provinces 
for 30 years or so, told us that the poorer classes in 
that province were in the habit of taking opium very 
often to enable them to do their daily work, which 
otherwise, on account of rheumatism and pains, they 
would be unable to do ; have you any experience in the 
Central Provinces of that sort of use of opium p — That 
experience obtains almost through every province that 
I have been in. 

21.397. Your own experience would agree with that ? 
— Yes, quite so. 

21.398. Have you any idea how opium could be 
supplied ior that kind oC use if it were generally pro- 
hibited except for medical purposes p — The opium 
consumers would of necessity have to meet with 
diflrculties, as we might all admit; but the habit which 
has already grown upon thcni would naturally have to 
be fought against from the beginning. 

21.399. This is a use among the poorer classes to 
enable rheumatic men, or men suffering from pain, 
to do their daily work, without which they practically 
would have to starve ? — They would of necessity have 
to resort to that agent who might receive sanction 
from Government to be a drug seller. 

21.400. And that would mean that a very large 
number of drug sellers would have to be provided in 
each district, would it not p — Not of necessity. They 
would certainly have to resort to large towns, or towns 
where such agencies would be appointed by Govern- 
ment. 

21.401. That would be a practical prohibition to the 

people in the districts against obtaining the drug ? 

That is so. 

21.402. (Lord Brassey.) Do you think that the same 
restriction which you recommend in the case of opium 
is desirable with reference to alcohol, except for 
medical use? — I would say that similar restrictions 
might easily be introduced. 

21 .403. {Chairman.) You say that you have conversed 
with many people in this neighbourhood, and that they 
would be pleased to see the stoppage of the traflB.c, 
except for medicinal use. What do you mean by the 
traffic ; do you mean the cultivation ; would that imply 
that cultivation should also be stopped?— Yes. to a 
great extent, most certainly. They all believe that 
certain restrictions should" be placed upon that. 
Certain individuals might be given special licenses 
from Government to devote part of their land to the 
cultivation of poppy, Avhereby all these medical stores 
might be supplied with opium solely for medicinal 
purposes. 

21.404. You are aware that by far the greater part of 
the opium cultivation in Eajputana and Central India 
is for supplying opium for export trade beyond the sea. 

Do you suppose that that would be stopped ? That 

would of necessity follow. 

21.405. Do you mean to sa)- that you are able to 
■stiite from your one year's experience in the town of 
Ajmere th;it popular opinion is in favour of stoj.ping 
this large trade of opium cultivation ? — I think so. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



65 



21.406. Will it not be financially a great loss to a 
large number of people all over the country P — That is 
universally admitted. 

21.407. Yet you think the feeling against the habit is 
BO strong that, notwithstanding the financial loss, they 
would Ije glad to see it stopped P — Yes, for the good of 
the people. 

21.408. That is your idea of the popular feeling p — 
Yes. 

21.409. That is a curious state of feeling. It is not 
often you get people so disinterested P — Those alone are 
interested in it who are to-day reaping the benefit of 
the cultivation — and the Government, of course. 

21.410. Who are the people you have conversed with P 
— I have conversed with some influential natives of 
India in every province where I have been. 



21,411. AVith what class of people have you con- 
versed in this neighbourhood P — I have conversed with 
cultivators, those to whom licenses have been given for 
the cultivation of poppy. I have also conversed with 
some of the influential classes. 

21, 112. {Mr. lFi7so/i..) Did I understand you to say, in 
reply to a question that was put to you, that there is a 
class of persons suffering from certain pains, and so 
forth, to whom the use of opium is a practical necessity 
to enable them to do their daily -work, as mentioned by 
Dr. Rice P — Taking opium for any malady or for any 
pain is a habit obtaining everywhere. A.t the same 
time opium is also resorted to by opium consumers to 
stimulate them to fulfil their eveiyday work. Opium 
is also taken to alleviate pain. That is understood 
everywhere, simply because there is no other medical 
aid at hand. 



The Rev. C. H. 
Plomer. 

2 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Brigade Surgeon Lieutenant-Colonel T. Fpeenoh-Mullen called in and examined. 



21.413. {Sir W. Bolmis.) 1 believe you are OflBci- 
ating Medical Officer, Western States of Rajputana, 
having headquarters at Jodhpore ? — Yes. 

21,413a. What opportunities have you had of observ- 
ing the eflect of the opium habit in India? — I have 
actually lived in this province clohe on 20 years (all 
furlough, &c., excluded), and in that time have not seen 
as much damage done by opium as a month's residence 
in such towns of England and Ireland as I ha\e 
happened to stay in has shown me done by alcohol. 

21.414. Have you observed whether habitual opium- 
eateis necessarily increase their dosep — Habitual 
opium-eaters do not necessai'ily or even usually increase 
their daily allowance after the first year or two, and 
amongst them a man who takes opium in quantity to 
injure him mentally or physically is looked down on 
and talked about as would a European who drank to 
excess be amongst his fellows nowadays. A member of 
a caste or subdi\'ision of a caste within which the taking 
of opiumis prohibited is, of course,condemned for taking, 
no matter how small a quantity, habitually as would a 
teetotaller for taking alcohol. I have never known a 
death caused by opium save in cases of suicide or 
misadventure. 

21.415. Have yon known any connexion between 
crime and opium P — I know of no crimes due to the 
taking of opium. 

21.416. What has been your experience generally of 
opium users P — Most of the opium users I know or have 
known were at all events up to the average in mind and 
body of their respective castes and classes, so long as 
they kept to opium only. When they took spirits, or 
more especially English spirits also, they, in my ex- 
perience, took both to excess and quickly broke down, 
and if they did not soon drop the excess died early. 
The deaths of this kind which I have known of were 
deaths from alcohol helped by opium, and not from 
opium helped by alcohol. 

21.417. What knowledge have you of the belief of the 
natives that opium is useful in malarial fever P — I know 
it is a general belief amongst natives of this province 
that those who eat opium are less subject to malarial 
fever than their non-using neighbours. I cannot vouch 
for the truth of this belief from my own experience, but 
I certainly do not wish to declare it un- or ill-founded. 
I know that opium will often avert a fever seizure, and 
that it is taken to shorten such. I know that from my 
own personal experience of many years. 

21.418. For what other purposes is opium used, is it 
used as a household remedy P— Opium is largely used 
in bowel troubles of all kinds, in rheumatic pains and 
neuralgias of all kinds, asthma, chronic cough, some 
forms of dyspepsia, and so on. I do not think it is much 
used as an aphrodisiac, bub I have known it employed, 
it was said successfully, to enable the sexual act to be 
prolonged. It is, I think, the most widely used house- 
hold medicine in this province. 

21.419. What experience have you had of the opium 
habit in gaols P— Throughout the '20 years referred to 
above, I have, as a part of my duties, held executive 
and medical charge of gaols wJtK « daily average popu- 

O 82588. 



lation of from 400 to 600. Many of the prisoners were 
of coui'so post drinkers or opium-eaters (in my last 
gaol about 12 per cent, of the men admitted were opium 
users), but there was very seldom any serious difiiculty 
in sto|)ping the opium at once on admission, save in the 
case of old men broken by disease. 

21.420. You mean independent disease, and not dis- 
ease produced by opium P — Yes. In a large number of 
cases the opium had been taken owing to disease of 
some kind or other. In not 1 per cent, of these cases 
■vvas it necessary, on account of bowel troubles, &c. to 
give for a short time some opium, iind then, of course, it 
was given in disguised form. I do not think there is 
so much difficulty in breaking off the opium habit as 
there is in the case of alcohol ; not much more perhaps 
than there is in the ease of tobacco. It depends upon 
when you catch the opium-user. Many come and ask 
for assistanoo to help them to break the habit. 

21.421. {Mr. Wilson.) You have referred to the ques- 
tion of malarial fever. I do not quite understand 
whether you yourself have faith in opium as a prophy- 
lactic P — No ; save, as I have said, used in this limited 
sense ; if a man came to me within three hours of the 
time he expected hia fever attack, I would not consider 
that I had time enough to stop that attack by giving 
him quinine .nlone, and from experience in my own 
person, I would give him laudanum with the quinine in 
solution. 

21.422. Have you ever known cases in which opium- 
eaters desii ing to free themselves from the habit have 
sought medical advice P — Yes, hundreds. These cases 
were chiefly boys and young men who were not en- 
titled by the custom of their castes to take opium at 
all at this age. 

21.423. Do they succeed under medical advice P— It 
is not very difficult when they put themselves under a 
medical man. The individuals want assistance, not to 
the same extent as a confirmed drunkard, but they do 
need home help to aid them. 

21.424. You have hardly known persons to apply to 
medical men in order to break off the practice of 
smoking tobacco P — I have known men suffer very 
much from tobacco, and found it .extremely difficult to 
persuade them to lessen the quantity habitually con- 
sumed. I have often been consulted for irregular 
heart action, and sometimes for failing sight, caused 
by heavy smoking, and impossible of cure until the 
smoking was stopped or materially lessened. 

21,42-5. Have you known them have recourse to 
medical assistance in order to got rid of it p — No ; but 
often to get rid of evils resulting from it they ought 
to. 

21.426. So that from that point of view it is distinctly 
more difficult to get rid of the opium habit than the 
tobacco habitP— ThatI would not say. As a rule a 
man does not try to give up the tobacco habit unless 
he is forced to do so owing to trouble with his heart, 
or something of the soit. 

21.427. You have said that there is not much more 
difficulty in breaking off the opium habit than there is 
in the case of tobacco P— Kot much more. 

I 



Brigade 

Surgeon 

Lieut.-Colonel 

T. Ffrench- 

Mullen. 



C6 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



Brigade 21,428. But you have nob known people seek advice 

Surgeon with reference to tobacco P — I have known people seek 

Lieut. -Colonel advice for the effects of heavy tobacco smoking. 

T. Ffrench- r. m -r. 

Mullen. 21,429. But not to give them assistance in breaking 

it off?- — They did not know what the cause of the 

2 Feb. 1894. trouble was. 

2] ,430. (Sir W. Bdberts.) I presume the difficulty 
of giving up the opium habit varies very much accord- 
ing to the quantity which a person has got into the 
habit of taking. A person in the habit of taking 20 or 



30 grains twice a day would find the breaking off of the 
habit very much more serious than a person who only 
took three or four grains twice a day ? — Certainly. 

21.431. Have you been able to verify that by your 
experience ? — Certainly ; but the difficulty would not 
be so very much greater as the difference in quantity 
would lead you to believe. 

21.432. Bat there is a certain relation ? — Yes, 
certainly — marked. 



The witness withdrew. 



Snrgeor,- 
Captain W. H. 
Neilson, M.B. 



Surgeon-Captain W. H. Neit.son, M.B., called in and examined. 



21,433. (8ir W. Boherts.) I believe you are in 
medical charge of the Erinpura irregular force F — 
Yes. 

'21,434. And you have been in the service for 11 years, 
of which 10 have been in Rajputaua? — Yes. 

21.435. You have also had medical practice in the 
force and amongst the inhabitants of the surrounding 
district ? — Yes. 

21.436. To a certain degree you have been in civil 
practice ? —There is no other medical officer within 
many miles, so that I get practice in the district. I 
get both surgical and medical cases. 

21.437. Have you dispensaries under your chaige P — 
Theie are no dispensaries there. 

21.438. Will you tell us what your experience lias 
been P — Opinm is rot grown in the district, but im- 
ported ; amal and amal-pani are consumed ; chandu 
and madak are not used; the price is from Be. 1 for 
five to Ee. 1 for seven or eight tolas according to the 
quality. 

21.439. What are the men composing the force you 
are in charge of p — In the cavalry, Sikhs and Maho- 
medans. In the infantry, Eajputs, Minas, Bhils, 
Mhairs, Surgaras, Gujars, other Hindus, Mahomedans. 
With the exception of the Mahomedans, all are occa- 
sional eaters ; 6 per cent, of Sikhs habitual eaters ; 
women and children of Sikhs occasional eaters. Opium 
is given to women and children of others as medicine 
only. 

21,440-1. What have you to say in regard to the 
bazaars in the town? — Mahajans, Brahmins, Eajputs, 
Mahomedans, Minas, Bhils, Kvimhars, Gauchis, 
Gouais, Chamars are, with the exception of Gousis, 
either occasional or habitual caters, and amongst thom 
some consumers of enormous amounts. 

21.442. What about the country districts? — Eajputs, 
Minas, Bhils, Eabaris, all occasional, and many large, 
eaters. 

21.443. Have you found the taking of opium very 
common? — The taking of opium, either occasionally or 
habituiilly, is thns almost universal. By occasional 
eaters it is taken -with the object of increasing physical 
energy and powers of endurance. To guard against 
results likely to ensne from exposure, e.g., colds, fever : 
dose usually about one grain. By habitual eaters it is 
taken with different objects. The habit is acquired at 
difl'erent ages, and the dose varies with the object from 
one grain two or three times a day to 60 grains, and 
probably more. By some it is taken as a brain stimulant 
between the ages of 35 and 40, e.g., by Mahajans; by 
others it is taken to earlier as an exhilarant, and in these 
cases the dose is apt eventually to become enormous ; 
by others the habit has been gradually acquired, the 
drug having, in the first instance, been taken' as a 
medicine for the relief of pain, &c., &c.. However 
acquired the babit is per.sisted in. Asa medicine, it is 
taken by all for coughs, colds, diarrhoea, I'heumatism ; 
by the habitual eater as a pieventive and ourer of 
fever; as assisting powers of digestion. It is used as 
an aphrodisiac. It is used for purposes of conviviality 
at certain fes^tivals, such as the Holi and Dewali. I have 
been broncht into contact with occahional and habitual 
oalei's. My attention was first drawn to the subject 10 
years ago on a stone case, where the patient was in the 
habit of consuming seme 30 grains a day. 

21.441. What conclusion have you come to with re- 
gard to opinm-tatingp— I have come to the following 



conclusions : That in occasional eaters physical energy 
and powers of endurance are increased for the time 
being; that taken with this objecl, it is of the greatest 
use ; that there are no after ill-effects, such as depres- 
sion, derangement of appetite, &o., &c. ; that no craving 
for a repetition of the dose is experienced ; that in 
habitual eaters the moderate consumption of the drug is 
a distinct aid to the brain, stimulating its powers, e.g., 
the case of the Mahajans ; that even in cases where the 
drug is taken in what might be considered excessive 
doses — up to even 60 grains — so long as the drug is in- 
dulged in there appears to be no deterioration of the 
niental powers — the physical energies, the working 
powers, if anything, are increased ; the digestive func- 
tions are not disturbed, the appetite remains fairly 
good ; disease is not more frequent, fevers distinctly less 
frequent and severe ; that the habit does not in any way 
interfere with medical or surgical treatment; leads to 
no disreputable habits, laziness, dirt, or crime ; that 
life does not appear to be shortened. It is an extremely 
difficult mutter to pick out the habital consumer from 
his fellows — non-consumers— and I have never come 
across a man debauched by opium as pictured in medi- 
cal books. I have never seen any harm, and I have 
seen good resulting from the habitual use of opium, and 
am prepared with examples. The results arising from 
the withdrawal of the drug are too well known to be 
entered into here. Any attempt to stop the importa- 
tion of the drug would give rise to general discontent, 
and would be met by smuggling. 

21.445. With regard to habitual eaters, you say that 
it is taken with different objects ; by some it is taken 
as a brain stimulant between the ages of 36 and 40, and 
by others it is taken to earlier as an exhilarant. Do 
you mean for its restorative effect, or as an aphrodisiac P 
— I do not mean that it is taken for either. I mean 
that it is taken in the same way as wine is taken and 
as smoking is taken to in youth by young men who take 
to it as an experience and so fall into the habit. 

21.446. I presume you have been a good deal in touch 
with opium-eaters P — ^Yes ; I have had a tremendous 
number of Sikhs and Eajputs in the regiment. My 
attention was more particularly directed to it when 
men came in from the outside districts for operations. 
I found to my astonishment that they took a good deal 
of opium. I imagined that it would do them harm ; 
and therefore 1 paid rather more than ordinary 
attention to these men. I remember the case of one 
man who took 30 grains a day. I operated upon him 
for stone, and there were no ill results of any sort 
whatever. His recovery was as quick 
ordinary case. 



any 
as in 



any 



21.447. Is it your experience, broadly, that in cases 
of opeiation the fact that a patient is an opium-eater 

has no influence upon the course of his recovery p No 

influence whatever. The opium-eater is in as favourable 
a condition for operation as the ordinary man. 

21.448. Of course you recognise, as a surgeon, that 
there is an immense difference in individual tolerance ? 
—Yes, presumably; as there is for any other thino- 
tobacco or alcohol. °' 

21,419. You also recognise, I suppose, that sometimes 
an opium-eater will exceed his tolerance, and become 
an opium sot ?— I have never come across those cases. 
I do not know where to draw the line of excess. 

21,450. Supposing an opium-eater shows signs of 
distinct somnolence, that would be a sign that he did 
exceed his tolerance ?— Yes ; but I have never seen a 
man in that conditioii, 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



67 



21.451. Have you seeu much of the use of the drug in 
infants ? — No. Infants, as a rule, do not come under 
my notice. 

21.452. {Mr. Wilson.) What is ahout the strength of 
the Erinpura iri'egular force ? — About 180 cavalry, and 
600 infantry. 

21.453. Which of the varioias races that you have 
mentioned take the most opium ? — I should say Eajputs 
and Bhils ; 1 refer to the infantry portion. Amongst 
the cavalry the Mahomedans are supposed not to touch 
it, but the Sikhs all take it occasionally. 

21.454. Have you any idea whether the Mahomedans 
have any religious objection to it P — It is laid down in 
the " Koran " that they are not to touch anything in the 
shape of opium, or tobacco, or alcohol. Anything in 
the shape of a narcotic is forbidden. 

21.455. There has been a great deal of discussion about 
that. Tour experience amongst these men is that they 
regard it as forbidden P — Yes. But on the other hand 
nearly all the Mahomedans in the bazaar take opium. 
They are the lower caste — if you can talk of a lower 
caste of Musalman. 

21.456. We have had a good deal of discussion about 
the use of opium as a preventive of malarial fever ; has 
that come under your notice in any wayP — I have 
never given it with that object, but I have noticed that 
those men who take opium halDitually are not so liable 
to fever, and they have come under my observation for 
that complaint far more rarely than those who are non- 
opium-eaters. 

21.457. You think habitual consumers are less liable 
to fever P — ^Yes, they are distinctly less liable to fever. 



21.458. Can you in any way account for the fact that 
the habit has not spread. You say that only 5 per cent, 
of the Sikhs are habitual opium-eaters P^Oceasional 
opium-eaters take a little with the object of warning off 
fever; they also take opium on cold morningp, and 
when they are subjected to wet and exposure. You will 
find the occasional opium-eater under those circum- 
stances will take his little dose of opium, perhaps it 
will be once a month. There is no tendency for a habit 
to be formed when thus taken and for these objects. 

21.459. You know that this is a habit amongst them, 
bn t you have not yourself prescribed it for that purpose ? 
— No. 

21.460. You prescribe other things? — I pioscribc 
other things to ward off fever. As a matter of fact 
men never come to me with that object; they come 
after they are ill. Occasionally when there is an 
epidemic about medicine is given as a preventive. As 
a rule the men coino to mo after they are eeedy. 

21.461. (Mr. Funshawe.) From what part of the 
country are your Mahomedans in the cavalry recniitcd ? 
— Soiae arc Punjabis. The inajotity of the men in the 
cavalry ai'e Sikhs. The Mahomedans in the cavalry arc 
few compared with the Sikhs. 

21.462. Where did you learn that the Mahomedans 
are prohibited from taking opium ? — I learnt it from 
my hospital assistant. He simply stated ns a fact that 
the Mahomedans in the cavalry denied that they touch 
opium, and gave the injunctions laid down in the 
Koran as the reason . I know as a fact that nearly all 
the Mahomedans in the bazaar are opium eaters. 



Surgeon- 
Captain W.H. 
Neilson, M.B. 

2 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Adjourned to to-morrow. 



I -2 



68 



[INDIAN OPIUM commission: 



At the Daulat Bagh, Ajmere. 



SIXTY-THIRD DAY. 



Satui-dayj 3rd February 1894. 



tBESEN4 : 

The Eight Hon. LOED BRASSET, K.O.B., Ohaikman, teesidins. 



Sit James B. Lyall, G.O.I.B., K.C.S.I. 
Sir William Roberts, M.D., F.B..S. 
Mr. E. G. 0. MowBEAY, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fanshawb. 



Mr. Ajrthub Pease. 

Mr. Habidas Vbhaeidas DesaI. 

Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Pbesoott Hewett, O.I.B., Secretary. 



'heRev.C.W. 
de Souza. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



The: Eev. 0. W. be Sodza called in stiid examined. 



21,463. CMr. Wilson.) You are a missionary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission P — Yes. 

21,404. You have been stationed at Eooi'kee for 10 
years, and have been at Ajmero for about a year ? — 
Yes. 

21,465. — What have you to tell us with regard to the 
Use of opium ? — In my work as a missionary I have met 
both opium eaters as well as smokers ; in no case was 
the habit defended, but in every case it was apologised 
for, and was admitted to be disgraceful by all users as 
well as non-users. I have no objection to its use as a 
medicine under proper restrictions, Ijut the habitual 
use is certainly injurious, especially among the poorer 
classes. I have never heard of its being used for fever, 
either as a prophylactic or a remedy. I have visited 
some of the places a week ago where it is smoked in 
Ajmere. I have been to five such places in company 
with others, and found unmistakable evidence of the 
drug being sold and smoked in these dens. Since the 
arrival of the Commission in India, I have conversod 
with natives of all classes on the subject of opium con- 
sumption, and almost eveiy one I have spoken to 
declared the habit to be injurious and disgraceful. In 
one or two instances when I questioned a regular 
opium eater as to what would be the effect of all 
sale and traffic in opium being stopped, he would 
invariably answer, '' I will die immediately ; " but when 
questioned further as to what would happen if he were 
sent to jail, where Ills allowance of opium would have 
to stop, he would remain silent. 

21.466. I suppose you are quite conversant with the 
languages or dialects spoken her;.' p — Pretty fairly. 

21.467. You have no difficulty in conversing with 
these people ? — I can make myself understood, and I 
understand them partly. 

21.468. We have heard a great deal of evidence to the 
efEect that opium eating is not regarded in any way as 
disgraceful — are you distinctly of the contrary opinion p 
— ^Yes, so far as I know and have heard it from others. 

21.469. Do your remarks refer to opium eating chiefly 
or to smoking ? — To both. 

21.470. Do yon think the people draw any distinction 
between the two practices as to its propriety or dis- 
graceful character ? — Perhaps smoking is regarded as 
moi'e disgriiceful. 

21.1?]. Off. 2roi':hraij ) Wliorr is liuovkre t'_Xu lb'' 
North-westi-'j-n l-'i'i>\inc?H in Hie zilla of !Sa.h;i.)-,-Mipii]\ 



been 13 years altogether 



21.472. Your experience of Rajputana is limited to 
the year you have been at Ajmere ? — No, I was here 
before I went to Eoorkee. 

21.473. How long? — Two years. 

21.474. In what position p — Ministering. 

21.475. Was that your first place as a minister P — ■ 
Yes. 

21.476. You have 
missionary ? — Yes. 

21,477. — Two years at Ajmere, 10 years at Eoorkee, 
and now for another year at Ajmero ? — Yes. The two 
years were not spent in Ajmere itself, but in 
Eajputana. 

21.478. What part of Eajputana p — At a railway 
station a little lower down, Bandakui. 

21.479. W'hL-re is that p— Between Delhi and Ajmere, 
21,480. — With reference to the smoking places you 

have been to, is it not contrary to law that opium 
should bo sold for the purpose of being smoked on the 
premises ? — I believe it is. 

21.481. You say you have unmistukable evidence, 
have you drawn the attention of the authorities to what 
you consider to be unmistakable evidence ? — Not yet. 

21.482. You cannot say whether any action has been 
taken ? — -None that I know of. 

21.483. {Mr. Earidas Veharidas.) You know that 
human nature is inclined to take some stimulant, and, 
therefore, if opium is prohibited, except for medical 
purposes, will not the Hindus and Mahomedans take to 
drink P — As far as I know some of them are given to 
alcohol already, even opium eaters. 

21.484. But if opium is prohibited P— They luay take 
to alcohol. 

21.485. Do you consider the habit of taking alcohol 
more injurious than the habit of taking opium P — I 
consider it injurious; I am not in a position to say 
whether it ia more or less injurious. 

21.486. {Mr. Fanshnve.) Are thure other missionaries 
in Ajmere of the Methodist Episcopal Mission who have 
had many years' experience in Eajputana p — There is 
another ^^entleman who has liad. perhaps, about three 
or four ye:irs' experience. 

21,(87. Is Ihoi' anyon,' with loni^.-r ix]ierienc^' p 

No. 



MJNUTBS OF EVIDENCE. 



69 



21.488. Is the opium habit, even in moderation, 
regarded as disgraceful among Kajputs P — In some 
pases it is. The term " afimchi " is applied with a 
feeling of disgrace. 

21.489. Is the opium habit in moderation generally 
regarded as disgraceful among Eajputs ? — I cannot say. 

21.490. Do you think your experience entitles you to 
express a general opinion on the part of the people of 
Eajputana ? — As far as it goes ; as far as I have met 
people I am able to give something of a testimony. 

21.491. [Mr. Pease.) Are ithere any of the adherents 
of your church in the practice of taking opium P — I know 
of no definite case yet ; that is, no case that I have 
questioned personally. 

21.492. Have you any rules in this connection as 
affecting church membership p — Certainly. 

21.493. What is the rule P— No opium eater can be 
admitted into membership of the church. 

21.494. {Mr. Fanshame.) Is there much malaria at 
Eoorkee ? — There is. 

21.495. Much P — Not very much — as much as prevails 
in most parts of the North-west. 

21.496. My knowledge of Saharanpur and Hoorkee is 
that they are healthy, is not that so ? — Perhaps the 
stations themselves are, the places where the Europeans 
reside, but the villages are unhealthy. 

21.497. Tour experience in connection with- the use 
of opium in fever has been necessarily rather small P — 
Tes. 



21.498. In the parts of India where malarial 
condition s]exist P — Tes. 

21.499. Mr. Plomer, who gave evidence yesterday, 
has lived all his life in this country, and he said the 
habit of opium taking often originates in cases of fever 
— your views are different P — ^Tes, my opinion is based 
on my experience of the people that I know. 

21.500. {Mr. Wilson.) Are you a native of India 
yourself P — I was -bom in India. 

21.501. Have you obtained your evidence from im- 
pressions made upon you in places where you have 
lived, or have you since obtained information more 
generally over the whole of Bajputanap Does your 
evidence apply to the whole of Ra:ip'utana or more 
particularly to Ajmere P — To those parts of Eajputana 
which have come under my notice. My work lies very 
largely in the district, and I come in contact with the 
masses of poor people — villagers and others — outside 
of Ajmere to a very great extent. 

21.502. How far do your travels extend from Ajmere P 
— A radius of about 100 miles. 

21.503. {Mr. Mowbray.) How do you travel 100 miles 
out from Ajmere P — By rail in some cases. 

21.504. There are only three sets of rails P — I go out 
for instance in the direction of Jodhpur, and further on 
sometimes to Bikanir, and then out where the railway 
does not go. 

21^506. How many times have you been toBikanir 
within the la^t year ? — Once to Bikanir itself, and about 
three times in that direction. 



The Bev.C. W. 
de Souza. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



Witness withdrew. 



Mrs. Louise DaifMAN called in and examined. 



21.506. {Mr. Pease.) What have you to tell us with 
regard to the opium habit ? — I am a zenana missionary 
of the United Presbyterian Mission, Ajmere, where I 
have been working for 26 years. Especially during the 
last six or seven years I have observed the evils of the 
opium habit ; women complain to nae of their husbands, 
brothers, and fathers, who are losing their money, and 
getting thin, and " drying up," through taking opium. 
They also say that it injures the moral character, and 
naakes men inattentive to their duty. The great 
majority of the men, and a smaller proportion of 
women, take opium; women take it always for alle- 
viating pain ; men from custom and other reasons. It 
is very common to give opium to children, and deaths 
frequently occur through an accidental overdose. 
A number of zenana ladies, whom I have recently 
questioned on the subject, call it "poison" and 
" destructive," and express their groat desire that 
Grovernment should remove it entirely, except for 
medicine. One woman, an opium eater, said to me, 
write to the Queen of England, and ask her to give us 
a medicine which will cure us of the habit. 

21.507. Can you explain how it is, working here for 
26 years, you did not observe the evils of opium, 
especially until the last six or seven years ? — I did 
not know that such a thing existed, and the first time I 
heard about it was when a cook put salt into fruit 
instead of sugar. In that way I learnt the men were 
taking opium. I then heard it was a bad thing, but 
before that I did not know what opium was. This 
was some 25 years ago ; up to that time I had heard of 
several cases, but I paid no attention to the matter. I 
thought the people were getting thin on account of 
the climate. 

21.508. Have yon seen many cases in which persons 
have evidently suflered in health fi-om taking opium ? — ■ 
Certainly among the men. I had a cook who rained 
his health through it, and his wife died in our mission 
compound. 

21.509. Deaths frequently occur from an accidental 
overdose. Have you known many cases of that kind ? — 
I heard Dr. Grant, a lady doctor, who went to Kotah. 
When she was in Ajmere once, she came back from 
her dispensary and said, "I regret so much, I wanted 
" to save the dear little child, and ho died. He was 
" about a year or fifteen months old. I did my 
" best to save him ; the mother gave him an overdose 
" of opium." Miss Grant was two or three hours 
trying to save the chihl. I heard other ladies speaking 
about it, and I know ii woman who htlped Miss Grant 
(who afterwards became Mrs. Bonnor), and she said 
that Mrs. Bonnor told her that women found niany 
ways (jf giving opium to their children in Kotah, and 



that Mrs. Bonnor did her best in trying to prove to the 
women that it harmed the little ones. 

21.510. There have not been many cases come under 
your notice besides those which you have heard of 
from friends P — No, because I have nothing to do With 
medical work. 

21 .511. Do you think there is much opium taken by the 
ladies themselves in the zenanas ? — 1 tried to find out 
the percentage, but I could not exactly. Sona.e people 
say 20 out of 100, and others say 10 or 16. 

21, -512. Of the ladies ? — ^Of the women generally 
speaking, but there are a great many more men who 
take opium. 

21.513. Do yon think the strong feeling which they 
express, calling it poison and other things, arises from 
what they have seen of the influence of opium on the 
ladies or upon the other members of the household ? — 
I think it was especially on account of their having 
their husbands and brothers taking it. Of course it 
takes a great deal of money away from the family, and 
the women are often sufferers. 

21.514. {Mr. Wilson.) Have you anything else to say 
generally upon this question P — I should like to mention 
that I talked the matter over with 50 zenana women 
carefully, and I found 45 who all called it poison, 
harmful, hurting the human body, and wishing that 
the Government would take it away. These women had 
no idea of the conflict which is now going on. They 
never leave the house, and I only wished that I had had 
another lady with me to hear them. Eive women spoke 
about opium as very beneficial in great pain, and also 
in certain diseases. . Three out of these five said it was 
very good, and the two others said it was good if taken 
moderately in certain diseases. 

21.515. As far as your experience goes, and your 
opportunities of intercourse with these people, you 
think the great majority of them regard the practice of 
taking opium as an evil habit p — Most certainly. 

21,515a. {Mr. Mowbray.) Could you tell me how 
many of these 45 zenana women were themselves opium 
consumers ? — Ont of the 45, some might take some 
opium on the sly, but they did not speak to me as 
consumers of it. 

21.."ilii. Were thjse the five who rather apjiroved of 
the use ot opium ? — No, but the five out of the 50 who 
told me so. "' "■ 

21,517. The 45 who disapproved were none of them 
opium consumers? — I do not think so, I did not, ask 
everyone that question, as they did not liko it to be put. 

I 3 



Mrs. Louise 
Vryman. 



70 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Mrs. Louise 
Dryman. 

3 h'eh. 1894. 



Lieul.-Col. 
JJ. B. Abbott. 



21.518. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Is your 2ii years' experience 
limited to Ajmere itself ? — ^"fes. 

21.519. How many families are you in the habit of 
visiting. Is it some hundreds of zenanas ? — Where I 
teach or snperintend the work it is about 60, but there 
are a great many other houses where I visit. 

21.520. Tou habitually visit some 60 families, and 
yon oocaaionally visit many others ? — Yes, I know a 
great many women. 

21 ,.^>21. Are you in the habit of visiting the families 
of Mahajans or Banias F — Yes. 

21.522. Were any of these opinions which you have 
mentioned the opinions of Mahajan or Bauia ladies ? — 
The Mahajans are not very much against it becauso 
their husbands are cngugea in the business, and they 
are afraid to speak against it, but if I did question them 
they would eay that it is no good. 

21.523. That is a general answer. Can you toll me 
whether any of the 45 ladies were JNIahajan or Bania 
ladies ? — There were certainly a few. I think there 
were two Mahomedan women out of the five in 
question addicted to it who regretted very niuch 
having learnt to take it. 

21.524. Would those be Banias ? — No. 

21.525. Were any of the 45, Banias or Mahajans ? — 
Tes, I know two were Babus' wives, wealthy women. 
There might have been one Bauia or Mahajan woman. 

21.526. I am asking whether out of the whole 45 
ladies who expressed their views to you, there were 
any Bania or Mahajan ladies ? — Yes, certainly. 

21.527. How many? — I could not say. 

21.528. Was it a large proportion? — I really could 
not say. They belonged to all classes and to what is 
called good castes. 

21.529. Among the families which you are in the 
habit of visiting, are there many belonging to Thakurs 
or Eajput gentlemen ? — Not many, but some. 

21.530. One of the great objects of this Commission 
is to distinguish between moderate and excessive use. 
Were the opinions generally expressed to jou against 
the excessive use or the moderate use ? — It was also 
expressed against the moderate use, because they all 
said, when I asked about the quantity, that they took 
a dhal or little pill, and the dose went on increasing ; 
because the consumers suffer great pain if they do not 
increase it. That is what all the women said to me. 

21.531. As far as you know, it was a general opinion 
against the use of opium generally ? — Certainly it was. 

21.532. (Chairman.) You have spoken of the strong 
views expressed by the ladies of the zenanas where 
you have been visiting in reference to the evils of 
opium. Does your zenana experience encourage in you 
the hope that where the women of the families you 
visit have decided views they are able to exercise an 
appreciable, valuable moral influence in securing an 
improvement in their morals or habits in any way ? — 
They cannot exercise it as the men want opium. 
They all mourn over it ; they all grieve that their 
husbands and brothers take it, because they lose a 
great deal of money thereby. They also get so careless 
about their clothes, so untidy, and inattentive to their 
duties. 

21.533. That is the evil which these women deplore ? 
—Yes. 

21.534. Do you think the fact that they do deplore 
the evil, and feel strongly about it, would bring about 
a moral influence to be exerted by them over the male 
members of their families? — I think it is absolutely 
impossible, because the men will have it. 



21.535. You think these women, however strongly 
they may feel on these subjects, are not able to produce 
social reforms by their moral and personal influences ? — 
I do not think so, because I have heard many women, 
saying that the men must have it; they suffer so much, 
and they would rather soil their clothes or their jewels 
than go without it. 

21.536. Since I have been in this country I have 
been repeatedly told that in so far as alcohol is used it 
does an even greater harm than opium ; there seems to 
be less ability to resist the temptation to excess in the 
case of alcohol where people use it. Have you heard 
anything in your zenana experience in that sense? 
Have you heard any allusion to the evils resulting from 
over-indulgence in alcohol ? — I have heard that opium 
is worse than alcohol. 

21.537. (Sir William Bohcrls.) You have been working 
here for 26 years, and you say that you have observed 
the evils of the opium habit, especially during the last 
six or seven years. Do you mean to suggest by that 
that there has been an increase of the use of opiuin of 
late years? — I was signing a petition against opium 
in regard to China, and I went heartily into it. I 
explained to one .of my servants, a Mahomedan woman, 
that somebody would come to sign the petition. I said 
to her, " If he is willing to sign, let him sign." She 
got inquisitive, and asked more particularly about the 
petition. I said, " It is about opium— a great evil — 
something that people take in China." The woman 
knew far more than 1 did, and she said, " We have got 
such dens in Ajmere." I told her that she did not 
understand what I meant, but she maintained that 
there were opium dens in Ajmere. 1 did not believe her, 
and I determined to go and see for myself, and I found 
in it three opium dens. That was six or seven years 
ago. I took a native Christian and his wife with me. 
There were three of us. We went to see the dens, and 
the men were ail lying on the ground. There is no 
noise in an opium den. It is a very sad sight indeed — 
young and old lying helpless. The woman was quite 
right, and since that time I have read a great deal in 
the papers about it. 

21.538. Your attention was called to the subject? — 
Yes, through my servant. I thought she had made 
a mistake, but it was true enough I am sorry 
to say. 

21.539. You are talking about opium-smoking ? 
There were three dens. 

21.540. Had your attention been called to opium 
eating before that ? — Yes, I knew many men did take 
it, but I never knew anything so evil as this chandu, 
because I saw two or three men who looked so sad and 
who entreated me to write to the Queen of England, 
and they asked me for a, medicine which would take 
the habit away. 

21.541. In the first 20 years of your zenana ex- 
perience, the opium habit did not intrude itself on 
your attention ?— Not very much, but I certainly saw 
cases. I did not know it was smoked until six or 
seven years ago. 

21.542. I am speaking of the habit of eating and 
drinking opium ? —I knew it was taken. 

21.543. It had not intruded itself on your attention ? 
—I heard several times of children dying from the 
effects of it. A friend of mine, an English°gentleman 
lost his baby. The ayah gave hia child an overdose.' 
A great many native children are given it. I have 
heard that, and I have seen many water men and 
khansamas and servants taking it, but I had no idea 
it was so hurtful. 



The witness withdrew. 
Lieut.-Colonel H. B. Abbott recalled and further examined. 



21,544. (CliJ'irmiAii) I believe you have a document 
that you desire to place before the Commission? — Yes. 
I request permission to hand in a kharita* (with 
translation), addressed by His Highness the Maha- 
rawal of Banswara to the address of the Secretary of 
the Bojal Commissinn, received after my summarv 
had been drawn up, expressing His Highness's view's 
regarding prohibition and forwarding a claim for 
Es. 1,69,088 annual loss to the State and subjects of 
Banswara. I have not had the opportunity of 
examining the figures and can therefore make no 

* See Appendix V. to this volume. 



remark on the reasonableness of the claim. I also 
Karauli '"^ ^ ^^''"*'' ^"""^ ^^^ ^i^^araja of 

21 .545. (Mr. Wilson.) With reference to your state- 
ments m regard to theMeywar statistics, I should be 
glad to know whether they are compiled from the 
statements that have come from the States ?-.Thev are 
compiled from the figures sent by the States. 

21,546. In your first statement you have given the 
value to the money-lending classes at Rs 1 65 000 • 
in whose evidence does that statement appear P— In 
the evidence of Nathuji. He stated that there were 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



71 



500 chests at Rs. 330 per chest, bringing the amount 
up to Ks. 1,65,000. 

21.547. That is what you call the rural merchant 
who advances the money ; in the one case you call him 
a money-lender and in the other a merchant ? — I have 
Raid, " the money-lending classes."' The small traders 
are those who deal directly with the cultivators, in 
contra-distinction to the large merchants who carry on 
the trade in opium. 

21.548. You speak of the money-lending classes as 
supporting the cultivators ? — Tes. 

21, .549. We have generally regarded the cultivators 
as supporting the money-lenders ; I suppose you mean 
that it is mutual P— I think the cultivators look to the 
money-lenders as supporters ; they covild not get on 
without them. 

21.550. With regard to the figures Es. 6,98,735 as the 
value of opium to the State, where does that item 
occur ? — In the Meywar statement. 

21.551. May I ask if this is your compilation P — 

Tes. 

21.552. Are we relying on you, or are you quoting 
from the statements that you have received P — I am 
quoting thoir statements entirely. 

21,. 553. From the information furnished to you which 
is comprised in these papers P — Yes, that is so through- 
out. 

21 ,554. What is the meaning of the phrase " alienated 
lands " P — It means land which does not give revenue 
to the State. It is alienated for some reason or other. 
Some lands are given in charity, some are given on 
religious grounds, some are given for service, some 
belong to members of the ruling family. The revenue 
of all these lands goes to the holders, and not to the 
State ; they are alienated from the general jevenue of 
the State. 

21,.'J.55. We have had gentlemen who are called 
Jagirdars, Talukdars, and other designations ; are they 
the holders of these alienated lands ? — They are one 
class of holders. 

21,656. Their estates are included in these alienated 
lands ? — Yes. 

21,557. With regard to the Meywar statistics, do I 
understand that the statements are a sumn^ary of 
information furnished to you, as for instance, when you 
say, " it is considered necessary " ? — I take it from their 
statements. 

21.568. It is rather a summarising of the evidence ? 

—Yes. 

21.559. Not so much your own opinion ? — It is based 
entirely on information received from the States. I 
did not express my opinion on these. 

21.560. Your own views are given in your general 
statement ? — My personal views are given at the 
end. 

21.561. I see that you are described as being "on 
special duty " p — Yes. 

21,.'>62. Is that special duty the preparation of 
evidence for this Commission ? — Collecting evidence, 
compiling it, and putting it into shape. 

21,663. Will yon tell us in what way it has been 
obtained?* — Questions were framed and sent to the 
States as a sort of guide for collecting evidence. They 
collected evidence in ways that I am not acquainted 
with, because I cannot say what occurred on the spot. 
I have heai'd that they mostly formed local committees, 
and called up persons who were best acquainted with 
the different parts of the subject, and put questions to 
them, and their answers were compiled into statements. 
Those statements are the statements that have been 
compiled here, and have been read before the Com- 
mission. 

21.564. I have no doubt you are aware that in several 
instances the phraseology of difl'erent witnesses is 
absolutely the same P — Very likely. 

21.565. Could you explain how that is likely to have 
occurred ?— Probably they said much the same thing. 
I was not on the spot to see, but I think that is a 
reasonable explanation. 



• Tho qucsticiis issued liy Lieut.-Col. Abbott with the connccled 
correspondence will be found in Appendix IV. to this volume. 



21,366. You were asked before whether you put in a 
Ust of questions that have been submitted to some of 
these people, and you have handed in a paper with a 
manuscript list of tho questions. T have understood 
that the list circulated was in print P — Yes. 

21.567. May I ask why we did not have the copy in 
print ? — The questions were printed on the same piper 
as a note .which forms part of the demi-official corre- 
spondence which I have been directed not to present, 
as it would be contrary to the standing orders. That 
is the reason why I had to present it in manuscript. 

21.568. (ChoArman.) In the papers you have laid 
before us 1 observe that you put in a memorandum, 
which is practically a, covering letter, giving us a 
synopsis of all particulars sent in by the different 
States, and then with each separate statement there is 
a notice of the view taken by the Political Officer of the 
figures submitted by the Governments of these different 
States. Will you kindly tell me what is the position of 
this Political Offioar, is h? an officer of the Civil 
Service P — Yes, of the Civil and Military Services. 

21.569. Is there a Political Officer for each State p — 
Not for each State. Sometimes for a group of States 
and sometimes for a single State. 

21.570. It appears to me that the Political Officer 
whoever he is, being an official of the Grovcrnment, 
seems, on the whole, lo have endeavoured, according 
to his lights, to take an independent view of the 
statistics, and to have made remarks not necessarily 
on one side. I observe in regard to the Meywar 
statistics it is stated that '' the Resident is of opinion 
" that the figures for compensation as detailed above 
" are approximately correct and near the mark." In 
the case of Dungarpore statistics there are no remarks. 
In regard to the Pertabgarh statistics " the Political 
" Officer is of opinion that tho loss as estimated for 
" wages of labourers is rather complicated, and does 
'■ not seem to be clearly expressed." In reference to 
the Tonk statistics, " the Political Officer is of opinion 
" that the estimate of compensation is made with great 
" care, and is reasonable, and i3 as accurate as at pre- 
" sent cauba ascertained," and he seems to be advising 
the Commission wnen he says : " The claims for loss to 
" cultivators and traders are, however, stated to be 
" exaggerated." As to the Jhallawar statistics, "the 
" Political Officer considers that it would be difficult 
" to over-estimate the injury to Jhallawar." In refer- 
ence to the Kotah statistics, " the Political Officfer is of 
" opinion that the immediate and non-recurring loss to 
" States' subjects is perhaps an over-gloomy estimate." 
In regard to the Bundi statistics, " the Political Officer 
" considers the Durbar's estirtiates of the loss, direct 
" and indirect, both to itself and its subjects as 
" accurate as it is possible to make them under existing 
" circumstances"; suggesting that we must take 
whatever is said to us with some considerable reserve. 
As to the Shahpura statistics, it is stated : " the claim 
" for compensation under the various heads put in by 
" the chiefship has been examined by the Political 
" Officer, and he considers that so far as it refers to 
" direct loss it is in accordance with the best infor- 
" mation at present available." That is, he assumes, 
that all the indirect losses are hypothesis. In the case 
of the Kishengurh and Jeypore statistics there are no 
remarks. In the case of the Karauli and Dholpur 
it is expressly stated that the Political Officer has not 
stated his opinion. With reference to the Bikanir 
statistics, " the Political Officer considers the comjien- 
" sation claimed for the States and on account of 
" internal trade as fair, but that for the foreign trade 
" decidedly under the mark, that the loss altogether 
" would be a very serious one, and unless full com- 
" pensation was given both the States and its inhabi- 
" tants would sutfer very severely." As to Jaisalmir, 
" the Political Officer considers the estim ate for compen- 
" sation to be reasonable." As to Marwar, " the Political 
" Officer is of opinion that the loss in revenue shown by 
" the Durbar is not only reasonalile, but is, if any- 
" thing, estimated below what it might actually lose 
" under the circumstances contemplated." With 
regard to Sirohi, " the Political Officer is of opinion 
" that the Durbar has estimated its loss at quite an 
'• outside figure " P— I may say with regard to Marwar 
that in the item "prospective loss in the customs 
revenue " the word " prospective " should be omitted. 

21,571. May I take it from you that it was your wish, 
when you put in these figures, that we should take 
due note of the remarks of the Political Officers, which, 
in a considerable number of cases, suggest that if this 

I 4 



Lieut.-Col. 
U. B. AbhoH. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



72 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ! 



Lieut.-Col. 
H. B. Abbott. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



were to be dealt with as a matter of business, you 
would have to keep a pretty sharp look-out, lest you 
might be subject to overcharge ? — Yes, it is like sending 
in a claim " errors excepted." 

21,572. (Mr. Wilson.) Would you have any objection 
to state the names of the Political Oflioers ? — None. I 
will hand in the list. It is as follows : — 

Meywar, Lieut.-Ool. WylUe ; Pratapgarh, Oapt. 
Pinhey; Tonk, Pundi, Shahpura, Lieut.-Ool. Thorn- 
ton ; Jhallawar, Mr. G. Irwin ; Kotah, Capt. Herbert ; 
Jaipur and Kishengarb, Ool. Peacock ; Kerauli and 
Dholpur, Lieut.-Ool. Martelli ; Marwar, Jaisalmir and 
Sirohi, Lieut.-Col. Abbott; Bikanir, Mr. 0. Bayley. 



21,573. (Mr. Fanshawe.) "With reference to the 
remark as to money-lenders supporting cultivators, is 
not the initial necessity for a loan in this country on 
the part of the cultivator ? — Yes. 

21, .574. In the conditions in which agriculture is 
carried on in this country, unless the cultivator, 
generally speaking, could get a loan he could not 
cultivate P — In most cases. 

21,57-5. You are not yourself prepared to express any 
general opinion as to the weight to be given to these 
claims on the part of the money-lenders ?— I would 
rather not say more than I have Raid in my summary. 
It is a matter that requires deep investigation. 



The witness withdrew. 
(Lord Brassey here vacated the chair, which was taken by Mr. Mowbray.) 



Thakur Sawai 

Singhji. 

{Kishengarh 

State.) 



TriAKUR Sawai Singhji called in and 

21.576. (Mr. Mowbray.) Tou are one of the leading 
nobles and first class Tazimi Sirdars of the Kish- 
engarb State p — Yes. 

21.577. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
cultivation and use of opium in your State ? — If the 
cultivation of the poppy were stopped barley would 
take its place. The revenue rate on poppy is Bs. 16 8a. 
per acre, whereas the equivalent of the Baj or 
Jagirdar's share of barley is about Bs. 10 or Bs. 11 
per acre. There would thus be a loss of revenue of 
about six rupees per acre. We Jagirdars charge 
no customs duties. There will be a diminution in the 
collection of the cess on oil-presses to Jagirdars 
owing to the disappearance of the poppy seed, which is 
at present procurable for expressing oil for domestic 
use. In my caste, more tharf half the men above '10 
years of age and about one-fourth of those below 40 are 
habitual consumers. As to other castes, there are 
about one-fourth or one-fifth of them who take opium. 
About 40 per cent, of Bajput women use opium, and 
commence using it either when they become widows or 
have some ailment. Opium is given to children below 
three years of age as a rule, as it keeps them in good 
health and softens the severity of small-pox. About 16 
per cent, of the consumers use it to excess, but they are 
not of worst type. Opium is taken twice a day, and 
an average moderate dose is 15 or 16 grains. The 
following are the special occasions and purposes for 
which it is taken : — betrothals, marriages, festive occa- 
sions, ber banana or making up of disputes and 
difi'erences, birth of a male child, holi, dassera, diwali 
and other festivals, harvest time and half-yearly 
assessment of revenue demand, mourning ceremonies, 
H. H's condolence visit in recognition of a successor to 
a deceased, when going on an expedition, in battle or in 
fatigue, in grief as a sustainer and for cold and other 
diseases, as a substitute for drinking which is sometimes 
given up on religious principles, and sometimes on 
account of its pernicious efl"eots. Opium is absolutely 
necessary in ceremonies connected with betrothal, recon- 
ciliation of enemies, and recognition of succession and 
before starting on an expeditioi;. The use of opium in 
moderation produces exhilaration, acts as a tonic, 
increases energy and power of endurance, and is benefi- 
cial. If opium could not be procured except as 
medicine, it would cause great hardship to consumers. 



examined (through an interpreter). 

Excessive consumers would die in great numbers, and 
some would take to other intoxicants like liquor, ganja, 
charas, or arsenic, dhatura, and other poisons. Certain 
ceremonies would be afl'ected, while above all great 
general discontent would be caused, as the use of opium 
is so general in all castes, and is a household remedy 
both for the people and their cattle. I myself found 
opium useful in curing me of my piles when I was 30 
years of age, and of another severe ailment nine years 
ago. I am now quite healthy and strong. 

21.578. Are you a Jagirdar P — Yea. 

21.579. Is the revenue rate on poppy the same on 
Khalsa land as on Jagir land P — The same rate 
prevails. 

21.580. {Mr. Fanslume.) Will you tell us what cess is 
charged on oil-presses Ijy Jagirdars P — Each oil- 
presser has to pay two chatties of oil and half an anna 
each time he presses. 

21.581. Has the use of opium among the Bajputs in 
Kishengarb State been increasing or decrcusing of late 
so far as you know p — It has increased lately. 

21.582. (Mr. PcK'Se.) Is it considered a bad habit for 
young men to take opium p— We do not approve of a 
young man taking opium. 

21.583. What is the effect of opium upon the 15 per 
cent, of consumers who use it to excess ? — They grow 
lazy. 

21,584.. You state that the average moderate dose is 
15 or 16 grains — is that the result of enquiry or your 
own general impression ; and is it pure opium ? — They 
take 15 or 16 grains of pure opium. I came to this 
conclusion after enquiry. 

21.585. Is the dose taken twice a day P — Moderate 
consumers take 15 or 16 grains of opium twice a day. 

21.586. Do you consider 32 grains a day a moderate 
quantity to take P — Excessive consumers are those who 
take 40 grains a day — three or four mashas P 

21.587. (Mr. Moiohray.) Are you a consumer of 
opium yourself at the present time ? — I am an habitual 
consumer, I take a grain at a time. 

21.588. Is that twice a, day ? — Yes, altogether two 
grains a day. 



The witness withdrew. 



Jtao Bahadur 

Si/am Sundar 

Lall, B.A. 

{Kishengarh 

State.) 



Bag Bahaddk Syam Sundae, Lall, B.A., called in and examined. 



21.589. (Mr. Mowhray.) You are a member of the 
State Council of Kishengarb, and you appear before 
ns to represent the views of the Durbar of Kishengarb 
with regard to the opium question P — Yes. 

21.590. We shall be glad to hear what you have to 
say upon the subject ?— Judging from the enquiries 
made from the representatives of the various castes and 
communities, and from the census of opium consumers 
of some selected Tahsils, it would appear that the 
habitual use of opium is more prevalent among Bajputs 
than others, and that the general average proportion of 
consumers to the total population of this State may be 
fairly put down at 20 per cent. Prom an examina- 
tion my appended tabular statement of the Bajput, 
Khas Ohauki Irregular Infantry, at Kishengarb, it 
would appear that : — 58 per cent, are below 30 years 
of age, 25 per cent, are between 30 and 40, and 17 per 
cent, are above 40. Of these 15 per cent, are consumers 



of whom 7 per cent, are below 30 years of age, 41 per 
cent, are between 30 and 40 years, and 52 per cent, are 
above 40 years of age. Of the Musalman soldiers 28 
per cent, are consumers, and are all above 40. The 
above results would also bear out the general average 
of 20 per cent., as in the said Ohauki there is a pre- 
ponderance of young men below 30 years, among whom 
only one out of 60 is an opium eater. Excess is decidedly 
injurious, but is fortunately very rare, being found in 
only about 5 per cent, of the consumers. Opium 
smoking is both injurious and disreputable; but there 
are hardly any opium smokers in Kishengarb. The 
habitual use of opium as a luxury is also harmful ; it 
is, however, limited in extent, and confined to a few 
young men among Bajputs and some other well-to-do 
classes— all other consumers using it as a necessity, 
and with benefit too, whether it be for the sustenance 
of energy in the decline of life, for the suppression or 



MINUTES OF EVIUENCR. 



IS 



prevention of bodily ailments, or for warding off the 
effects of exposure and for enduring hard work. I have 
known several instances of the habitual use of opium 
giving permanent relief from epileptic fits. It is a 
universal practice in this part of the country to give 
minute doses of opium to children of all classes and 
castes up to three years of age. There are many, 
particularly among the labouring classes, who use it 
only during the cold weather for the sake of their 
health and give it up for the rest of the year. The 
labouring classes regard opium as a great help in their 
work, and would be rendered less capable of doing hard 
work or resisting exposure without it. Among them, 
the harder the nature of their work, the greater and 
more frequent the resort to opium ; e.g., Dhobis, Regars, 
Ohamars, use it more than Malis, Gujars, Khatiks, 
or Masons. Opium consumers are generally quiet and 
inoffensive, whilst it is proverbial that liquor is the 
mother of quarrels and crime. The inoiiensiveness of 
the abuse of opium is also borne out by the fact that of 
all the criminals admitted into the Kishengarh Jail 
during the last few years, only six percent, were opium 
eaters, the yearly averages ranging between 5'3 and 6'7 
per cent. In one respect, opium m.ay be said to increase 
crime, and that is in oases of suicide among females, in 
which opium comes very handy. Suicides are, however, 
very rare. Liquor is prohibited by both the Hindu and 
Mohamedan religions and is in disrepute. It is, 
moreover, more expensive, and consequently less 
accessible to the poorer classes, than opium ; whilst 
excessive indulgence in it is more harmful and fatal 
than excessive opium eating. Accordingly, in many 
instances, people give up liquor and take to opium as a 
substitute on physical, economic, or religious grounds. 
Ablutions, fasts, and general disregard of the rules of 
hygiene in the exercise of piety and devotion, are the 
characteristic features of the present orthodox Hindu 
religion, and these generally lead the more devout, and 
those in religious orders, to the use of opium to ward 
off the effects of exposure and privation. There are 
many social and political ceremonies in which the use 
or tr'eat of opium is either customary or essential ; e.g., 
betrothal. This ceremony has come to be called the amal 
ha dastwr or opium ceremony, from the fact that the 
ceremony is not held to be complete unless the bride- 
groom or his father or guardian has partaken of the 
opium ofiered by the bride's father. In fact, opium 
taking is as essential a, part of betrothal as the phera or 
seven perambulations round the sacred fire are for the 
marriage ceremony. Adoption, succession, mourn- 
ing, reconciliation of enemies, festivities and 
festivals. Opium is a household remedy, and is also 
largely used in the treatment of cattle diseases. It is 
very commonly given to horses, bullocks, when they 
are fatigued or making forced marches. The prohibi- 
tion of the cultivation and trade of opium would mean 
serious pecuniary loss to the cultivating and manu- 
facturing classes, as well as to the Durbar and Jagirdars 
(as has been dealt with in detail in the accompanying 
memorandum). The prohibition of its use would cause 
great hardship to infants and consumers, and would 
lead to the use of either liquor or arsenic, dhatura, and 
such other poisons. Such prohibitive measures would 
be very difiicult to enforce, and involve unduly heavy 
expenditare. It is, moreover, calculated to give rise to 
general agitation and grave discontent. Under such 
circumstances the Durbar would not consider it either 
expedient or necessary to adopt prohibitive measures. 

21.591. Your general conckision is that the Durbar 
does not consider it either expedient or necessary to 
take prohibitive measures ? — Yes. 

21.592. You wish to hand in a memorandum showing 
the various heads under which loss will accrue, and 
also a tabular statement giving the number of opium 
eaters in the Raj Khas Ohauki Irregular Infantry at 
Kishengarh ? — Yes. 

21.593. You estimate the loss to the State by 
diminution of land revenue as Rs. 671 on the Khalsa 
land aiid Es. 4.55 on the Jagir land ? — Yes. 

21.594. What would be the loss in customs duties ? — 
Es. 8,626. 

21.595. What would be the loss in excise ?— 
Es. 1,800. 

21.596. You say, " Fees for licences for wholesale and 
retail vendors of opium,'' how long has that regulation 
been in force that licences must be obtained before a 
person can sell opium i' — Nearly two years. 

21.597. There is another item of Es. 3,780 loss from 
other taxes, how is that made up ?— Rs. 2,880 represents 

O 82588. 



Mapa duties on total quantity of poppy seeds, and Rs. 
900 is the moiety of the cess levied on the oil-presses in 
Kishengarh. 

21,698. You estimate the cost of revision of 
revenue and customs rates at Rs. 1,000 ? — Yes. 

21.599. That is a non-recurring figure ? — Yes. 

21.600. What do you estimate the expense of prohibitive 
measures? — Es. 3,600. 

21.601. What do you consider comes under the head 
of prohibitive measures? — The cost of an establish- 
ment to prevent anybody growing poppy, and to see 
that opium is not smuggled into the State. 

21.602. Neither grown in it nor smuggled into it 
from outside ? — That is so. 

21.603. What do you estimate the loss to cultivators 
at P — The loss to cultivators would be Es. 35,208, and 
to field labourers Es. 3,163. 

21.604. You state that the loss to oil-presses would 
be Rs. 6,000, are those the people engaged in the trade 
apart from the State ?— They are the oil 
manufacturers. 

21.605. Apart from the profit which the State 
derives from the taxation of the industry p — Yes. 

21.606. You have estimated the loss to traders at 
Rs. 131,200, that is a recurring loss, and you estimate 
the opium stock which would remain unsaleable 
at Rs. 80,000, so that the total amount would be 
Rs. 211,203. 

21.607. Is there much opium grown in Kishengarh P 
—-Not much. 

21.608. Where does the large item for compensation 
to export traders come from P — Our traders deal in 
opium ; it is not all home produce. They have shops 
all over the country, and they are engaged in the 
opi\im trade. The principal firms are at Kishengarh, 
and their branches are at Rajputana, Bombay, and 
Malwa. 

21.609. The grand total of loss would amount to Rs. 
351,103 ?— Yes. 

21.610. {Mr. Fanshawe.) You state in the memorandum 
that you have lately had a census of habitual opium eaters 
of the Sarwar Pargana, what kind of census was that r — 
It was a census to ascertain the ratio of opium eaters to 
the whole population, and it was found to be 75 per 
thousand. 

21.611. Do you think you can ascertain the real 
truth by such a census ? — Yes, approximately of 
course. It was a census to get a rough idea of the 
proportion. 

21.612. Thakur Sawai Singhji told us that in his 
opinion two daily doses of 15 grains each would be a 
moderate dose, do you think he meant that, speaking 
generally, men of his class may take that quantity of 
opium without doing harm to themselves p — I should 
think 10 grains would be a moderate dose. 

21.613. Twice a day, 10 grains would be a moderate 
dose among the Rajputs ? — Yes. 

21.614. You mean by "moderate" a dose such as 
would be commonly taken among Rajputs? — Yes. 

21.615. (Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Do all the other 
castes take the same quantity ? — No, lesser quantities. 

21.616. What do they take ? — I have made enquiries, 
and find they take six or seven grains at a time. 

21.617. You are not willing to adopt prohibitive 
measures either with regard to the growth of poppy or 
the consumption of opium ? — No. 

21.618. If the Groverument offered you compensation 
for your losses, would you then adopt prohibition p — 
No. 

■21,619. You do not wish to take compensation ? — We 
have not set forth the losses with the view of taking 
compensation. 

21.620. JSio compensation would satisfy you or induce 
you to prohibit the growth of poppy and manufacture 
of opium ? — No. 

21.621. {Mr. Wilson.) You have referred to the Khas 
Chauki Irregular Infantry ; what do you mean by 
Khas Ohauki ?— It is a special body-guard. 

21.622. What is their total strength ? — Three 
hundred and thirty-two. 

21.623. Altogether 53 men of that body-guard take 
opium ? — Yes. 

K 



Rao Bahadur 
Syam Sundar 

Lall.B.A. 

(^Kishengarh 

State.) 

3 Feb. 1894. 



71 



INDIAN OPIUM LVJMMISSION 



Rao Bahadur 21,624. Are the remainder of the men, those who do 



Syam Sundar 

Lall, B.A. 

(^Kishengarh 

State.') 

3 Feb. 1894. 



not take opium, any the worse for not taking it ? — They 
are not any the worse. 

21.625. Are the men who take it any the better ? — 
These men, I find on enquiry, have taken to opium as 
a necessity. 

21.626. They are chiefly elderly men ? — Yes, there 
are very few young nien who take opium, only one out 
of 60 among the men under 30 years of age. 

21.627. You have no wish to see the number 
increased? — No, in fact, about 25 or 30 years ago 
His Highness's father issued an order that the men of 
the Khas Chauki were not to commence taking opium 
without permission. The permission was generally 
given to men after the age of 40, or, in case of some 
ailment, it was given earlier. Since that time there 
have been fewer opium eaters in the Khas Chauki than 
formerly. The restriction is not in force now. 



21.628. You do not think it is good for young men P 

—No. 

21.629. That is your individual opinion, and also the 
opinion of the Durbar ? — Yes. 

21.630. Do you think it is a good thing to give doses 
of opium to children p — The practice is universal. I 
think it need not be given unless it be occasionally 
given in cold weather. It does good in the cold weather. 

21.631. You say the labouring classes are less capable 
of doing hard work without opium p — Yes. 

21.632. Do you ihink those who do not take it suffer ? 
— Not if they have no hard work to do. If they have 
to do very hard work they require something of this 
sort, whether it be opium or some other stimulant. 

21.633. Do you mean regularly or occasionally under 
special circumstances ? — Occasionally, under special 
circumstances, whenever they have to undergo any 
great strain. 



The witness withdrew. 



Pundit 
Jeyshunher 
Nursi Ram 
( l^ungarpur 

State.] 



PusDiT Jetshunker Nuksi Kam. called and examined (through an interpreter). 



21.634. (Mr. Mowbray.) You are aMotamidof H.H. the 
Maharawal of Dungarpurp — Yes. 

21.635. What is a Motamid p— Chief officer. 

21.636. You have been deputed to come here and 
give information with regard to opium in your State P 
—Yes. 

21.637. We shall be glad to hear what you have to 
tell us P — The land for poppy cultivation is 2,285 acres, 
28 gunthas, and 9 annas, equal to 4,000 bighas (khalsa 
1,714 acres, 11 gunthas, 9 annas, and jaglr 571 acres, 17 
gunthas). The land in which 1^ sai (24 seers) of wheat 
is sown is equal to a bigha. If bighas go to an acre. 
Expenses for cultivation of opium and wheat per acre 
are as under : 



Item. 



Opium. 



Wheat. 



(1.) Cultivator's own labour, bullocks, 

manure, watch, &c. 
(3.) Hired labour - 

(3.) Payment to money lenders on 

account of interest and seeds. 
(4.) Carpenter, Ac, menials 

(5.) Land revenue 

Total 



Es. A. P. 

17 14 



Es. A. P. 

6 11 2 



13 4 


9 


2 7 


2 


4 2 





1 9 


2 


U 


3 


8 


4 


la 





3 6 


7 


18 





13 10 


5 



Produce per Year per Acre. 



Opium juice.1 10^ seers, at Rs. 4 per seei', equal to dry 
cakes, 7 seers, at Rs. 6 per seer. 

Poi)py seeds, 2 mds. S2 seers, at R-s. 2 per raauiid 

Leaves 



Total 



Opium. 



Rs. A. P. 
42 U 



5 9 7 
fi 



Produce per Tear per Acre, 



AVheat, 



Wheat 3 mds. 16 seers, at Rs. 1 Sa. 8p. per maund 
Fodder or bran 



Total 



Es. A. 
12 16 


P. 

2 


11 


3 


13 10 


6 



In accordance with this calculation the opium pro- 
duced in the area of 2,285 acres 28 gunthas 9 annas is 
as shown below : — 



Details of the above are as under— 

Share of the State at Rs. 12 per acre on 1,714a. llg. 9a. 

Share of jagirdar on 57la. 17g. - 



Rs. A. P. 

20,5(i8 
6,860 



Export duty on 193 mds. the yearly 
average export for the last 10 years 
H.t Rs. 12 13ii. 6^p. per md. - 

Opium in stock, mds. 1,267 8, 12., if 
exported 

Poppy seeds mds. 2,284 2. 0., at 
Rs. 4a. 9^c^. per md. 

Oil 352i mds. at Rs. 6a. 6^p. per 
md. 

Total - 



Other taxes levied by State, viz. :— 

Talode on opium juice, 450 mds., at 

Rs. 12a. Op. per md. 
Brokerage on opium juice, 600 mds., 

at Rs. 1 per md. 
Vasua on opium, 113 mds., at Rs. 1 8a. 

per rad. 
Lagat on village 



Total 

Loss suffered by jagirdars as detailed 
below ; — 
Talode on opium juice, 150 mds., at 

Rs. 32a. permd. 
Vasua, and escort of opium. SO mds., 
at Rs. 1 8a. 



Total 



Share of cultivators at Rs. 17 14a. per 

aci-e, on 2."i.S5a. 2Sg. 9a. 
Share of labour on the area, at 

Rs. 13 4a. 9 p. per acre. 
Share of money lender on the area, 

at Rs. 4 2a. 
The value of opium to trader is 



Total - 
Grand Total 



Rs. A. 


P. 


Es. A. 


P. 


2,485 8 









ie,ORl 


6 






686 









141 









- 




19,392 8 


6 


337 8 









600 









109 8 









1,008 4 









- 




2,713 4 





112 8 









120 





232 8 





- 




49,708 4 


6 


40,837 2 







30,392 13 


9 






;>.i2S 10 









78,2J0 









- 




168,918 9 


9 


- 


2,08,084 


0* 



Account of produce and export of opium is 
under ; — 



Produce. 


Juice. 


Opium. 


Average. 


Total produce tor 10 years at the 
rate of 400 mds. of opium and 
600 mds. of juice per annum. 

303 chests in stock on 1st 
January 1884, each contniuini; 
1 md. 28 srs. 4 chs. 


M. S. C. 
6,000 U 

7i;7 32 8 


M. S. C M. S. C. 
4,000 0; GOO 

i 

511 35 — 


Total 


6,766 32 8 


4,511 35 


- 


Export— 

782 chests sent to the opium 
scale at Ahmedabad within the 
last 10 years, each weighing 
1 rad. 2s srs. 4 chs. (yearly 
average, 7S-1 chc-sls). 

Exported to Jlahva and Meywar 
within the Irist 10 ye:ivs. 


2,001 17 4 
892 26 15 


1,334 11 8 

595 4 10 


200 
89 


Total 


2.894 4 3 


1,929 16 2 


289 











' Omitting fractions of ii Rupee. 



MINUTEvS OF [OVIDENCE. 



10 



Juice. 


Opium. 


A venifie. 


Opium consumed for 10 years 

at the rate of 133 mds. 2 srs. 

12j chs. per year. 
Opium in stock found in the 

houses ot merchants on Slst 

December 1893- 
Dry cakes 


M. S. C. 
1,996 2 


M. S. C. 
1,330 28 

839 22 12 


M. S. C. 
200 


1,242 14 3 





Opium juice, 666 mds. 18 srs. 
15 chs. 


658 18 16 


437 26 


— 


Total 


1,900 33 2 


1,267 8 12 


- 


Grand Total 


6,790 39 6 


4,527 12 14 


- 


N.B.— The whole population 
is about 200,000, of which the 
consumers, numbering 30,000, 
at average rate ot 16 per cent., 
take every day 34 rattis (7 
grains Troy) opi\im, will re- 
quire 1,05,000 rattis, which are 
equal to 35,000 wals = 1,166 
tolas 20 wals = 14 seers 46 tolas 
20 wals, being the daily con- 
sumption of opium. 









If tlie poppy cultivation is prohibited, His Highness 
the Maharawalji is of opinion that there will bejcndless 
troubles, and it will create general discontent. There 
is no such other like thing in this country as can be 
produced in its stead. If wheat is sown nt a loss a 
special loss will be incurred after deducting the wheat 
produced, as noted below : — 



Cultivators of 2,286a. 28r. 9a. at 

Bs. 12. 2a. lOp. per aero. 
Labour, Rs. 10 13a. 7p., carpenters, 

Rs. 11a. 3p., and 
Money-lender at Rs. 4. 2a. - 



Loss incurred by Ihe State as under — 
Share in cultivation ot 1.714a. llg. 9a. 
at Es. 8. 9a. 6p. per acre. 



Export duty on 193 maunds, the 
yearl.y average of opium exported 
in last 10 years, at Es. 12 13a. 6ip. 
per md. .... 

1,267 mds. 8 sr.i. 12 chs. opium in 
stock if exported. 

Poppy seeds, 2,284 mds. 2 srs., at 
R.S. 'la. 9ip. per md. 

Oil, 362i maunds, at Rs. 6a. 64p. 
per md. 



Other taxes levied by State as under — 
Talode on opium juice, 450 maunds, 

at R. 12a. per md. 
Brokerage on 600 maunds at Rs. 1 

per mci. 
Vasua on opium, 113 maunds, at 

Rs. 1 8a. per md. 
Lagat on village 



Rs. A. .1 
27,833 4 llj 

26,404 9 2i 

9,'t28 10 

14,729 



2,iNr, 8 
16,1181 6 



685 
141 



3.37 8 

600 

169 8 

1,608 4 



If poppy cultivation is prohibited, the people will feel 
very uneasy, because the country is hill.v and 
dangerous. For the peaceful arrangement of the 
country an e.'tpense will be entailed - 



Loss sufft-red by jagirdars is as detailed below — 

Share in cultivation of 571a. 17g. at Rs. 8 9a. 5p. 

per .acre. 
Talode on opium juice, 160 maunds, at Rs. 12a. 

per ma. 
Vasua, and escort of opium, SO maunds, at Rs. 1 8a. 



Loss suffered by merchants is as detailed below— 

Liiss of interest at Rs. 8a. on Rs. 250, price of 

one maund opium juice made into cakes, i.e., on 

Rs. 1,00.000, price of 400 maunds for three years. 
Loss of profit on 400 maunds of opium at Rs. 7 

per md. 
Porterage in manufacturing 400 maunds opium at 

Rs. 5 8a. per md. 
Storace for three years for 400 maunds of opium 

at Rs. 1 Sa. 
Cost of 800 baskets to contain 100 maunds opium at 

Rs. 4a. per each. 
Charity on opium juice, 600 maunds, at Rs. 4n.'(lp. 

Escort on 193 maunds opium exported at Rs. la. 

Price of opium in stock Rs. 1,267 8a. 12p. at Ks. 300 
per md. 

Total 

Grand Total 



Rs. A. P. 



14,729 



19,392 8 6 



2,716 4 



12,000 



48,836 12 6 

4,906 11 8j 

n2 8 

120 



6,i39 3 8i 

18,000 

3,000 

2,200 

600 

200 

168 8 

11 

3,80,165 10 



Out of this Bum Bs. 3,80,165 represent a non-recurring 
charge to the State. Besides the above, there are 
several other losses to be incurred which cannot now 
be estimated. 

21.638. {Mr. Fanshawe.) What kind of taxes are the 
"Talode" and " V<isua " ? — Talode is a tax levied to 
cover the expenses of employing village accountants, a 
sort of Patwari cess ; Yasua is a tax levied for keeping a 
guard in the village. 

21.639. A police guard? — It is a tax levied for 
guarding the opium when taking it from one village to 
another. It is a special tax imposed on villages in 
which opium is cultivated. 

21.640. Then why do you include the Vasua among the 
losses which the State would incur if poppy cultivation 
is stopped ? — The guard would lose their avocation. 

21.641. You say " if poppy cultivation is prohibited, 
" the people will feel very uneasy because the country 
" is hilly and dangerous " ; what do you mean by 
that ? — Their only support is the poppy cultivation, 
and if this is prohibited they will have no occupation, 
and they will fall back upon their old occupation of 
robbery and disturbance. 

21.642. You refer particularly to the Bhils ? — Yes. 

21.643. {Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Am I light in 
understanding from '"lagat" that the Eaja, instead 
of going to every village and using kasumbha, does 
not go there, but charges it on account of the lagat ? — • 
Yes. 

21.644. You say there will he a disturbance among 
the Bhil tribe, would you adopt prohibition if Govern- 
ment offered the State compensation, not only according 
to the present estimate, but for any other claims here- 
after to be brought forward P — Even if compensation 
be paid in full the State and the people would not 
agree to stop the cultivation of poppy. 

21.645. Your estimate of losses has not been made 
with a view to accepting compensation ? — -No. 

21.646. {Mr. Wilson.) You have included the escort 
of opium as one of the losses — if there is no opium 
trade how would there be that loss ?— A man has to 
accompany the trader carrying opium. He has to guard 
the opium against daooits and robbers, and he is paid 
for it. Yasua is the charge for a village guard, the 
escort charge is separate. 

21.647. If there was no opium there would be no 
guard and, therefore, no loss ? — They would lose their 
avocation. 

21.648. You mean they would have to be pensioned 
off P— Yes. 

21.649. You state that there are several other losses 
which cannot be estimated at present, what are they ? 
— I have not included the losses which would be 
suffered by retail dealers and by persons who go from 
village to village selling these articles of necessity and 
taking opium instead, which they sell to the traders. 

21.650. You also charge Es. 200 for 800 baskets 
to hold the opium ; would the baskets have to be 
purchased if there was no opinm ? — The basket manu- 
facturers would lose that amount ; they will not be 
able to sell so many baskets. 

21.651. {Mr. Mowbray.) What do you consider is the 
value of a chest of opium sent to the scales at 
Ahmedabad ? — Es. 511 14a. 

21.652. Is that what the exporting merchant of 
Dungarpur realises for it at Ahmeda,bad P — The 
traders pay Es. 511 14a. at Dungarpur, and the 
person who takes the chest to Ahmedabad gets his 
profit there. 



4,04,345 2 



Pundit 

Jeyshunher 

Nursi Ram, 

(^Dungarpur 

State). 

3 Feb. 1894. 



5,21,985 



The witness withdrew. 



K 2 



76 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Dmacharan 

Mukhyopad- 

hya. 

( Dholpur 

' State.) 

3 Feb. 1 894. 



UmachjVKan MnKHTOPADHYA Called in examined. 



21.653. (Mr. Mowbray.) You are settlement officer of 
Dholpur ? — Tes. 

21.654. Are you deputed here to represent the 
Dholpur State before this Commission ? — Yes. 

21.655. We shall be glad to hear what you have to 
tell us with regard to the question before this 
Commission? — The nature of my official work has 
brought me specially during the last five years in con- 
tact with all classes of people in this State, from the 
peasantry and the labouring community to the gentry ; 
Hindus and Muhammadans. I have also been for 
sometime chief judge of the State, and as such have 
come across the litigant and criminal sections of the 
population. As household officer of His Highness the 
Maharaj Rana, I have for years known also the priestly 
and personal servant classes. My experience of the 
eastern parts of Bajputana extends over the last 17 
years. I may be allosred to remark in the beginning 
that opium has been for ages an established institution 
in the country. It has come to be looked upon as the 
chief factor in some social customs and usages through- 
out Bajputana. For instance, it is customary among 
the Rajputs at the betrothal ceremony technically 
called Amal ka Beohar, that the bridegroom should eat 
or drink opium oifered by the bride's party. The 
whole company afterwards drinks the drug by turn out 
of the palm of the host. The extent to which opium 
has got itself wound up with the daily avocations of 
the people as a tradition will be realised from the fact 
that among the Thakurs and other high castes it is 
invarably seen that before beginning a letter, a prayer 
is expressed on top of it, asking the addressee to take 
on the writer's account, double the quantity of his 
daily allowance. The words are, if addressed to a 
superior, " Manohar ki amal mave se duna levasi or 
arogjo." I candidly believe that before the appoint- 
ment of the Royal Commission the attention of the 
natives had never been directed to the use of opium, 
whether for good or for bad as a general question] 
except its preparations chandu and madak, which have 
been both regarded always with disrespect. In my 
humble opinion, apart from a financial view of the 
question, it would be highly impolitic to prohibit by 
legislation the production and use of opium for other 
than medical purposes in Rajputana. There exists no 
justification for such enactment, nor is it called for by 
the present conditions of the communities using the 
drug. No evils on a large scale affecting society or 
the Government have been traced to the use of opium. 
Besides, any such prohibition is sure to create dis- 
content and disaffection very largely, and may also bo 
regarded as a prelude to further interference with social 
customs and individual diet. I will now deal with 
figures for this State. The area under poppy growth 
for five years i.e., 1889-1893 for Dholpur is 407 acres 
and for Sir Mutlra (an alienated piece of Dholpur 
regarding revenue matters) 934 acres, total of both 
being 1,341 acres. I leave out the decimals. The 
variations from year to year are very striking. The 
year 1890 shows 317 acres for Dholpur, the figure for 
the preceding year being only 16 acres. So with Sir 
Muttra the areas for 1890 and 1891 being 419 acres and 
38 acres respectively. All these figures are arrived at 
by survey as recorded at land settlement. The total 
yield of Dholpur including Sir Muttra for these five 
years is put down at 360 maunds, five seers, two 
chittaks British weight. The average yield per acre is 
10 seers, 11 chittaks. The average yearly income 
from excise to the State calculating on the aforesaid 
five years is Rs. 1,180. 3a. 3p. Customs and transit duty 
average, Rs. 730 Oa. 9p. and land revenue average, Rs 
1,206 2a. lOp. The total revenue derived from opium 
annually by the State is Rs. 3,116 6a. lOp. to which is 
to be added the revenue realised by Sir Muttra, viz., 
Rs. 4,185 9a. 7p., the two together amonntin" to 
Rs. 7,302 Oa. 5p. This represents in round figures the 
amount of compensation the Government would have 
to pay to this State yearly if the cultivation of lioppy 
was by law stopped. Of coui se, accurate figures will 
be supplied through the proper channel, and the ques- 
tion further gone into in details regarding the actual loss 
m the land revenue from suppression of opium cultiva- 
tion, being the difference in assessment rates of poppy 
and other crops which will take its place, if prohibition 
IS finally decided upon by the Government of India 
The five years mentioned above give an average oon- 
su^iption of only 3 maunds, 12 seers, and 3 chittaks 



per annum for Dholpur, the male population of which 
being 158,047 souls gives an average of about 12 grains 
per head yearly. I have excluded women, as there is 
no consumption among them to speak of. Sir Muttra 
is left out, as I have no figures at hand to deal with. 
In Dholpur the parganas of Bari and Baeeri grow 
poppy now. Rajakbera has given it up owing per- 
haps to the uncertainty of the profits. All the opium 
grown in this State is generally bought up by B'arauli 
traders, and along with the quantity grown in Karauli 
for export finds its way to the Malwa Opium Agency 
paying transit duty at the Dholpur Customs House. 
The quantity thus exported during the last five years 
amounted to 1,322 maunds, 20 seers or an average of 
264 maunds, 20 seers per year. Opium is eaten or 
drunk as a rule, and rarely smoked in this State. I 
need not enter into the details of how the preparations 
called chandu and madak are made and smoked. The 
processes are, I believe, much the same throughout 
India. No license is given to sell opium for smoking 
purposes, as the selling of chandu and madak has 
years since been made penal in this State unlike 
British territories. Sometimes opium is dissolved in 
water and drunk as well as the decoction is used of 
poppy heads the crude opium of which has not been 
extracted. The tender leaves of the plant are some- 
times eaten as vegetable, and the seeds called post-dana 
are made into a kind of sweet pastry and eaten. The 
dry stem is used as fuel. Opium eaters come from 
all classes of the people, high and low, excepting the 
peasantry in Dholpur ; pre-eminently Gujars, Minas, 
Brahmins (who, unlike the general usage in Bengal, 
till the soil in Rajputana) Golapurabs, Lodhas, 
Kachhis, &c. In fact they use no stimulant habitually, 
barring tobacco. Immoderate consumers of opium in 
any shape are rare in this State. It is often the custom 
among Kayasths and other castes as well to give small 
doses of opium daily to infants until they are six or 
seven years old, in order, it is alleged, to prevent them 
catching cold. Among Hindus, I guess, 10 per cent, of 
the adult male population use opium, and among 
Thakurs, i.e., Rajputs 20 per cent. The percentage 
among Musalmans may be slightly higher ; young 
men between 20 and 25 also contracting the habit. 
Men above 40 years old think it beneficial to take the 
drug habitually, saying that it dries up the bad 
humours of the body and prolongs life. It is also said 
by the consumers to act as a general stimulant to the 
brain and the muscles. 1 have often seen kahar classes 
take opium before beginning a journey with a palki 
and passenger on their shoulders. As to crime there 
is no record in this State to show that it has been 
attributed solely to opium, not even petty thefts have 
come to my knowledge. Opium is not considered to 
affect the morals of the consumer. Those that use 
chandu and madak show signs of deterioration in the 
physique. I am strongly of opinion that opium has 
done no harm whatsoever to the population of Dholpur. 
The habit is not easy to shake off, and any prohibition 
of the growth of poppy would be a most difficult task. 
If opium was prohibited, alcohol would take its place 
or perhaps the hemp-drugs. As it is, Rajputs are 
addicted both f o opium and alcohol ; their women using 
the latter only. Opium is offered to a visitor as a 
cigarette or cheroot is in an English family. Hence 
this drug is looked upon as an article of general 
consumption. 

_ 21 ,656. There seems to be a very remarkable varia- 
tion in the area under poppy from year to year, how 
do you explain that?— I think it is owing to the 
uncertainty of the profits to the traders that they do 
not advance money. I have mentioned that Raja- 
khera has given the cultivation up, perhaps owing' to 
the uncertainty of the profits. 

21.657. Do you mean uncertainty of yield ? — I mean 
there is no profit to the traders in the long run. 

21.658. What do you attribute that to ?— To the fall in 
price of opium. Traders are not alwaj's certain as to 
the prices they will get, so that they will not advance 
money to the cultivators as regularly as they otherwise 
would. 

21.659. The cultivators cannot grow without the 
advances ?— They do not care to cultivate without 
advances. 

21.660. You say that there will be a loss of land 
revenue ; is there a special rate on poppy land, or 



MINUTES OF EVIDEKCE. 



77 



whatP — The rate which prevails in Dholpur differs 
according to the constitution of the land. The highest 
rate is Rb. 12 per acre. This includes either poppy 
cultivation or sugar cane. 

21.661. In the particular district you have mentioned, 
where the cultivation is not now carried on, has the 
land revenue been reduced ? — No. 

21.662. Why do you estimate that there woild be a 
great reduction on the land revenue in other parts if in 
one particular part where it is voluntarily given up, no 
reduction is made ? — The State demand on. land where 
they grow poppy is Rs. 12 on an average per acre. 
Poppy generally brings in something more than Es. 12 
to the zemindars, the intermediate class of people 
between the State and the cultivators. 

21.663. Ton say you believe that before the appoint- 
ment of the Royal Commission the attention of the 
natives had never been directed to the use of opium 
whether for good or for bad. We have been told several 
times by witnesses that they never heard people in 
Rajputana speak in favour of opium. Do you think 
that until this question came up it did not occur to 
them to speak of it either favourably or unfavourably, 
that they regarded it as a matter of course ? — Tes. 

21.664. (Mr. Fanshawe.) You state that the selling of 
chandu and madak has been made penal for some 
years past, have you been succcssfol do you think in 
preventing the use entirely in Dholpur P — Tes, except- 
ing in one or two families where they use it, we have 
succeeded. 

21.665. At any rate, you think the use of it has been 
largely restricted ? — Yes. 

21.666. Have you a fixed land revenue settlement P — 
Yes, we have had one for 12 years. 

21.667. What is your revenue demand on poppy 
laud? — The State demand of revenue is regulated 
according to the class of soil. 

21.668. What is the State revenue on the class of soil 
which you call poppy laud ? — Rs. 12 an acre. 

21.669. What did you mean by saying that the 
zamindar wjuld lose P — The zamindar is an inter- 
mediate man between the State and the cultivators, he 
collects the rent and is paid 5 per cent, theoretically 
for the collection. 

21.670. The zamindars in your State are not land- 
holders P — No, except the chief one. 

21.671. They are a special class who collect rent? — 
Yes. 

21,67J. What are tliey paid P — Theoreticall}- 5 per 
cent. 

21.673. You say you have not reduced the revenue 
demand in the places where poppy cultivation has 
stopped ; I do not understand how you arrive at the 
loss ?— If poppy cultivation were stopped the zamindars 
would losO their percentage. 

21.674. You mean the money that the State pays 
for collecting P — No. It is not strictly 5 per cent., the 
zamindars collect the rent from the cultivators and 
the cultivators pay Rs. 20 to the zamindars. We have 
calculated at that rate. 



21,67.5. The rates charged by the zamindars would 
have to be reduced if poppy cultivation were stopped P 
— Yes. 

21,676. Therefore they could not pay the Rs. 12 
revenue to the State P — That is so. 

21,077. The State consequently would have to reduce 
the demand P — Yes, to Rs 7 or 8. 

21.678. Have you any number of Rajputs in Dholpur P 
— Yes, a laige number. 

21.679. (Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Is Dholpur an 
independent State ?— Yes. 

21.680. And, therefore, the British laws are not 
enforceable in that State ? — No. 

21.681. You say " if the cultivation is stopped by 
law" ; you mean an imperative order? — Yes. 

21.682. You mean that unless tue British G-overn- 
ment issued an imperial order you are not inclined to 
stop poppy cultivation P— No. 

21.683. You are not prepared to accept compensation 
for the loss unless the British Government issue 
compulsory orders P — No. 

21.684. (Mr. Pease.) Do you draw any distinction 
between the injury done by eating and drinking opium ? 
— It is the same. 

21.685. Or between taking opium in these different 
preparations ? — There is no difference, they all have 
the same effect. 

21.686. You have a strong feeling against the 
smoking of opium P — Yes. 

21.687. That is the feeling throughout the State?— 
Yes. 

21.688. (Mr. Mowbray.) Have you actually impiisoned 
people for selling madak or chandu p — We have not 
imprisoned them, but they have been fined. 

21.689. Are there many cases P — No. There used to 
be five or six years ago. There were five or six cases 
for selling madak or chandu to smoke on the premises. 

21.690. (Sir William Boherts.) When the practice of 
smoking chandu was more prevalent, "vias it confined 
to the lower classes P —No, some high-class Musalmans 
used to smoke chandu, and also the Jats, and some 
Brahmins. 

21.691. Did they smoke it in the same way as the 
Chinamen p — Yes, they have a sort of pipe. They put 
a flame into the pipe and smoke from it. 

21.692. Is there a difference between madak and 
chandu smoking ? — Yes. 

21.693. In your remarks just now you referred to 
chandu smoking P — Yes. 

21.694. Have you any personal knowledge of the 
injurious results from chandu smoking? — There is a 
clerk in my office who smokes chandu at home. He is 
very lazy, and altogether looks very haggard. 

21.695. Is that the only case j'ou have noticed? — I 
have noticed three or four cases. 

21.696. It makes them lazy ? — Yes. 

21.697. Much more thaa eating opium P--Yes, much 
more. 



U tnactlaran 

M nhhyopad- 

hya. 

(^Dholpur 

State.) 

3 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



MuNSHi Bhola Nath Kamdae called in and examined. 



21.698. (Mr. Mowbray.) You are chief revenue and 
administrative officer of Shahpura ? — I'es. 

21.699. You have a statement to submit to us with 
reference to the cultivation of poppy in your State ? — 
Yes. The annual statements submitted to the agency 
will clearly show that tho cultivation of poppy daring 
the last five years only was very limited and much less 
than what has been in the previous years. The reasons 
assigned for it are as follows. The irregular fall of rain 
in 1889 which was very unfavourable to the poppy crop 
which being damaged yielded but a poor produce. In 
1890 and 1891 there were arought and famine. The 
insufficiency of water in wells and the urgent want of 
fodder for cattle forced the cultivators to sow barley in 
the irrigated area of poppy cultivation. In 1892 the 
excessive loss in the preceding two years of cattle, and 
the want of the advances resulting from the failure of 
poppy crop during the last three years made the culti- 
vators incapable of cultivating the whole of the poppy 



soil. The rise in the value of food grain during the 
years in question, and the sudden successive fall of 
value of opium. The scarcity of forage duiing the last 
three years being an important reason of substituting 
barley for poppy. In order to give a fair idea of the 
normal extent of poppy cultivation a larger tcTm of 
years should have been lakeii for drawing out ;i fairly 
normal average, but for the want of regular recordj 
the accounts are taken for six years only. Takmg the 
average for the past six years the area undor poppy in 
khalsa and alienated laud was 636 acres as detailed in 
Appendix A.* The area in khalsa was ascertained from 
the yearly returns submitted by tahsiklars, but that of 
alienated lands is an estimate or " andazi " made out 
for every year by the grant holders and tahsildars 
conjointly. Further enquiries however show that the 

• Tht!ae ivtiirus iiiv ^ain.ii i.im',1 \a the statement pr.-|Kuvd bv 
liieut.-Cul. .\.bb)tt, ,«fe,V.|]pendK VI. to this Vnluine. 



Munshi Bhola 

Nath 

Kamdar. 

(^Shahpura 

State.') 



78 



INDIAN UJPltiM COJrMISMoN 



Munshi Bhola 

Nuth 

Kamdur. 

{Shahpura 

State.) 

3 Feb. 1894. 



area in alienated lands was ander estimated, for the 
land holders tried to show as little us possible. The 
out turn of opium of the above area was : — opium juice, 
128 mds. 3tJ,V seers ; seed, 3,816 mds. ; poppy heads, 
414 mds. 'L'aking an average for the past six years as 
shown in Appendix B.* The average out-turn thus 
taken is very low, for the last two years of famine and 
scarcity of water are taken into account. If the culti- 
vation of poppy in the al)ovc areas were prohibited, the 
irrigated crops of sugar-cane, wheat and barley can be 
sown in its place, sugar-cane is the most productive 
crop as shown in Appendix C.,* but as neither the soil in 
the pargana of Phulia is suitable nor water is 
sufficient, the cultivation of sugar-cane is impossible, 
and consequently wheat and barley crops would most 
likely be substituted for poppy. The diminution in 
the revenue deiijand, consequent on the substitution of 
wheat and barley crops is estimated to be Rs. 33,064 the 
poppy crop in pargana Phulia is charged at an 
average rate of Ka. II' lia. 8p. per acre, excludmg 6a. 
lor patwari cess, while partition system is in use 
for wheat and barley crops. The value of the Eaj 
share of the latter produce is nearly equal to the 
assessment for poppy in favorable years but when the 
latter crops are damaged iu any way as is often the 
case, or the price is too low, the Kaj sutt'ers a loss ; 
while no damage to the poppy crop or falling of the 
value of opium can have effect upon the revenue 
demands. It is also to be considered that when wheat 
and barley take the place of poppy crop there is no 
doubt that the value of the former must fall and also 
effect the value of jowar, Ijajra and other food grains on 
which the rent is charged in kind and not in cash. 
Consequently the Raj loss under this head will not be 
limited to the area under poppy but would also extend 
to the total revenue collected in kind. The details of 
the direct loss in revenue is therefore given iu 
Appendix D.* The rate of assessment on poppy crop in 
the pargana Phulia in Shahpura is not so high as 
elsewhere, because under the custom of the pargana 
the cultivators are bound to have only j of the irri- 
gated land in each holding under poppy cultivation. 
As partition system is in use, the stopping of poppy 
cultivation would not necessitate a revision of revenue 
rates. In consequence of the above there would likely 
be no loss or expenditure under this head. The differ- 
ence in profit on the cultivation of poppy and the crops 
of wheat and barley which would be substituted is 
Rs. 45 lla. 4p. and Bs. 46 3a. 4p. respectively per acre 
of poppy yielding opium and Rs. 32 lla. 4p. and 
Rs. 33 3a. 4p. respectively per acre of the crop yielding 
25oppy heads as shown in Appendix E.* If poppy culti- 
vation is stopped there would of course be a loss of 
credit to cultivators as well as to Bohras as, for opium 
was the best security for monej' advances. The revival 
of the credit seems impossible for the present and 
nothing can be said about it until the cultivators and 
the bankers attain a satisfactory state and the affairs 
are brought to a more settled condition. 

21.700. You also hand in some appendices, which 
will appear in our appendix ?* — Tes. 

21.701. Will you tell us why there is a more perfect 
security to Bohras for advances on the poppy crop than 
on othei crop.s ? — Poppy is the only thing the value of 
which is collected in cash. It is given to the Bohra 
and the Bohra delivers it to the traders who pay cash 
at once. 

21.702. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Have you a fixed land lerenuc 
settlement in Shahpura ^ — No. 

21.703. What is the cash rate for the poppy crop ? — 
The cash rate of land revenue of the poppy crop is 
Es. 10 6a. per acre. 

21.704. You regard wheat and barley as the crops which 
would bo substituted for poppy, if poppj- cultivation 
were prohibited p — Yes. 

21.705. Do you charge cash land revenue rates for 
wheat and barley ? — No. 

21.706. They are. rates in kind?— Yes. 

21.707. What money value would you give to these 
rates in kind on wheat and barley P — About Rs. 10 per 
acre. 

21.708. In esfimating your losses therefore if poppy 
culti\ation were i)rohibited you take the difference 
between Rs. 10 and Rs. 10 6a.P— Rs. 10 6a. for tlir 
land revenue, and 10 annas more for the patwari cess. 

21.709. The difference is between Rs. 10 per acre and 
R?. 10 6a. for the land revenue P — Yes. 



* A'fv fooljupfo on prccodiDK pftge. 



2!,7l0. What do you mean by the patwari cess; is 
tiiere a higher cess on poppy cultivation ? — No. 

21.711. Then will you kindly explain ? — It is a cess 
levied at about 5 or 7 pies per rupee. Crops which are 
not charged in cash but in kind have to pay grain in 
quantities. As to the crops on which cash is charged 
about 7 [lies per rupee is charged for the patwari cess. 

21.712. Why is the patwari cess reduced if poppy 
cultivation is given upp — In wheat and barley we get 
only Rs. 10 per acre, and the patwari cess is only 
5 annas. On poppy we get Rs. 11 per acre and then 
the patwari cess is 6 annas ; there is only one anna 
difference per acre. 

21.713. Is the patwari a State servant or is he paid 
by the village p — He is paid by the village. 

21.714. Why would the State have to make up the 
difference to the patwari p — As a rule it is charged at 
six pies per rupee, or if in kind a rupee worth of grain 
— six pies per rupee worth of grain. 

21.715. But you say the patwari is paid by the 
village p — He is paid by the Raj. 

21.716. You say you would suffer a loss so far in the 
wages of the patwari P — Yes. 

21 .717. (Mr. Mowbray.) I believe you also come hero 
too make a representation on behalf of the Raja 
Dheraj P — -Yes. 

21.718. Does this representation e.fpress the view of 
His Highness the Raja himself which he wishes you to 
lay before the Royal Commission r — Yes. The state- 
ment is as follows : — Regarding the proposal for the 
prohibition of the cultivation and consumption of and 
trade in opium, Raja Dheraj thinks that it is an 
interference in the internal administration of the chief- 
ship opposed to the sense of the " sannad " granted to 
the chiefship, and it is contrarj' to the usage which 
has uninterruptedly been followed since the cliiefship 
was formed. 2. In the opinion of the Raja Dheraj 
no Buch wide spread or important evils have ever 
resulted from the cultivation and use of and trade in 
opium as to cal) for the strong measures proposed. 
3. The prohibition would cause general discontent in 
every class of people for the following reasons, (a.) 
Poppy is the crop which affords employment to the 
cultivator and all members of his family as well as to 
field labourers and yields the moat valuable produce. 
If it is stopped the field labourers and family members 
of a cultivator will have a less employment and 
consequently the earnings of the family would be less. 
(b.) The valuable produce of poppy crop liquidates the 
heavy debts of cultivators and is a security for all sorts 
of advances. If it disappears the cultivators will be 
reduced to poverty and must sufl'er a great deal in 
every respect for want of advances, (c.) To Bohras 
and traders opium is the only thing of merchandise 
on which a large amount of capital is invested with- 
out any risk of unfavourable market, for its quantity 
grows better, and its value increases for a certain 
length of time and is therefore sold only when the 
price is high and sufficient to pay the costs and the 
interest on the capital, (d.) To ordinary consumers is 
is an indispensable article of requirement without 
which they arc (_|uite unable to do any work. (e.) 
To the middle-aged it restores full strength when 
they are tired, to the weak and old it is°the only 
available drug which strengthens and enables them to 
work hard. If they are deprived of their occasional 
or usual doses of opium the impairment of capability 
for hard work would reduce them to a still poorer 
state. (/.) Among the rich and the noble it is used as 
an auspicious thing on all religious and social mcetino's 
As it is^ generally used by both sexes of all classes^of 
p iiple m all ages and its moderate use is generally 
known to be beneficial, there is no doubt 'that the 
prohibition would create a general loss and grevious 
discontent. 4. 'Jonsequently it would be impossible to 
enforce any such prohibition by any reasonable means 
wilhm the power of the chiofship. 5. The prohibition 
of the cultivation of and trade in opium would also 
cause a heavy loss to the chiefship by the decrease of 
land and customs revenue for the impo,=ition of 
of increased transit duties ou other articles would not 
be advisable for Shahpura, where the trade is so dull 
and would consequently injure the existing trade. If 
the export trade in opium is stopped the loss of revenue 
would interfere with the administration of the chief- 
ship, i;. The Raja Dheraj is however willing to adopt 
such I'ulch' for coulroUing the ,-ale and consuraiition of 
opium by inhabitants of the chiefship as may be found 



MiNUTl'> OF .GyiDE.SCK. 



79 



desirable and efiective in Britist tevritot^^es.^ 7- A 
memo showing total compensation due to Raj-, and its 
subjects is herewith enclosed for favour of consideration. 

21.719. {Mr. Earidas Veharidas.) Sbahpura is an 
independent State ? — It is a chiefship. 

21.720. It has full powers of jurisdiction ? — Yes. 

21.721. Life and death ? — In consultation with the 
British Government. 

21.722. British laws are not in force ? — No. 

21.723. Tou have your own laws ? — Yes. 

21.724. If the British Government were to prohibit 
the growth and consumption of opium except for 
medical purposes, would the order be legally applicable 
to your State ?— No, I think not. 

21.725. (Mr. Pedffg.) What grounds have you for 
thinking that 50 per cent, of the males in your State 
take opium ? — They are numbered in some of the 
villages. 

21.726. With regard to females we were told that in 
Dholpur none of them took opium ; do 25 per cent, 
take it in your State ? — Yes. 

iil,727. Some of the opium I suppose is consumed by 
young men; do you approve of young men taking it? 

Yea, some of them. My opinion is that when a man 

has to work hard and is tired the practice of taking 
opium is good. 

21.728. Is it a good thing for a young man in health 
to take opium ? — Not in large quantities ; if it is taken 
in moderate quantities it is not harmful. 

21.729. Do some of your people injure themselves by 
taking opium P — Some of them. 



'2l,7'30.. Have you made any allowance in your state- 
ment for those who have injured themselves by taking 
opium P You have given a statement of the loss to 
consumers ; would there not be a benefit to consumers 
if they could not got opium?— To tlio-e who take- it in 
moderation it would be a benefit. 

21.731. Where have you made any allowance for the 
Rs. 7,500 which the opium consumers would save 
by not spending their money upon it ? — They would be 
able to earn a great deal more than they would 
spend. 

21.732. You have said that a certain sum is spent in 
opium ; if the opium is not consumed that amount will 
be so much in their pockets ? — It will not be in their 
pockets, because they must try to get some other 
medicine or other things to revive their strength, they 
will take other intoxicanos. 

21.733. You have said that some take it who ought 
not to take it, and that some take it to excess ; so far 
they would be benefited?— Yes. 

21 .734. {Mr. Mowhray.) What is the amount you export 
to Bombay ? — A hundred and twenty-eight maunds 
is the whole produce of the pergunnah ; some is im- 
ported from neighbouring villages, about 50 maunds. 
Twenty-five maunds is the average consumption, and 
about a hundred and thirty maunds is exported to 
Bombay. 

21.735. The export duty is Es. 3 per cent, of the 
value P — Yes. 

21.736. Which you estimate at Rs. 773 per annum ?— . 
Yes. 



Munshi Bhol 

JVath 

Kamdar. 

(^Shahpura 

State.) 

3 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Sah Badei Lall called in and examined (through an interpreter). 



21.737. {Mr. Mowbray.) You are customs officer of 
Sbahpura ? — Yes. 

21.738. Have you any statement to lay before the 
commission P— Yes. If the production and export of 
opium be prohibited the loss to the chiefship will con- 
sist of— (a.) Customs import, export, and transit duties 
on juice, head, and seed. (6.) Local "mapa" and 
tulai charges on juice, head, and seed. The cultivators 
after collecting the produce make it over to their 
Bohras. Mapa duty is then charged at a rate of Rs. 2 
per cent, of the value, at the same time Rs. 1 per cent, 
is charged on account of tulai. Both of the duties are 
levied by the Raj in Khalsa and by the jj,girdiirs in 
alienated villages. Their rates differ in almost all 
villages the average of these is taken into account. 
The Bohras then import the articles to Sbahpura for 
delivery to the traders. An import duty is then levied 
by the Raj at the rate of Rs. 3 2a. per cent, of the value. 
The juice is then manufactured into opium and exported 
to Bombay. An export duty incliidmg Bhom is then 
charged at Rs. 3 per cent, of the value. Nearly half 
of the poppy seed is pressed to make oil and the other 
half is exported to Ajmere or Beawar and is charged at 
the said rate of export duty. Besides some opium juice 
is imported to Shahpura from the neighbouring Meywar, 
Kishengarh, and Harauti villages by the traders who 
reside in Shahpura. Taking an average for the last six 
years the amount of income derived under these heads 
IS Rs. 4713 as detailed in the annexed statement. The 
prohibition of trade in opium would require a revision 
of the customs tariff for reducing: duties on other articles 
of trade with a view of encouraging the traders to adopt 
trade in other articles. No duty can be raised in Shah- 
pura for the existing trade is so dull and the country is 
greatly sufi'ering for the want of improvement m trade 
owing to ir-s being situated far away from the railway 
lines and high roads and to the heavy taxation of duties 
in the surrounding Meywar districts. Consequently the 
state will probably have to abolish or reduce duty on 
grain and reduce the duty on til (oU seeds) and other 
articles Thus the amount of Rs. 7,000 derived from 
duties on grain will be reduced to 4,000, and the amount 
of Rs 200U will be remitted on other articles, ihe total 
loss therefore would come to Rs. 5,000. As there is no 
excise duty in Shahpura there would be no loss of revenue 
to the chiefship in tlie prohibition of the consumption oi 
opium The out-standing advances among the culti- 



vators amount to Rs. 20,000, of which there is no doubt 
that Rs. 3,000 will remain irrecoverable, for the advances 
of cash money made to cultivators for their expenses and 
for the ]_)ayment of land rents are always paid by opium 
and cotton crops. The cultivators generally keep the 
produce of grain for their use or if given to Bohras is 
returned to them for their daily usa. Out of the out- 
turn of cotton too, the cultivators keep some portion for 
their personal use. But opium juice is a substance 
which is not used unless it is manufactured, nor is 
required by cultivators in large quantities, the Bohras 
have a certainty of recovering their money advanced to 
cultivators. If this cultivation of opium is stopped he 
will have to stop aU advances in cash and consequently 
will lose an interest at 3 per cent, per month on a capital 
of Rs. 7,500 which he annually invests in the advances. 
On the promise of giving opium juice, the Bohras draw 
money from bankers without interest and support their 
cultivators and thus carry on their trade. If the culti- 
vation is stopped the credit of the Bohras and of the 
cultivators will be lost. The Bohras will have no oppor- 
tunity of investing their own capital, nor will be able 
to draw money from the bankers. The recovery of 
existing advances will not be in cash, Bohras will have 
to accept cattle, furniture, &c., or instalments. The 
value of Bharna will not be collected just to the amount 
for which it be accepted. The interest for the amount 
of instalments would be stopped. Consequently he will 
have a loss of about Es. 4,000 under this head. 

21.739. What is the amount of opium exported from 
the Shahpura State into the British territory P — One 
hundred and thirty or one hundred and thirty-five 
maunds. 

21.740. What is the export duty charged hy the 
Shahpura State P — Three per cent, on the value ot the 
opium. 

21.741. How much do you estimate that would come 
to in the year p— Rs. 4,713 is the average for six years, 

21.742. Is that the duty when it is exported into 
Bombay, or is it all the duties which are charged by 
the Shahpura State at various places and on different 
occasions P —It is the total charge for the Shahpura 
territory. 

21.743. I want to know the amount which the three 
per cent, ad valorem duty on opium exported to Bombay 
comes to ? — It is the total export duty on opium and 

K 4 



[Sah Badri 

Lall. 

{Shahpura 

State.) 



80 



INDIAW OPIUM COMMISSION 



Sah Badri poppj seed exported from Shahpura to British terri- average value of that on which the 3 per cent, is taken P 

Lall. tory. — Ks. 1,170. 

(Shahpura 21,744. You have said that the average amount 21,745. On opium alone ?— Opium alone; poppy seed 

State.) exported is about 130 ov lo6 maunds ; what is the is an addition to that. 

3 Feb. 1894. 
The witness withdrew. 



Mr. B. M. 
Dane. 



Mr. B. M. Dane called in and examined. 



21,746, (Mr. Mowbray.) I understand you wish to hand 
in a list of witnesses who have attended here for the 
purpose of being examined and who have sent in 
abstracts of their evidence which have been supplied 
to members of the Commission ? — Yes. The names only 
of those witnesses who, as far as can be ascertained, 
actually attended and furnished abstracts have been 
included in the list. They are not here at the present 



moment because when the examination of the witnesses 
from each State was concluded all the witnesses belonging 
to that State went away. 

21,747. I understand you wish to have their names, 
addresses and descriptions inserted on the minutes of 
evidence .'' — Yes. I do not ask that their abstracts may 
be brought into the appendix, because I do not think it 
is necessary. 



List of Witnesses from .Vative States in Rajputana who came to Ajmere to give evidence and furnished abstracts 
of ihe evidence they were prepared to give, but who were not examined. 



Meywar. 

1. Mehta Takhat Singh, Mahajan, revenue oflB-oial. 

2. Partabji, Brahmin Karadar. 

3. Partha Patel Kumbi, cultivator. 



Partabgarh. 

1 Magan Lai, Mahajan, Sadr revenue officer. 

2. Obnkar Pema, Kurmi, cultivator. 

3. Issar, Borah, manotidar. 

4. Futteh Mahomed, labourer. 

Jhallawar. 

1. Pyari Lai, Mahajan, manotidar. 

2. Euj Mul, Mahajan, manotidar. 

3. Sewa, labourer. 

4. Dewa, carpenter. 

5. G-ulab Singh, Sondia, jagirdar. 

Kotah. 

1. Mor Singh, Bajput, jagirdar. 

2. I'andit Uma Shankar, Brahmin superintendent of 

Customs, 

3. Bam Chandi'a, Kayasth Patel. 

4. Ooukar Mina, cultivator. 



Bundi. 

1. Shah Kesari La],Brahmin, Customs superintendent, 

2. Ganpat Lai, trader. 

3. Sukh Lai, Mahajan. 

Tllwar. 

1. Govind Baksh, moneylender and drug contractor. 

2. Jawahir Lai, Kayasth revenue official. 

3. Zabar Khan Lambardar. 

Sikanir. 
1. Thakar Pani Singh, Bajpnt Puttadarof Brichawas. 

SiroM. 

1. Sobba Chund, Mahajan. 

2. Ada Barad Laldanji, Charan jagirdar. 

3. Ada Barad Eamdanji, Charan jagirdar. 

Tonk. 
■ 1. Sahibzada Oobeid Ullah Khan, C.S.I. , Minister.* 

Marwar. 
1. Bhumia Daya Bahadur Singh, Bajput. 



' ^fot examined owing to ill-health. 



The witness withdrew. 



Capt.mn P. J. Melvhl called in and examined. 



Captain P. 
J. Melvill. 



21.748. [Mr. Mowbray.) Tou are Collector of excise, 
customs and opium for Ajmere-Merwara and Asssistant 
Commissioner of Ajmere P — Tes. 

21.749. And in that capacity you hand in a *memo- 
randum which is in the bands of the Commission and 
will appear in the appendix ? — Tes. 

21.750. Will you explain the item with regard to 
Ploughing, Bs. 5? — The reason of it is this. The 
cultivators are very poor, and a considerable section of 
them not having ploughs of their own are obliged to 
hire them. If they have ploughs of their own and use 
their own oxen, they have to give them extra food 
during the time, the work being fairly hard. That is 
the reason why it is put in. It makes no difference in 
the calculations because it is on both sides for cereals, 
cotton and opium. 

21.751. Is that the reason why you have put in that 
item for the expense of ploughing, but not for the other 
forms of labour P — Yes. You will see at the end that 
I have put in other forms of laboiir, because they 
supply the labour themselves, 

21,7.'j:,!. (Mr Fanshawe.) You have left oat the cost 
of water for irrigation because they would irrigate 

^ See Appondi.\ VIII. to this Volume. 



themselves ?— Yes, it is entirely well land. Then I 
may say that the cultivators in Malwa live at an 
average distance of 50 miles from the nearest market 
town, and it i.s a matter of enormous importance to 
them to have a crop which is portable. Fifty miles 
would take them about three days. 

21.753. (Mr. Pease.) Were you present when a state- 
ment was made with regard to some chandu smoking 
places in A j mere ?— I was not. 

21.754. Can you give any information on the subject? 
—Some little time ago m e found that there were two 
Illicit chaudu shops, hut they have been closed It is 
exceedingly difficult to detect cases of this kind 
because under the law as it at present stands the 
possession of five tolas of opium or preparations of 
opium IS allowed, and so long as a man has not more 
tHan fave tolas it is impossible to convict unless you 
can prove a sale. No doubt it is smoked to a certain 
limited extent. 

21,765. (Mr. Fanshawe.) The witness stated that 
there was unmistakable evidence of its having been 
sold r--! shall only be too delighted if he will furnish 
me with the evidence ; I cannot say more. 



The witness withdrew. 



MtNUTlOS OF EVIDENCE. 



81 



Eao Kesri Singh called in and examined. 



21.756. (Mr.Mowlray.) You belong to Bhinae ? —Yes, I 
am uncle to the present Raj, and 1 hold the village of 
Bhinae. 

21.757. Where is Bhitiae P — It is an estate in Ajmere. 

21.758. What is the area under poppy in the Bhinae 
Estate ? — The average area is about l6 acres. 

21.759. In what form do the members of your caste 
consume opium ? — Eajputs mostly eat it. Some make 
an infusion of it and drink it. " Post," an infusion 
made from poppy heads, is used by Eajputs of the 
poorer classes. 

21.760. Do men, women, and children alike take itP 
— Many Rajput men eat opium. Amongst the women, 
only widows and old men use it as a rale. It is always 
given to children till they are about three years old, 
and then it is discontinued. 

21.761. What proportion of the caste take it ? — 
Amongst the men, about 60 per cent. 

21.762. What proportion, if any, of the persons 
whom yon have mentioneid above as taking opium, take 
it to excess P — Amongst the men, about 7 per cent. 
Women very rarely take it to excess. 

21.763. How often is it taken a day, and how much 
at a time? — It is generally taken twice a day, and 
about li mashas at a time. 

21.764. What are the special occasions on which it 
is taken, and is it considered absolutely necessary to 



take it at these times ? — Ceremonies connected with 
births, adoptions, betrothals, marriages, and deaths, 
religious festivals, and social gatherings. On these 
occasions it is considered absolutely necessary to take 
opium. 

21.765. What are its usual effects on those who take 
it in moderation ? — Its effects are beneficial. A man 
who takes it iu moderation preserves his health. 

21.766. What would be the result on the habits and 
customs and physical condition of your caste, if opium 
could not be procured except as medicine ? — If the 
possession and sale of opium were prohibited, the 
health of consumers would suffer, and amongst Rajputs 
generally there would be the greatest discontent. 

21.767. Do you yourself take opium P — Yes, I have 
taken it for the last 18 months, and have derived great 
benefit from it. I take half a ratti of opium twice a day. 
I have not increased the amount since I commenced 
taking it. 

21.768. What is your age ?— Forty-two. 

21.769. You say that 7 per cent, amongst the men 
take opium in excess ; will you explain what you mean 
by that P — Those who take five or seven mashas at 
a time are excessive eaters. 

21.770. Does the opium eating in their case cause 
harm to their health P — In some cases it does injiiry to 
their health ; in others the consumers keep their health 
well. 



liao Kesri 
Singh. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



SuBABAK Dalla Called in and examined (through an interpreter). 



Subadar 
Dalla. 



21.771. {Mr. Mowbray.) You are from Merat, your age 
is 52, you reside in Chittar, Merwara, and you are a 
pensioned Subadar of the Merivara battalion? — Yes. 

21.772. Are you a cultivator of poppy ? — Yes. 

21.773. If the cultivation of the poppy crop were 
prohibited what crops would most likely take its place 
irrigated or unirrigated p — As a rule in Merwara, 
poppy is cultivated either on land which is too moist 
for the cultivation of maize, or on land cui which the 
proprietor has raised a cotton crop. In the former 
case, cotton is usually sown in the Kharif, and poppy 
in the liabi ; cotton is not picked till it is too late to 
sow wheat, barley and otlier grains, and the only crop 
wliich it is possible to sow for the Rabi is poppy. In 
the latter case, either cotton would not be sown, or no 
Rabi crop would be obtained. If the cultivation of 
the poppy were prohibited the results would be (1) that 
the owners of land not suited for maize and" other 
Kharif crops would be able to raise one crop only (the 
Rabi) in the year, and the payment of the Government 
revenue demand would therefore press more hardly 
on them than at present ; and (2) that the owners of 
other land would be deterred from sowing cotton which 
is a profitable crop. The prohibition of the cultivation 
of poppy would create great dissatisfaction amongst the 
cultivators in Merwara. 

21.774. In what form do the members of your caste 
consume opium ? — They mostly eat it, but a few make 
an infusion of it and drink it. Many people make an 
infusion of poppy heads, which they drink. 

2I.77."). Do men, women, and children alike take it'i 
— Women very seldom take it, and it is only given to 
them and to children as a medicine. 

21.776. What proportion of the caste take it ? 
— About 30 per cent, of the men take it. 

21.777. What proportion if any, of the persons whom 
you have mentioned above as taking opium, take it to 
excess?— There are very few who take opium to excess. 
Perhaps one per cent, of consumers. 

21.778. How often is it taken in a day, and how 
mucli at a time p— As a rule it is taken twice a day, 



and in amounts ranging from one to three ratis. I 
myself take two ratis twice a day. 

21.779. What are the special occasions and purposes 
for which it is taken, aud is it considered absolutely 
necessary to take it at these times P^Whenever any 
number of the caste assembles, opium is always eaten. 
On such occasions as visits of condolence on the death 
of a person, opium must be eaten. 

21.780. What is the effect of the consumption of 
opium on those who take it in moderation P — Its effects 
are beneficial, and it enables a man to do more work 
and endure greater fatigue. 

21.781. What would be the result on the habits and 
customs and physical condition of your caste if opium 
could not be procured except as medicine P — The result 
would be that the health of oonsum.ers would suffer, and 
men would probably drinli more liquor than they now 
do, and take to using drugs, such as ganja. 

21.782. Have you anything more to say on this sub- 
ject ? — I first ate opium during the Afghan war. At that 
time about one-third of the regiment ate it, and we found 
it of the greatest use in enabling us to support the 
cold and great fatigue. After returning from Af- 
ghanistan I gave up eating opium, and did not take it 
again till about three years ago when my health began 
to fail. I then took to eating opium again, and have 
found it of great benefit. If the cultivation and sale of 
opium is prohibited there will be great dissatisfaction 
among the people. I have never increased the amount 
of opium which I take, since I began eating it. 

21.783. (Mr. Pease.) What age were you when you 
returned from the Afghan war ? — About 40. 

21.784. What quantity did you take in the Afghan 
war ? — Pour grains twice a day. 

21.785. Did you find any difficulty in giving it up? 
— ^When 1 gave it up I felt very uneasy, and had to 
drink liquor for Mume time. I suffered from diarrhoea. 
At last I gave it up. 

21.786. Did you find your health after you had given 
it up as good as it was before F — Yes. 



The witness withdrew. 



O 1^255 



82 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Seth Sobhag 
Mull. 

3 Feb. 1894. 



Seth Sobhag Mull called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



21.787. (Mr. Mowhray.) I understand you are a 
merchant of Ajmere ? — Yes, 

21.788. Do you deal in other things besides opium P 
— In grain, cotton, silver and gold; 1 am a banker. 

21,7811. What would be your loss as an upiuni merchant, 
if the production and export of opium was stopped ? 
—Poppy is not cultivated in the Ajmere district. 
About 5,000 pailas, are brought here annually from 
Kotah, and aboiit 20 maunds of an opium named 
" nikhalia " from Jawad and Nimbahera. As opium is 
sold here at an average profit of Rs. 2 per paila, 
the loss to Ihe merchants of Ajmere "would be about 
Rs. 10,000 per annum. I import opium from Kotah, and 
sell it to the license-holders in Ajmere at a profit of 
Re. 1 or Re. 1 8a. per paila. I have a shop at 
Kotah, and opium is purchased there and forwarded to 
customers and my shops at other places, Re. 1 per 
paiala, being charged on account of commission and 
other expenses. I make advances to cultivators, and 
instead of paying interest they sell me their opium at 
Re. 1 per paila, less than the market rate. At 
Indore, in Malwa, I have a third shop which deals in 
opium only. Malwa owes its prosperity to opium, and 
if the cultivation of poppy were prohibited there, I 
would suffer very heavy loss. The details of this loss 
can be supplied by my principal agent at Indore, if 
enquiries are made there. They are briefly : — (a.) I 
deal with the cultivators of opium and make a profit 
of Es, 3 on every 5 seers of opium on account of 
interest, discount, &c. (6.) I make a profit without any 
risk. The cultivators, to whom advances are made, 
sell me their opium at Re. 1 less than the market rate 
for 6 seers, (c.) My customers for whom I procure 
opium with my own money, pay me Rs. 5 on every 5 
seers of opium on account of interest and discount. 
{d.) I make a profit of Rs. 15 per chest exported by me 
to Shanghai and Hong Kong. 

21,790. Could you to any extent compensate yourself 
by other business ; if so, how and to what extent ? — In 
the Ajmere district, whore no opium is produced, a 
loss of only Rs. 10,000 per annum would be caused, 
and we could compensate ourselves for this by trading 
in grain, cotton, gold, silver, cloth, &c. But many 
other trades depend on opium. In connexion with the 
opium trade, we deal in hundis for large amounts, and 
obtain good interest on the money so utilized. As a 
tank supplies water to wells by percolation, so opium 
supports other trades. The prohibition of the cultiva- 
tion of poppy would therefore injure all other trades. 



We could not compensate ourselves for the loss which 
would be caused by the prohibition of the oaltivation 
of poppy by any other business. Suppose the money 
now invested in opium were invested in grain and 
cotton ; these articles cannot be kept for more than a 
year or two, and if they are not sold within that period 
the trader suffers heavy loss or is absolutely ruined. 
On the other hand, as opium gets elder it increases in 
value. For these reasons we could not compensate 
ourselves for the loss which would be caused by the 
suppression of the opium trade by trading in grain or 
cotton. Only very small profits can be made on cloth, 
spices, metals, &c., a person who invests his own 
money in these articles can make a profit, but only a 
small one. Further, the opium trade gives employ- 
ment to thousands of people, and if the cultivation of 
poppy were prohibited we could not compensate our- 
selves for our loss by any other business. 

21.791. You say that in the Ajmere district no opium 
is produced, but opium is produced, I believe, in 
Merwara P — Yes. 

21.792. (Mr. Haridas Veharidas.) Do you take 
opium P--NO. 

21.793. The custom exists in your caste P — Yes. 
21,791. Do many of them eat opium P— A few only. 

21.795. As a habit or occasionally P — Occasionally. 

21.796. What is your caste P — Oswal, and I am a 
Jain by religion. 

21.797. Do the people take it after 40 years of age P— 
In case of disease. 

21.798. Do they take it as a habit in that case P — 
Yes. 

21.799. What would be the dose generally P— Half a 
ratti twice a day. 

21.800. Do you call that a moderate dose P— A 
moderate dose. 

21.801. {Mr Pease.) You state that as opium gets 
older it increases in value ; for how many years p — 20 
or 25 years. 

21.802. Why does it increase in value P — It is more 
beneficial for eating. 

21.803. Is it a matter 
difference in the taste. 

21.804. Does it become stronger with age ?— It is not 
injurious as far as heat is concerned. 



of flavour P^It causes a 



The witness withdrew. 
Adjourned to Tuesday next, at Indore. 



At the Residency, Indore. 



SIXTY-FOURTH DAY. 



Tuesday, Gtli February 1894. 



[Section A.J 



Mr. R. J. 

Crosthwaite, 
C.S.I. 

C Feb. 1894. 



PKESENT ; 

The Right Hon. LORD BRASSEY, K.C.B., Chaieman, PEEsiDiNG. 



Sir William Robekts, M.D., F.R.S. 
The Hon. Sir Laohhmeswae, Singh, 
K.C.I.E., Maharaja of Dharbhanga. 



Bahadur, 



Mr. R. G. C. MowBjiAY, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fanshawe. 
Mr. H. .1. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Peescott Hewett, O.I.E., Secretary. 



Mr. R. J. Oeostewaite, C.S.I. called in and examined. 



21,805. (Chairman.) Your position is that of Agent to 
the G-overnor-General for Central India P — Yes, I am 
now in the thirty -'first year of my service in India. For 
the first 15 years I was in the North-Western Provinces 



holding ordinary executive and judicial appointments 
I then served two years in Burma, and seven years iri 
the Central Provinces as Judicial Commissioner and 
I have also held other appointments under the G-oVern- 



MINUTES' OF EVIDENCE. 



83 



ment of India in tlie Ijegislative Department. I have 
been agent to tlie Governor- General in Central India 
since the 1st of January 1891. 

21.806. Will yon state briefly the position of the 
States in Central India with reference to the suzerainty 
of the British Government P — There are numerous 
States in Central India, some of which are independent, 
subject to the suzerainty of the British Government, 
and some have less independence, the authority of the 
chief being restricted in various particulars. There is 
also a large number of petty Chiefs who, though they 
have not the status of a ruling Chief, yet administer the 
affairs of the local area included in their tenures, sub- 
ject to a varying amount of control on the part of the 
British Government or of a superior State. These 
tenures are usually known as "estates." 

21.807. How are these different States and Estates 
circumstanced with reference to the production of 
opium P — In about 46 States and Estates, situate for 
the most part in Malwa, the productions of opium may 
be said to exceed the demand for local consumption, 
and from these opium is exported. From some of these 
46 the export is considerable, and the Chiefs realise a 
large amount of revenue from opium. In others the 
export of, and revenue derived from, opium is not so 
considerable. There are also States and Estates in 
which the production of opium is equal to, or less than, 
the local consumption, and from which there is prac- 
tically no export. In all the opium-producing tracts 
the amount derived from the drug forms an important 
item in the revenue of the Chief. Speaking generally 
it would not be possible to abandon this source of 
revenue without involving the States in financial 
difficulties, as it would not be practicable to raise the 
necessary amount of revenue by other forms of taxation. 
The large tracts of country comprised in Bundelkhand 
and Baghelkhand do not produce enough opium for 
local consumption. The States in these tracts, as a 
rule, raise a small amount of revenue by selling the 
monopoly of the sale of opium, and in some oases by 
imposing an import duty. 

■ 21,808. Can you tell us anything with reference to 
the history of poppy cultivation ? — It is not possible to 
state when the cultivation of the poppy first com- 
menced ; but it must ha"ve been in very ancient times, 
as there appear to be no traditions about it. It is said 
not to be mentioned in m.edical works before A.D. 1400. 
In Sir John Malcolm's time, about 1819, the ouUivation 
was generally carried on. There is a family at Ujjain 
still called Jahazwala, because their ancestor exported 
opium in his own ship from Broach, probably about 
1800. 

21.809. Will you describe to us the steps which the 
Government of India has from time to time taken in 
order to secure a control over the production of opium 
in Malwa ? — About 1818, the Government of India first . 
endeavoured to control the production of opium in 
Malwa, with the object of preventing the Malwa opium 
from interfering with the Bengal monopoly. Malwa 
opium was taken to Diu, Daman, and Karachi, and 
shipped to China, and so competed with the Bengal 
opium. Agreements were concluded with several 
States by which the Darbars, in consideration of the 
payment of compensation by the British Government, 
were to sell their surplus opium to the British Govern- 
ment, and were to limit the area under poppy cultiva- 
tion. The first agreement was entered into in the year 
1826. Gwalior and several other States had, however, 
refused to conclude agreements of this nature, and the 
result was that large quantities of Malwa 0]num were 
exported to China without passing through British 
India. In those States, with which agreements had 
been concluded, there was general discontent, and 
smuggling was carried out on an extensive scale. 
The result was that the British Government decided 
about 1829 to terminate the agreements, and in 1830 
the pass system was adopted, the rate per chest being 
fixed low (Rs. 175), so as to draw the opium to Bombay, 
and five years later this rate was lowered by Es. 50. 
Afterwards, on the subjugation of Sind in 1843, it was 
possible to close the route to the other ports, and the 
rate of i)ass duty was steadily raised until it was fixed 
at Rs. 700 in October 1861. The result of the high 
pas? duty has had the eflect of decreasing, or at least 
preventing the increase of, poppy cultivation. The 
profits of the cultivator aio reduced to a minimum, and 
the export trade has been injured. 

21.810. Have there been any applications on the part 
of those interested in the trade for a reduction of the 



pass duty p— In consequence of the injury caused by 
the high duty to persons interested in the opium trade, 
the Government of India has been asked to reduce the 
duty. In 1882 the merchants submitted a memorial 
which was supported by the Maharaja Holkar of 
indore ; m 1883 the merchants of Malwa, and 1890 the 
leading merchants of Indore submitted a memorial 
In June, 1882, the duty had been reduced froni 
Rs. 700 to Es. 650, and the first two memorials were 
unsuccessful. In July, 1890, the duty was reduced to 
Es. 600. If the price of opium continues to fall, a 
further reduction of the duties imposed by the British 
or the Native Governments will be necessary in order 
to allow of the export of the drug. 

21,811. Turning our attention to the treaties with 
the Eajput States, do you consider there is any ground 
for saying that they have been of an unduly burden- 
some character in relation to poppy cultivation ? My 

attention has been called to a statement made by 
Mr. St. George Tucker in 1829, to the efi'ect that the 
Government of India contracted burdensome treaties 
with the Eajput States, to introduce and extend the 
cultivation of the poppy. This statement must be 
erroneous as regards the Central India States, as the 
treaties or agreements concluded with the Malwa 
States had for their objects the restriction of the free 
export of opium from Malwa. The third article of the 
agreement of 1826 with the Maharaja Holkar provided 
that the Maharaja's Government should confine the 
cultivation of poppy in his territoi'ies within an extent 
calculated to yield a quantity not exceeding 6,000 
maunds of dry opium. Of this the British Government 
agreed to buy 6,000 maunds, leaving 1,000 maunds for 
consumption in Indore territory. The fact that the 
smuggling of opium assumed such alarming proportions 
shows that more opium was produced in the States 
than was required by the British Government. I am 
not aware that the Native States have ever been 
pressed to increase the cultivation of poppy. I can 
find no records in my office to show that they have. 
It would be useless to use pressure, as no one would 
cultivate at a loss, and if the cultivation were 
profitable it would be extended without any pressure. 
The rent of land is fixed with regard to the quality of 
the soil, and the tenant of first-class land paying a high 
rent will of course grow the most profitable crop he 
can. We have now no agreements with ITative States 
by which they engage to manage their opium cnltiva- 
tion_ so as to safeguard the British revenue. The 
cultivation of the poppy is left to the option of the 
cultivator, who is guided by the market. If the price 
of opium were high and the cultivation paid well, a 
State might seek to extend cultivation by spending 
money on irrigation works, but, as far as I am aware, 
no direct pressure is, or could be, put on the cultivators. 
In some cases a tax is levied on the crude opium 
produced in each field, but in other respects the 
cultivator can deal with the crop as he does with any 
other crop, selling it or storing it as he thinks best. 
Except where the cultivator is well off, he takes 
advances from a banker or zamindar just as cultivators 
do generally in India with respect to all crops. The 
best and moat prosperous class of the peasantry 
cultivate the poppy, and the possession of a poppy field 
is considered desirable as showing that the cultivator 
has a good position in the village. The poppy requires 
good irrigated land, and, as a rule, two croj)S are raised 
in the year. Indian corn is generally the first crop, 
and is grown in the rainy season. It would be difficult 
to induce the cultivators to give up a system of 
cultivation which they have followed for generations, 
especially as there is no crop which matures in so short 
a time as opium, and which can be so profitably grown 
after another crop in the same year. 

21,812. What has been the result of your inquiries 
and personal observations with regard to the con- 
sumption of opium in Central India? — The result of 
my inquiries regarding the consamption of opium in 
Central India is that it is very general. All castes and 
religions, except perhaps the Bohras, can eat opium. 
The Jains, whose religion forbids all intoxicants, may 
eat it. Children are, as a rule, given opium until they 
are about three years of age, when it is discontinued. 
The rule is that men do not begin to eat opium until 
they are over forty. The general opinion of the people 
is that opium-eating in moderation is beneficial and 
conducive to health, especially in the case of young 
children and elderly people. I have heard it said thai 
the moderate use of opium is not good, inasmuch as 
the daily dose is likely to be increased, but I think 

L2 



Mr. R. ,/. 

Crosthwiiiti 
C.S.I. 

6 Feb. 1894. 



84 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



C^th^' "^' *^^^ ^^ ^ mistake. The moderate consumption of 

t,rosthwaiie, opium is general, and excessive consumption exoep- 

• tional, which could not be the case if moderate 

g Tf , consumption invariably or even generally led to ex- 

"__ cessive consumption. I have had to take opium 

myaolf in England as a medicine for some time. I 
did not feel the slightest tendency to increase the dose, 
nor any disinclination to stop taking opium. Certainly 
the people do not regard the moderate n.sc of opium as 
in any way disgraceful. The practice of giving opium 
to young children prevails even among the upper 
classes, and amongst the Eajputs, except perhaps in 
Bundeikhand and Baghelkhand, it is considered a 
necessary act of courtesy to offer a guest opium, as in 
Europe he would be offered a glass of wine or a cup 
of tea. ( )n the other hand, in some parts of Malwa 
opium-smoking is considered bad, and in some States 
is prohibited by the Chief. Many persons are of 
opinion that opium-smoking in the preparation called 
chandii, is injurious to health, and i am informed that 
this is the reason of the prohibition. The fact that 
opium-smoking is prohibited, while opium-eating is 
not, goes to show that opium-eating is not believed to 
be injurious. If o])ium-eating were distinctly injurious, 
:md the excessive consumption of opium at all common, 
I should certainly have known, during my residence 
in India, of cases either among my own servants or 
:imong public officials in which a person had become 
incapacitated by reason of eating opium. I cannot 
recollect one case, and I believe that, having regard 
to the climate, the constitution of the people, and the 
nature of their diet, opium is a valuable drug, pre- 
serving them from and curing them of various ailments. 
If the moderate use of opium led to the excessive use, 
and so to the ruin of the consumer's health, it is 
difficult to understand how the population could have 
increased. It appears from the last census that the 
increase in the population of 20 opium-producing 
States amounted to over 500,000, an increase of nearly 
9 per cent. Moreover, considering the number of 
years during which the custom of eating opium has 
obtained, there would be a general deterioration of the 
village communities, and the evils of opium-eating 
would have attracted the attention of the chiefs just as 
the evils of smoking opium have. 

21.813. How do you compare alcohol and opium ? 
Which do you think is the more injurious of the two ? 
— As a rule, people who eat opium abstain from 
alcohol. The Sikhs are, I believe, an exception. I 
have no doubt that alcohol is more injurious in every 
way than opium-eating. I have had considerable 
experience of the criminal administration as a magis- 
trate in the North-Western Provinces, and as Judicial 
Commissioner in British Burma and in the Central 
Provinces. I know that drink leads to crime, but I 
know of no case in w^hioh opium-eating excited a 
man to commit a crime. Prom my inspections of jails 
in the Central Provinces I should say that among 
criminals opium-eaters arc in the minority. 

21.814. What have you to say as to the practicability 
of limiting the sale of opium to medical use ? — I do not 
think that the suggestion, that the cultivation of the 
poppy and the production of opium should be 
prohibited, except to the extent required for medical 
use, is practicable. It would be impossible to ascertain 
the quantity required for medical use. Opium is the 
most valuable medicine the people have, and it would 
be cruel to deprive them of it. There are no chemists, 
and a supply would have to be kept in every village. 
The result would bo that opium consumption would 
continue as at present. This proposed partial pro- 
hibition of opium would be unpopular, both with the 
chiefs and people. We have no right to demand the 
consent of independent chiefs to such a prohibition. 
They have the right to decide whether their subjects 
may use opium otherwise than as a medicine. They 
have also the right to regulate the cultivation of the 
land in their territories. If by the payment of 
compensation we induced the principal Chiefs to agree 
to the prohibition of opium, except to the extent 
required for mudical use, it would still be necessary to 
arrange for a like prohibition with the numerous petty 
Chiefs who have a right to manage the cultivation of 
their tenures without interference from the superior 
Chiefs, If such an arrangement were made it would 
be almost impossible to secure that it was properlj' 
carried out. The amount of supervision and inter- 
ference which Tfould be required for that purpose 
would cause great friction, and, from a political point 
of view, would be dangerous. It is probable that the 



Chiefs would be unable to restrict the production of 
opium without using their armies to enforce their 
orders. An attempt to stop the poppy cultivation 
would involve the risk of throwing the opium-producing 
country into a state of civil war. 

21.815. What about the loss of revenue to the States, 
the petty Chiefs, jagirdars, and cultivators ? — The 
prohibition of the exports of opium from the Native 
States through British India would involve a gi-eat 
loss of revenue to the States, the petty Chiefs, and 
jagirdars, and of profits to the cultivators. It would 
also ruin a number of merchants. Such a prohibition 
would, in my opinion, be opposed to the spirit of our 
treaties of friendship with the States, and would be 
regarded as an unjustifiable act of oppression. If the 
States agreed to the arrangement in consideration of 
the payment of compensation, the prohibition would 
still be most unpopular. To distribute compensation 
between the ruling States, subordinate Chiefs, jagirdars, 
and other landholders, the tenants and the merchants, 
would be a matter of great difficulty. 

21.816. Do you think there is any grave risk of 
extensive smuggling if tne policy of prohibition were 
attempted to be enforced? — The amount of com- 
pensation which would have to be paid for the loss 
caused by the prohibition of the export of opium 
cannot be well ascertained. Colonel Eobertson will give 
the amount which, it is calculated, will cover the loss ; 
but the States would, of course, expect that the com- 
pensation should be liberal. I have no doubt that, if 
the export of opium were prohibited, smuggling would 
become prevalent. The smugglers would have the 
sympathy of the people generally, and it would be 
extremely difficult to put a stop to the illicit import of 
the drug into British India. 'The expense of the 
preventive force would be very great, as the frontier 
to be guarded would be about 2,385 miles in extent. 
In many parts the border lands are covered with 
thick jungles, and it is easy to smuggle opium. 

21.817. We may gather from your evidence that, in 
your view, opium is a necessary article of consumption, 
and in many cases beneficial, and that prohibition 
would be decidedly unpopular and not called for by 
any considerations of a moral nature or otherwise ? — 
I do not say that I consider opium necessary and 
beneficial to health ; I am not prepared to say that, 
but T say that the cultivation is popular and con- 
sumption general, and that the people regard the 
consumption of opium as necessary. I may say that 
if opium had been like drinking I must have seen 
cases where men had been ruined by it. I have seen 
cases wheie men have been ruined by drink and have 
committed crime. With regard to the opinion of the 
people in this part of the country, I have no doubt 
that they regard it as necessary and beneficial to 
health ; not all, but a large proportion. 

21.818. Is there a party in these States, a certain 
number of persons, favourable to prohibition? — I am 
not aware of it. In making my inquiries I have 
spoken to the people that I have thought would be 
most competent to inform me. I have spoken to Chiefs 
of States, to their sirdars and officials, and the subhas 
of districts in Gwalior, and asked them privately their 
real opinion. In that way I have formed my view as 
to the opinions of these people. I am of opinion that 
it would be dangerous to interfere with the cultivation 
of the poppy in, or the export of opium from, the 
iS^ative States. There are so many States which have 
a right to regulate the cultivation of land within their 
territories that it would be extremely difficult to 
enforce any limitation of cultivation. The cultivation 
is ])opular and the consumption of opium is general, 
and is, as a rule, regarded as necessary and l)enefioial 
to health. As a medicine the drug is most useful, and 
if the people were deprived of it, mortality would be 
largely increased. To interfere with the consumption 
of opium would, I think, be as unpopular as to interfere 
with the use of tobacco in England, and would give 
rise to discontent and suspicion, which might result in 
most dangerous consequences. 

21.819. {Mr. Wilson.) You have referred in your 
evidence to numerous States. I see that in Colonel 
Robertson's paper there are certain lists mentioned. Do 
you know whether these lists include all that you have 
been referring top — Colonel Robertson will be able to tell 
you. His list, I should think, would include them ; it 
may not include all the States which are called 
unguaranteed States. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



85 



21.820. You have stated that the rate of pass duty 
■was steadily rai.sod until it reached Rs. 700. Was any 
objention made, do you know, to that steady increase 
of the pass duty ? — I have not seen any objection 
previous to that which I have mentioned. The price 
of opium was then high. 

21.821. You state that if the price of opium con- 
tinues to fall, a further reduction will be necessary to 
allow the export of the drug. Are you contemplating 
that the price of opium is likely to continue to fall P — 
I think there is a possibility of it, but it is impossible 
to say, owing to the present state of Indian coinage 
and numerous complications. 

21.822. Would you consider that the British Govern- 
ment was in any way bound to reduce the duty by 
treaty or on moral considerations ? — That is a com- 
plicated question. There are two parties taxing the 
drug, the one the Native State and the other the 
British Government. If the price of opium falls below 
a certain point it will be necessary to reduce the duty, 
or the trade of the country and the revenues of the 
State will be affected injuriously. It would then have 
to be considered which daty should go and in what 
proportion the reduction should be made. 

21,823. You have said that Mr. Tucker's state- 
ment must be erroneous as regards the States of 
Central India. I have not his statement at hand ; can 
you toll me if it appeared to include the States of 
Central India ? — I think he said that burdensome 
treaties had been contracted with the Rajput States. 
There are Rajput States in Central India and there are 
Rajput States in Rajputana. I suppose what he referred 
to were the Rajput States with which these agreements 
were made, some of which were situated in Central India 
and some in the agency known as the Rajputana agency. 

21.824. You have referred to the third article of the 
agreement of 1826 providing that cultivation should be 
confined to a certain extent. I do not quite understand 
whether that restriction still exists ? — That restriction 
went wiLh the agreement. The agreement was put a 
stop to about 1829 or the beginning of 1830. 

21.825. You say that we have no agreement with the 
Native States by which they engage to manage their 
cultivation so as to safeguard the revenue. Although 
we have no agreement, have we no understanding of 
any kind ? — No understanding of any sort I think. 
The British revenue from opium depends on the export 
duty. It is protected by the British territory encircling 
the Native territory. We levy a duty on opium that 
goes towards the seaboard. 

21.826. You say that possession of a poppy field 
shows that the cultivator has a good position in the 
village. I do not uiidei'stand why that should be. 
Why might not a poor man have a small poppy field as 
well as a wealthy cultivator a big field? — We usually 
find that the best land goes to the best and most 
prosperous cultivators. 

21.827. I suppose that is another way of saying that 
the best land makes the richest man p — You generally 
find that the house with the most expensive rent goes 
to the person who has the most money. In the same 
way if you have land of high value the probabilities 
are that it will not be let to the man who has got 
nothing. 

21.828. You have stated that the people do not 
regard the moderate use of opium as in any way dis- 
graceful. I understand your evidence to be rather of 
a general 'character. You do not make that statement 
with reference to any particular district, but as a result 
of your impression of the district over which you have 
supervision P — I refer to CenLral India and other parts 
of Inilia whore [have boon. 1 have given the genoral 
rosiilli of what I know on the subject, especially with 
regard to the enquiries which 1 have made since the 
Royal Commission was announced. My attention was 
not directed much to opium in former times. I used 
to ask about it when I inspected (he jails. Sometimes 
the men were suffering from the want of opium. In 
British jails opium is stopped directly the prisoner 
enters. He then becomes ill, and they give him opium 
again until he gets well. In the Native jails the practice 
is to ask a man whethor he takes opium, and if he sajs 
yes, they say "' you require it for your health," and 
they give it to him. 

21,Hi29. You say that the fact that opium is not pro- 
hibited, goes to show that it is not injurious. You 
would not go so far ai to say that the rulers of all 



the Native states attem.pt to put down what they believe 
to be injurious ? — They forbid opium-smoking. I 
asked several of them, and they said that if a man 
smokes opium, he becomes yellow and dries up and is 
perfectly useless. They did not condemn it on moral 
grounds ; they merely said it destroys the man, and on 
that ground they felt bound to prohibit the smoking of 
opium. In the same way I say that if the eating of 
opium made a man turn yellow, dried him up and 
made him useless, the Chiefs would probably stop it, 
just as they stopped opium-smoking. 

21.830. You do not go so far as to say that the rulers 
of these Native States practically stop that which they 
regard as injurious in reference to other matters ? — I 
oouid not miake a general statement of that kind. 

21.831. As one example, is not hook-swinging still 
common in some of these districts ? — I never heard of 
a case in Central India. 

21.832. So far as Central India is concerned, you 
think it does not exist P — I have not heard of a case 
since I have been here. It might happen in an out-of- 
the-way place without my hearing of it. But I think 
I should have known of it. 

21.833. I wish to ask you a general question as to the 
extent of the control that we profess to exercise over 
the proceedings of these Native rulers. You say it 
would not be right to do this and that ; but as a matter 
of fact do we not to a considerable extent interfere with 
their individual liberty to put down what we consider 
abuses P — It is rather difficult to answer a question of 
that kind. The general rule that guides our inter- 
ference with Native States is this. We have the chief 
power in India, and we are the main support which 
these States have at their back. We are therefore 
bound to see that the ruler of the State does not com- 
mit atrocious crimes or acts of gross oppression over 
his subjects. That would be the rule of our interference. 

21.834. To take a case that has been raised before in 
this connection, what did we do in reference to the 
practice of suttee ? — I should have to read up the 
histonr of it to give a satisfactory answer an that point. 
My r^ollection is that we did nothing beyond giving 
advice and pointing out to the chiefs that we con- 
sidered that suttee was an objectionable practice, and 
that it was desirable that it should be discontinued. I 
do not think we did more than that. In the case of 
Indore we made a treatv stating that the British 
Government has no concern in the internal adminis- 
tration of the State or with the Maharaja's subjects and 
servants, over whom he is absolute. Of course, if the 
Maharaja were to commit atrocities or anything of 
that kind we should be obliged to interfere ; otherwise, 
ordinarily, we do not interfere at all. He is responsible 
for the administration. 

21.835. (Ghairman.) In short, it comes to this, that 
if his rule is of such a character that you can call it 
gross misrule, you do interfere P — Yes. 

21.836. And from time to time the British Govern- 
ment has stepped in and has appointed a council of 
regency, or a resident or an officer of its own who has 
taken charge of the Government for the time being. 
That has been where the misrule has been of such a 
character as to be described as gross. It is a question 
of degree ? — Government would have to intervene and 
take the State out of the hands of the ruler if he were 
utterly incompetent. 

21.837. {Mr. Wilson.) In the case of the smaller 
States, what you call Estates, we exercise a great deal 
more influence and persuasion ? — We do not treat them 
with the same amount of political difference that we 
ilo the bigger States. With regard to criminal 
jurisdiction many of them are in a manner subordinate 
to the British Government. The evidence is often 
enquired into by the political ageut. The guaranteed 
Thakur tries petty cases. 

21.838. You say that there is a varying amount of 
control on the part of the British Government p — Yes. 

21.839. Without entering into minute details I 
.suppose that covers the ground p — I suppose it would, 
you might take it in that way. As regards the 
internal part, the cultivation and management of u, 
petty Chief's estates, we do not interfere more than we 
do in the case of an important State. We are not 
bound by treaty in the same way as we are with the 
big chiefs. It must bo recalled, howevor, that those 
giiaiicnteed estates are nearly all part and parcel of the 
big State which covers them all by the treaty. The 

L 3 



Mr. R. J. 

Crosthwaite, 

c.a.j. 

6 Feb 1894. 



86 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMLSSION 



^fr. R. J. guaranteed estates are very peculiar. We have 

CrosthwiiHc, guaiauteed their tenures and in that way to protect; 

C S.I. them against the Suzerain States. Foi- example, take 

^ " the state of Indore, because it is one with which we 

Cieb. 1894. have treaties. Under Indore there is the petty Chief 

" who has perhaps a small estate with an income of 

E. 25,000. "W'e maintain him in his rights intact, and 

his jurisdiction in criminal and civil matters is a mere 

matter of custom which is very often extremely 

diflScult to determine. But with regard to the interior 

economy of his state he is left perfectly free, and he 

is included under the Soverign State in which the estate 

is situated. 

21.840. Tou have referred to the profits of the cul- 
tivator and to cultivation being popular ? — Tes. 

21.841. Of course you are speaking to us about a 
great extent of country and a variety of conditions of 
life. Do I understand that it is your general opinion 
that on the whole the cultivation is everywhere pro- 
fitable P — In Central India I think it is, certainly. 
They like their poppy crop just as a man likes to have 
an orchard round his cottage at home. They like to 
have poppy flowers and they like to have the opium. 

21.842. Tou think that it is at present profitable ? — 
It is certainly profitable or they would not grow it. 

21,813. Ha.^ there not been a considerable falling off 
in price? — Yes, in price and in profit. The profit is 
getting very low, bat in spite of that they are culti- 
vating it. Last year and the year before the general 
report I bad was that poppy cultivation was being 
discontinued, that it was decreasing, and that there 
were complaints that it did not pay, that the people 
were being ruined, and so on. This year I have not 
heard those complaints. They say that they have a 
plentiful supply of water. There have been two good 
rainy seasons, and the wells are full so that they can 
cultivate the poppy. They told me in places where I 
was travelling this year that they were sowing opium 
to a considerable extent, having plenty of water. 

21,844. I suppose there is no inducement in any of 
these states in the way of advances from the State, as 
in the case of the Bengal Monopoly advances ? — No, I 
do not think that there are any advances of money 
directly. The money is advanced by the village money 
lender or the opium merchants. 

2 l,S46. (Mr. Mowbray.) With regard to the question 
of our interference with native states I rather gathered 
from V u that it was what I may call an executive 
interfei-i noe in the case of maladministration rather 
than a interference in the direction of legislation in 
those states ? — We do not at all interfere with legisla- 
tion. 

21.846. I presume that if such a prohibition as has 
been proposed were carried out in British India and 
extended to the native states it would have to be done 
by legislation in those states ? — It would have to be 
done entirely by the native chiefs themselves. We 
could not prohibit opium cultivation in a native state 
any more than wc could prohibit it in Prance. 

21.847. To stop it would require legislation rather 
than executive action on the part of the native state, 
would it not ? — They would simply issue an order 
saying that opium was not to be cultivated, and 
afterwards they would have to enforce it, which would 
be an extremely difficult thing to do. 

21.848. Are there any factories in Central India — 
cotton or paper factories or anything of that kind ? — 
There is a large cotton mill here which belongs to the 
Maharaja Holkar. 

21.849. Has any suggestion ever been made to the 
Government of his Highness that the recent factory 
legislation of the Indian G-overnment should be 
extended to his State? — Yes, I suggested that myself, 
and he said that it was absolutely unnecessary, that the 
people were quite happy. 

21.850. Is that the only instance in which you 
suggested the extension of the recent factory legislation ? 
— There was a small State that said they would try to 
make Homothing like a Factory Act for themselves, 
and I think the headman of the State drew up a kind 
oi' Act modelled on the Indian Factory Act. 



hands and conferring a great benefit on the people. I 
have been over it myself. It is an immense benefit to the 
husband, the wife, and the children, all earning money. 
Ihey are able to take it easy, and there is no pressure 
upon them to work as there is iu European countries. 
They can always take a holiday, whenever they like. 

21,852. With regard to another measure of the Indian 
Government, the Age of Consent Bill, has any attempt 
been made to induce the natives to carry out similar 
legislation ?— No, that is beyond the scope of our 
interference. I do not think we should have a right to 
ask them to do anything with regard to the marriage 
laws and things of that kind. 

21,8 )3. You think that such a suggestion would be 
beyond the scope of your authority ?— Of course it 
would be possible to suggest anything, but our ordinary 
practice would not go so far as that. 

21.854. I suppose you would consider the cultivation 
and consumption of opium to be a matter concerning 
a common domestic habit and more difficult to deal 
with? — It is entirely within their jurisdiction. Yon 
could not touch it without infringing on their rights. 

21.855. I suppose as a matter of argument a 
distinction can be drawn between prohibiting cultiva- 
tion in the States, and prohibiting the import throuo-h 
our territory ?— Of course we have a perfect right to do 
as we like in our own territory, but it would be really 
an extremely unjust and unfair thing to do. With 
regard to people like the Maharaja of Gwalior and the 
Maharaja liolkar we fought them in battle and had 
great difficulties. Thou we made treaties which we 
called treaties of lasting friendship. We were always 
to be bound by the most friendly relations. It seems 
to me that if they had known that we were going to 
reserve the right to stop one of their articles of produce 
and destroy a portion of their revenue they would 
rather not have had the treaty, but would have fought 
it out. I think that with a fair gentlemanly construc- 
tion of the agreement that we should be friends. It 
would not be fair to turn round and say, "We are 
I' going to put on such an import duty as will prevent 

your exporting one of your principal articles of 
commerce." 

21,856. I suppose one might go a step farther and say 
that though, as you have told us, there is no agreement 
or even understanding, with regard to any assistance on 
the part of the native Chiefs, so to manage the opium 
traffic as to safeguard the British revenue,still as a matter 
of fact our pass duty is levied with comparative ease, 
owing to our being in cordial relations with the native 
Chiefs and their regarding us as treating them fairly I 
—As regards the levying of the pass duty, I do not 
think that the cordiality of the relations with the 
native chiefs would affect it very much. The opium 
simply comes into the scales and goes off by railway 
We have the things in our own hands. Where it would 
affect our cordial relations with the Chiefs would be as 
regards smuggling. It is so easy to smuggle opium 
and the devices are so ingenious, that if you had the 
native states against you I doubt if you could possiblv 
prevent it. •' 

4.1.'^^'^^'^' ^''^''' ■^"'"s/iawe.) I understand you to say 
that the prohibition in an independent native State of 
the growth of the poppy or the opium trade is not a ques- 
tion in which interference would be justifiable regard 
being had to treaty rights and obligations and the 
policy of the Government ?— We should have no 
whatever to do it. 



right 



21,851. I suppose the factory question is a very 
infinitesimal one in Central India, that the number of 
factories is very small ? — Yes. In Bagholkhand a big 
factory has been started employing a great number of 



21,858 Has there been any precedent, so far as you 
know, which might be relied on as a justification for 
such an act of interference as the prohibition of the 
growth of the poppy and the use of opium except for 
medical purposes would be ?— No, there is no precedent 
tor any interference of that kind. I suppose the salt 
case would come as near as anything, and we concluded 
that matter by treaty, paying a very high compensation, 
I ao not know of anything else which can be at all 
taken as a precedent. 

21.859. And that was entirely a matter of arrange- 
ment with the States on the grounds of fair and full 
compensation ?— Yes, it was a bargain. 

21.860. Relorring to the antiquity of poppy culti- 
vation you are no doubt aware that in the Ain-i- 
Alchbari the poppy is stated to be a staple product of 
the Malwa province P — Yes. 



MINUTES or EVIDENCE. 



87 



21.861. When you except the Bohras from tne castes 
that consume opium, I understand you to be referring 
to a Shia sect of Mahomedans ? — Yes. 

21.862. With reference to your remarks about the 
best and most prosperous class of peasantry cultivating 
poppy in this part of India, we have heard that both 
in Behar and in the northern part of India the market 
gardener, that is the Kachhi or the Koeri, is 
the chief poppy cultivator, that he generally has a 
small holding, and that though he is a good cultivator 
he' is not necessarily a large or prosperous man. Are 
you referring to a different class here P — Yes. Poppy 
is cultivated by the Kaohhis here too. Some of them 
have large holdings ; they have irrigated fields with 
the best soil, in which they would grow poppy when 
the circumstances were favourable. 

21,863. {Chairman.) 1 gather fi'om yon that the 
question of the expediency of our intejferevice in the 
government of a Native State in the name of the 
Queen-Empress, who is the acknowledged suzerain over 
all India, depends upon the nature of the occasion ? — 
Yes. I think it might generally be said that we have 
no right to interfere except where we are bound to do 
BO in case of gross misrule. In such oases, in the in- 
terests of justice and humanity, and in order to protect 
the people against a ruler whom they would destroy at 
once if we were not here, we are bound to interfere. 



21.864. Taking the question before us, suppose that 
opium was in our judgment an article that ought to 
be controlled, that we regarded it as inevi tably a 
poison, and could not be taken and never was taken 
without involving serious moral and physical degra- 
dation ; if you could take such an extreme view as 
that of the opium habit, you might feel yourself called 
upon, on moral grounds, to press upon the native ruler 
the question of prohibition ? — In that extreme case, if 
the use of opium invariably involved moral degradation 
and destroyed the people, we should represent that fact 
to the Native State. We should say to the Chief, 
" You see that all these people are dying from taking 
" this drug ; you ought to make some arrangement to 
" stop it." We should give that advice. ' But that is 
a hypothetical case. 

21.865. It depends upon your appreciation of the 
intensity of the evil wrought by the particular article 
that you were dealing with P — We might advise him 
and say, "This is doing harm," and he might say, 
" On the contrary, I think it is doing a great deal of 
good," and decline to stop it. 

21.866. So long as the question was open to any 
sort of doubt, you would say you could not interfere ? 
— I do not think we ought. 



Mt . R. J. 

Crosthwaitc, 
C.S.I. 

6 Feb. 189-). 



The witness withdrew. 



Lieut.-Oolonel Eobertson called in and examined. 



21.867. {Chairman.) What is your present position ? 
— I am the Political Agent of Baghelkhand and Super- 
intendent of the Eewah State, but have recently been 
engaged under the orders of the Agent to the Governor- 
General in collecting data for the whole of Central 
India regarding the production, consumption, export 
of, and revenue derived from opium, in order that, so far 
as was possible, reliable information might be presented 
to the Koyal Commission. The Chiefs of Native States 
are, as a rule, suspicious of interference in their affairs, 
and dislike the trouble of having to supply any infor- 
mation about administrative questions, and unless 
special measures had been taken to explain whai was 
required, and to urge upon them the importance of 
supplying the best information available, the matter 
would probably have been regarded as an ordinary and 
unimportant question of routine to be treated with 
indifl'erence. There is good reason for believing that 
the annual opium produce statements submitted by the 
States to Government have been prepared in a per- 
functory manner, without any sufiScient inquiry, or 
genuine attempt to obtain reliable figures, such as has 
been made in the present instance. In order to present 
the main points of the case for Central India in a 
comprehensive manner, I have prepared* a statement 
which shows the States grouped in the order of their 
importance from the opium revenue point of view ; it 
gives the estimated produce, and revenue arising 
therefrom, but for reasons which I will subsequently 
explain it was not found possible to tabulate particulars 
about consumption. The States comprising the A. and 
B. groups are all to be found in the 'tract known as 
Malwa, of which the district around Indore is roughly 
the centre. It is in this fertile region, rarely, if ever, 
visited by famine, that opium is mostly produced. 
Beyond its limits the conditions of soil and climate 
are, or by the conservative traditions of the country 
are supposed to be, less favourable to the cultivation of 
the poppy. Central India is divided into two unequal 
parts. The western and more important portion, in 
which Malwa is situated, contains 100 States, including 
Gwalior, Indore, Bhopal, and several others largely 
interested in opium, whilst the eastern division, com- 
prising Btmdelkhand and Baghelkhand, with about 
33 per cent, of the total population, which is geographi- 
cally a separate tract, does not grow enough opium for 
its local consumption, and is consequently much less 
interested in the questions under consideration than 
the States in and around Malwa. In submitting my 
evidence the primary object I have in view is to repre- 
sent, as dispassionately as possible, what I believe to 
be the opinions held by the many persons in Native 
States with whom my enquiries have brought me into 
contact. 

21.868. Did you anticipate that there would be some 

* See Appendix XI. to this Volume. 



trouble in inducing seme of the Native Governments 
to supply the full information you desired, and did yo'u 
think it necessary to take special measures to explain 
what was required, and urge the importance of supply- 
ing the best information available .P— Yes, I framed 
and circulated 62 questions* which were sent to the 
Political OfBcers of Central India. A copy was sent 
to each Political Agent with a demi-official letter 
explaining exactly what was required. The Native 
States of Central India, as a rule, with the exception 
of the large States of Indore and Gwalior, are ex- 
tremely backward in their modes of administration, 
and unless the matter had been fully explained to 
them, they would have been unable to supply the full 
information which the Hoyal Commission would 
require. The action I took was merely with a view of 
explaining what were the points on which information 
was required, leaving it of course to the people them- 
selves to say what they thought proper. Vor the sake 
of convenience, I propose to divide my remarks under 
the heading of:— (1.) Production; (2.) Consumption; 
(3.) Export and trade ; (4.) The direct revenue derived 
from opium by Native States, and the interests which 
would have to be taken into account were it necessary 
to consider the question of compensation ; (5.) The 
enforcement in Native States of the prohibition of 
cultivation and production, except for medical pur- 
poses, were this measure undertaken by British 
India ; (6.) The prohibition of export through British 
territory. 

21,869. The first great subject that you have had to 
deal with is that of production P — Yes, the total area 
under opium in the Native States of Central India is 
returned as 610,763 bighas. I am afraid that this total 
can only be accepted as approximate. The practice is 
to assess for a term of years all irrigated land capable 
of producing opium, at rates which vary from Es. 5 to 
Es. 25 per bigha. It is assumed, and probably with 
good reason, that, as opium is, looking to the time, 
labour, and capital required for its production, un- 
doubtedly the most profitable crop, all holders of land 
assessed on the irrigated scale vidll ordinarily grow it, 
but the fields are not inspected at each harvest to see 
whether other crops have been grown instead of 
opium, or whether any land has been allowed to lie 
fallow. The cultivators pay at the same rate whatever 
crop they raise, or even whether they cultivate or not. 
It is evident then, that with such imperfect super- 
vision, there is nothing upon which an entirely reliable 
estimate of the area of opium cultivation could be 
based, though, for the pm-pose of a preliminary 
inquiry, and a summary estimate of the interests 
involved, the figures given, being the best information 
available, may be accepted as approximately correct. 
Except in such portions of their territories as are 



Lieut-Col. D. 
Robertson. 



• For these questions, see Appendix X. to this Volume. 

L 4 



88 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



J.ieut.-Col. D. 
Robertson. 

6 Feb, 1894. 



comprised in jagirs [i.e., alienations of land made for 
maintenance or in lieu of payment for service) there is 
no one intermediate between the chiefs and their 
cultivators. The land revenue is assessed, generally 
on some fixed scale, according to the class of land, and 
whether irrigated or not, for a term of years, and is 
collected either by State officials direct or through 
contractors. We have no information regarding the 
relations between the jagirdars and their tenants, as 
the former furnish none to the Darbars, but m these 
estates the position is much the same as m the Khalsa, 
the jagirdar taking the place of the Chief. The yield 
of poppy milk may on the average be taken to be 5| 
seers (11 lbs.) per bigha. The total produce of Central 
India works out therefore to 510,763 X 5i = 2,809,196 
seers. It takes 16 dharis* of crude opium to make a 
chest (UOJ lbs.) of the manufactured drug; the total 
out-tnrn of opium in these States is therefore on this 
calculation 36,116 chests annually. The figures, how- 
ever, ghon by the States, as entered in statements 
A. E. and C. work out to a total of 35,911 chests. The 
Litter estimiile I accept as approximately correct. 
The averaL?" rxport is bhown further on to be 2.j,082 
chests, t the balance of 10,829 chests must therefore be 
divided between provincial exports, consumption and 
increase to stocks. There is nothing peculiar about 
the cultivation in Malwa, except that in the collection 
of the juice it is put into a vessel full of oil, in order, 
it is said to retard the process of inspissation. For 
this reason Malwa opium takes longer to dry, and is 
regarded with some disfavour by the outside public as 
having an aperient tendency. The crude opium is, 
under the custom by which Indian agriculturists have 
a running account with the village banker, in which 
they are mostly on the wrong side, usually sold, 
semetimes before it is gathered, to a middleman or 
money lender, who disposes of it to a dealer who rnay 
or may not be an exporter ; the middleman may him- 
self be the dealer. The manufacture requires little or 
no technical or scientific knowledge, involving merely 
kneading with the hands and making up the crude 
opium, which after manipulation becomes of the con- 
sistency of dough, into balls of about 1 lb. in weight ; 
these are then covered with a coating of poppy-leaf 
dust, and allowed to dry and harden. Opium improves 
by keeping, and is sometimes kept for two years before 
being exported. It is estimated that there are now 
55,000 chests of opium:]: held in stock by the merchant'5 
of the chief towns in Malwa, and that, owing to dull 
trade, stocks are steadily increasing. The profit 
made by the cultivator on each bigha of opium 
cultivation§ is variously estimated at from Es. 22 
to Ks. 8, but there are so many different points, 
either to be taken into account or omitted from the 
calculation under varying circumstances or contin- 
gencies, that it is unprofitable to attempt to frame any 
exact statement of such profits, which could be held 
applicable to the whole of Central India. It is, how- 
ever, admitted on all sides that opium is by far the 
most valuable crop that could be grown in Malwa, and 
that any attempt to supersede it by wheat, linseed, 
cotton, tobacco, or even sugar-cane, must, apart 
altogether from the dislike with which these extremely 
conservative people would regard the proposal to 
change their methods of agriculture, result in wide- 
spread loss to the cultivators. The suggestion to 
substitute indigo for opium, is met at once by the 
reply that its cultivation is not understood. The two 
most promising crops which might be raised in place 
of opium seem to be tobacco and sugar-cane, but really 
good tobacco of high enough quality to command a 
market elsewhere, cannot it is said, be produced in 
Malwa, and the same remark applies to sugar-cane and 
the juice which could bo expressed therefrom. To this 
crop, moreover, there is the additional objection that 
it takes quite a twelvemonth to come to maturity, and 
requires more water than is available as a continuance 
in Malwa. The cultivation of opium is enhanced in 
value by the disposal of the seeds and poppyheads, 
which bring about in about Es. 8-8 per bigha. More- 
over, the same land is available for raising a food-crop 
(ordinarily maize) during the rains. The young poppy 
plants, too, when thinned supply a nutritious vegetable, 
and there is generally room in the irrigation channels 
for lines of onions. 



* One dhnri = 5 seers (10 lbs.) 

t Deducting the 5,6(;'! chi.'sU o£ Jlejwar opium weighed at Udaipiu- 
and the 0,000 chests of Eajputana opium weighed in Central India. 
( Vide remarks under the trade and export.) 

X The greater portion of which (about 48,000) are in Gwalior and 
Indore. 

§ Including the preceding maize crop. 



21,870. Is it possible to make an estimate of the 
amount of opium consumed in Central India which 
would be considered accurate P — It is praotica,lly im- 
possible, the materials for calculation beitig^ so 
unreliable, to give even an approximate estimate of the 
amount of opium consumed in Central India. For 
small tracks rough estimates have been attempted, but 
these are purely guess work, and to apply such calcti- 
lations to the whole of the Province would be entirely 
misleading. In the first place, the produce cannot, as 

I have explained, be accurately gauged ; and in the 
second place, the system of retail sale is so limited in 
extent, and at the same time so imperfectly controlled, 
that no safe deductions can be hazarded as regards 
either the number of consumers, or the amount they 
consume. All over Malwa there is no limit to the 
possession of opium. Cultivators can either sell or 
keep as much as they please, and except in some of the 
large towns, the States make no attempt to obtain a 
revenue from retail sale. The exception to this rule is 
in the districts of Northern and itSTorth-Eastern Gwalior 
which lie outside Malwa ; affeo in Bundlekhand and 
Baghelkhand. In these districts the produce of opium 
merely sufiices for local consumption, or the drug has 
to be imuorted from outside ; the right to sell by retail, 
mostly in towns, is ordinarily sold by auction, the 
purchaser being allowed to start shops wherever he 
pleases. No statistics of consumption are available for 
these tracts of country, but, except perhaps in G-walior, 
Samthar and Eewah, looking to the moderate revenue 
which the chiefs derive, the consumption can hardly be 
considerable. In Indore the retail price of opium is, at 
at the rate of Es. 12 per seer, about 7 tolas weight for 
one rupee. Throughout Malwa there are undoubtedly 
a very large number of consumers ; indeed, opium 
eating is so common that it attracts no notice. It is 
almost invariably given to children from their birth 
until they are three or four years old, without, so far as 
is known, any harmful result or difficulty in weaning 
them from the habit. After middle age, in the case 
especially of cultivators or those who have to undergo 
exposure, habitual opium-eating, without any signs of 
general debauchery, and without any visible detriment 
to the public health, is the rule rather than the excep- 
ti(m. The drug thus taken is regarded as the stafi' of 
life, and, rightly or wrongly, believed to bo highly 
beneficial for warding olf fatigue or mitigating suffering. 
It is in most oases impossible for the non-professional 
eye to detect wlio is and who is not an opium-eater, 
unless the drug is taken to excess, and I ha\.j met very 
few of such instances. What constitutes a normal dose 
is a doubtful point. From my enquiries it varies from 
6 to 40 grains per diem. Many consumers do not know 
the exact weight of their daily allowance, but measure 
it merely by the eye. They talk of their opium as 
weighing so many ratis or mashas* but in many cases 
that have been tested, the weight has been found to be 
more than was supposed. There is no social disadvan- 
tage or disqualification attached to the use (eating) as 
distinguished from the abuse of the drug. Smoking, 
on the other hand, is thought to be rather dissipated, 
probably from the fact that the smoking places are 
more or less public and frequented by all sorts and con- 
ditions of men. Smoking is discouraged by some States. 
In the two principal States, Gwalior and Indore, for 
instance, it is a penal otfence ; in Eutlam and Jaora one 
shop only is licensed in the capital town. The practice 
of smoking in Central India is by no means a general 
one, and such evil effects as arise ttierefrom must be of 
very limited extent. In Malwa there are a large 
number of Eajput Thakurs, some of whom owe their 
political existence to our mediation and support. 
Amongst them the kasumhha custom, which has doubt- 
less been already described, is in fall force. Those 
psrsons -.vho know them best anticipate that it would 
be extremely diflicnlt to eradicate this custom. I am 
now in my twenty-ninth year of Indian service, which 
comprises over 23 years of civil, magisterial, and 
politic,al work in various parts of India, viz., in Mysore, 
Ilyderadad, the Central frovincea, Eajputana, and over 

II years of Central India. I was for four years First 
Assistant Agent to the Governor-General at Indore. 
During the past five years I have been Superintendent 
of the Eewah State (about 13,000 square miles in 
extent with a population of over 1^ million)— an 
appointment necessitating a close acquaintance with 



' 1 Rati = about 2 grains. 
1 Masha „ 16 
1 Tola „ 180 
2| tolas „ 1 ounce. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



89 



the habits and customs of the people. Throughout my 
service I have mixed very freely with natives of all 
classes, living often without any European society, but 
I have never come across, in Central India or elsewhere 
any evidence of general opium debauchery, nor do I 
remember to have either seen or heard of a case in 
which a man was found creating a distui'banoe on the 
road, or lying drunk and incapable from opium ; nor 
with a considerable magisterial experience, both in 
Native States and British India, can I recollect ever 
having had to deal with a case in which the crime 
could even remotely be attributed to the effects of this 
drug. It is, from my experience, as incorrect to say 
that habitual consumers invariably increase their daily 
doses, as to assert that a moderate allowance of whisky 
aad soda necessarily leads to drunkenness. If desired 
I can produce before the Eoyal Commission a number 
of moderate opium-eaters at Indore, who will show the 
amount they take daily now, and depose for how long 
they have consumed the same dose. 

21,871. What have you to say on the subject of trade 
and export ? — The system in force is that all opium for 
export to Bombay for China, must be brought to one of 
our scales, where it is weighed, and the duty, which 
constitutes our Imperial revenue (now B.s. 600 per 
chest of 140i lbs ), is levied. There are altogether 
eight scales at convenient centres under Indore, and in 
each case, except at the head quarters and one other 
place, tbe establishment is paid through us by the 
State in whose territory the scales are situated. After 
weighment the opium is sent under guard, and special 
railway arrangements to Bombay, where it is delivered 
to the Customs authorities. The amount of opium 
exported through our scales has, during the past 

15 years, averaged 35,345 chests (of 140i lbs.) per 
annum, including 1,716 chests weighed at Udaipur 
and 3,547 chests weighed at Ohitor. This ia without 
taking into account the supplies sent to the Punjab 
(viS, Ajmere), Hyderabad, Mysore, Madras, Coorg, 
!13erar, or Baroda for local consumption. Such opium 
is usually of an inferior description, but, in the case of 
Hyderabad, Madras, and Berar, being intended for 
excise purposes, it pays a higher duty, viz., Es. 700 
per chest, which is ultimately realised by the State or 
Province to which the export is made, the Imperial 
revenue deriving no advantage therefrom. As regards 
Mysore, Coorg, and Baroda no duty is levied here ; the 
localities make their own arrangements. Under the 
system in force, it is not possible to determine from 
what particular State opium weighed at any one ol: the 
scales has come. Nor can the States themselves 
supply this information. I may add that all the opium 
weighed is not tbe produce of Central India. Chi tor 
and Udaipur are in Rajputana, and the opium 
weighed there (about 5,263 chests) is net grown in 
Central India ; whilst Jhallawar, Kotah, and some 
States in Bajputana also send their opium (about 
5,000 chests per annum) to Indore, Ujjain, and Man- 
disor. It may be mentioned that between 300 and 
400 chests of opium grown in Central India are 
exported to States in Rajputana without passing 
through any scales. So long as this opium does not 
enter British territory there is no restriction upon the 
transport. The native merchants assert that only pure 
opium is sent to China, but their test, besides that of 
the feel, is mainly confined to filtering, by which 
farinaceous adulteration, if slight, cannot be detected. 
An olhcer of the Bengal Opium Agency, who came to 
Indore to buy Malwa opium for G-overnment excise 
purposes in 1883, ascertained, by means of the tincture 
of iodine test, that 2J per cent, of the opium brought 
for purchase was adulterated with farinaceous matter. 
Presumably the Chinese do not find this out, as they 
would refuse to pay a high price for adulterated stuff. 
If they did discover adulteration it would probably 
cease, as the same duty is levied on all opium, good or 
bad, and it would not do to export inferior stuff. It 
will be seen from the statement* accompanying that 
there has of late years been a fairly steady decrease in 
weighments, due to a falling off in the trade, occa- 
sioned by prices which have at times ruled so low that 
rates at Shanghai were about the same or even less 
than those at Indore. Quotations are now Rs. 39 per 
dhari for new, to Rs. 42 for old opium, whereas 

16 years ago as much as Rs. 85 were realised. Mer- 
chants have been obliged, in order to free capital, to 
export at a loss ; and generally speaking the good 
times which opium 3xporters formerly enjoyed are 
gone, probably never to return. A chest of opium now 



Zieul.-Col. D. 
Robertson. 



costs in Indore Rs. 492,* excluding the British Grovern 
ment duty of Rs. 600, or Rs. 1,092 in all. Some 
merchants with whom I have discussed the situation 
mentioned that on recent shipments a profit of Rs. 60 6 Feb. 1894 

to Rs. 60 per chest had been made, but that rates were _^ 

then falling. At the present time trade is again some- 
what brisker, and weighments have in consequence 
been heavier. The opium export trade, fluctuating and 
uncertain though it may be, still possesses attractions 
for local traders. One of the sources of its popularity 
is the speculative dealing for forward delivery, known 
locally as satta oi' time-bargains. In these transactions 
it is not intended that 'uhe opium sold shall be deli- 
vered, and they are practically wagers on a rise or fall 
in prices. Settling is effected on rates fixed, generally 
at the full moon, by a committee of merchants in one 
of the important trading centres, of which Indore, 
Rutlam, and Ujjain are the chief. These risky tran- 
sactions, which are often of immense extent, naturally 
result occasionally in financial disaster to trading 
firms, but though spoken of in a deprecatory manner 
by many persons satta still flourishes, and the bargains 
are taxed by some States. Independent, however, of 
these speculations there is a large bonS, flde trade in 
opium, the benefits accruing from which are shared by 
the chiefs and their ryots as well as by merchants. A 
considerable amount of poppy seed is also exported, 
figures for which I will produce as soon as they are 
received from the railways with whom I have com- 
municated.f It is impossible to ascertain with any 
approach to accuracy the amount of capital engaged in 
the opium trade, as the merchants are not unnatuaally 
reticent about this part of their business, but from 
common report, and to judge by the yearly weight- 
ments and stocks held awaiting export, the total capital 
can hardly be less than three crores. Any radical 
change, such as a sudden cessation in the supply, or a 
diminished value of the drug, would certainly involve 
many firms in bankruptcy. There would, moreover, be 
no scope for the profitable employment in Malwa of 
the capital held by firms who were sufficiently wealthy 
to weather such a crisis, and were it diverted to another 
Province the important mercantile towns of Indore, 
Ujjain, Mandsaur, Rutlam, Jaora, Dhar, and indeed 
the whole country, would suffer considerably. 

21,872. Tour next head is the direct revenue derived 
from opium by Native States, and the interests which 
would have to be taken into account were it necessary 
to consider the question of compensation ? — The direct 
revenue realised by the States is derived from : — 
1. Land revenue. 2. Taxing the crude opium. 3. A 
local export duty. 4. Various minor imposts, such as 
taxes upon entering manufacturing towns, on sales, 
on speculations, &c. 5. Sale of the monopoly of 
retail sale. In Indore the State has the monopoly of 
manufacturing rubba opium, an inferior kind prepared 
by extracting particles of the drug from the cloth bags 
in which the crude stuff has been brought to the 
manufacturing centres. The direct revenue from 
opium under all headings which must be taken into 
account in estimating the probable losses amounts to 
Es. 70,81,252. I have alluded pointedly to the un- 
certainty which attaches to estimates of opium 
produce, but the figures about direct revenue enjoyed 
by tbe States may, in most cases, be accepted as 
reliable. To some of the States the loss which a pro- 
hibition of cultivation and production must entail 
would be a very serious matter, not only to the 
exchequers of the Chiefs, but also to their cultivators. 
The compensation payable would have to be on a 
liberal scale, and claims would certainly be made, not 
only on behalf of cultivators compelled to raise less 
profitable crops, but also by traders, some of whom 
would be ruined, whilst others might be obliged to 











Rs. a 


• Price of crude opium 








368 


Stale duty - 








37 


Brokerage 








4 


Charity 








1 


Agency and conveyance charges 








6 14 


Cost of manulacture 








10 9 


Interest on capital Rs. 500 at G annas 


per 


cent. 


for 




18 months 








45 


Packing. &c. 








4 8 


Export duty 








18 2 



Total 



492 1 



t Note by witness : The following fifrures have since been 
received, showing the < xport of poppy seed from stations on 
the Hiijputrtria Mulwa Eailwsiy 
Do,, Indian Midland Railway 






* For this statement, see Appendix XI. 

825Sy. 



Total . . Mds. 2,201,100 

Representing a money value of Rs. 8,80,640. 

M 



no 



IXDTAK Ol-IUM CO.MMISSIOK : 



Lieut.-Col. U. 
Hobertson. 

6 Feb. 1894. 



transfer tneir business elsewlu're. None of the im- 
portant States are prepared to make a definite claim 
for compensation without an exhaustive inquiry which 
would probably enhance rather than lessen the present 
roughly-prepared estimate. This amounts roughly 
for cultivators to Es. 66,38,080, for merchants 
Es. 23.04,363, or, including the direct losses which 
would fall upon States, a grand total of Es. I,60,'.i3,695, 
a large portion of which would, for some years at any 
rate, be required as a yearly payment. This estimate 
does not include the sums expended on irrigation 
works, under which the opium cultivation is in ordi- 
nary seasons protected from drought, and which, were 
the growth of opium prohibited, would, it is asserted, 
yield an insignificant return on the capital exioeuditure. 
The Indore authorities assess this outlay at 
Rs. 33,000,000. The necessary investigation to deter- 
mine the exact amount of compensation payable under 
al 1 headings would take several months to complete ; 
it would even then be difficult to check the results 
arrived at, whilst attempts to curtail exaggerated 
claims would raise general discontent. Before quitting 
this section of my evidence I should perhaps allude to 
the charitable institutions and works of public utility 
which are maintained, not only by the opium merchants 
themselves, but also by the British Government out of 
the cesses levied on each chest. These comprise, on 
behalf of the merchants, a system of religious chari- 
ties ; and, on the part of G-overnmeut, a widespread 
scheme of affording gratuitous medical relief to the 
people, and of maintaining roads, which are of con- 
siderable public advantage, besides the support of 
schools. 

21,873. The next point is the propriety or practica- 
bility of enforcing in Jfative States the prohibition of 
cultivation and production except for medical purposes. 
What, in your view, would be the only justification for 
such a prohibition ? — I do not propose to discuss the 
question whether the British Government would have 
the right, under existing treaties or usage, to forbid 
the States to cultivate opium, but I may perhaps be 
justified in assuming that no such interference would 
be exercised until it had been conclusively demon- 
strated that the cultivation of the poppy in British 
India was, on general grounds, indefensible. In the 
course of my recent visits to the various States, I have 
had many opportunities of discussing the question 
with the chiefs concerned, as well as with their 
officials, merchants, and cultivators, and can claim to 
speak with some degree of certainty with respect to 
the popular feeling. There can be little doubt that 
any interference at all, even with liberal compensation, 
would be most unpopular, and the prevailing feeling 
is an utter inability to understand the raison d'etre or 
necessity for the present inqairy. No reasonable 
jjerson, whose perception of the proportion of things is 
not clouded by preconceived notions, can truthfully 
assert that there is any such general debauchery from 
the consumption of opium in Central India as might 
be held to ,]ustify special intervention ; more specially 
too, interference which, in the opinion of many people, 
would tend to ruin the country. There would be much 
difficulty, and no little danger of exciting a popular 
outbreak, in carrying prohibition into effect. The 
qualification about supplies for medical purposes is 
absolutely impracticable. There are neither licensed 
chemists, nor, with the exception of those educated 
under our system of medicine, very few of whom are 
to be found in Central India, qualified medical 
practitioners who could be considered competent to 
judge and certify whether a man took opium for his 
health's sake or merely as an indulgence. Anyone 
who can induce people to believe in his skill or occult 
power maybecome a medical practitioner, and aNative 
gentleman of Rewah informed me the other day that 
one of the most popular children's doctors in that 
locality was a scavenger, whose modus operandi, besides 
dispensing reputedly efiicacious prescriptions, was to 
make mystic signs before his patients with a broom. 



The Nawab of Jaora, a Mahomedau Chief, will, I hope, 
app?iir liel'ore the Koyal Commission ; and the evid.'uce 
recorded by the Mmister of Indore, under the heading 
" Political Danger," may be takan to represent in 
great part the sentiments of th:i Native public in 
reference to the proposal to prohibit tlie cultivation of 
opium. 

21,874. With regard to your last head, the otoppage 
of export through British India, our power to maintain 
the present arrangement rests, does it not, upon the 
geogi'aphical circumstance that wo hold the seaboard ? 
— Yes. There are no treaties or engagements now in 
force to regulate the transport of opium through British 
India, excepting an incidental reference to opium in 
the salt agreements with three States* under which 
they bind themselves to prohibit the export from their 
States of /./^ang', ganja, spirits, opium or other intoxi- 
cating drugs or preparations, by all routes, and in all 
directions heretofore barred by the Inland Customs 
line. The maintenance of the pi'esent arrangements 
rests mainly upon our possession of the seaboard, to 
which none of the States can have access, except by 
crossing our territory. Were we to forbid opium to be 
transported to Bombay, the result would probably be 
at first to stimulate consumption not only in the Native 
States, but also in the surrounding British districts. 
Opium is very portable, and it would practically be 
impossible to check smuggling even *vere the frontier 
carefully guarded. Sooner or later about two-thirds of 
the opium-growing land would be thrown out of culti- 
vation, or, if the cultivated area remained unchanged, 
as opium produced at the present rate would be unsale- 
able except at a low price, it would be necessary for the 
chiefs to reduce their assessments all round on irrigated 
land. In either case the result would be a considerable 
loss of revenue, which the Chiefs, who, as a rule, live 
well up to their incomes, could ill afford. They would 
naturally look to the British Government to compensate 
them, as well as their cultivators and their merchants. 
If this claim were rejected on the plea that we were 
under no engagement to allow opium to pass through 
our territory, much discontent would inevitably arise. 
The Chiefs would probably argue that to terminate 
arbitrarily and without compensation an arrangement 
which had been in force for many years, and to further 
which they had, so far as they were able, loyally 
co-operated, was a harsh measure, altogether at variance 
with the friendly relations and solicitude for their 
welfare which the supreme Government had always 
endeavoured to maintain. Moreover, a large preventive 
establishment would be necessary ; for the Chiefs are 
now acting with us, in the sense that their interests in 
opium are intermingled with ours, in recognition of 
which they pay for the establishments maintained at 
all scales, except Indore and Eutlam. It is well known 
even now that smuggling does exist, even though the 
Chiefs may wish to stop it. We could expect no 
sympathy or assistance under an altered arrangement, 
as the position would be entirely different when it came 
to be a question of hostile interests and our endeavour- 
ing to keep their opium out of British India. The 
dangers of spreading a network of necessarily under- 
paid subordinate officials, in the shape of a preventive 
establishment, over the country, to harass and extort 
money from the people, are too obvious to require 
elucidation. ^ Of the two evils, viz., prohibiting pro- 
duction in Native States, or stopping the transport of 
opium through British India, the latter would probably 
be the lesser,^ in that it would not give rise to any 
immediate and serious excitement among.st the people, 
such as might be caused were they to be deprived of 
what IS practically life to many of them. Butthe ellect 
as regards the discontent of Native Chiefs, and ulti- 
mately of their cultivators and merchants, would be 
nauch the same. In neither case would the meddlesome 
philanthropy which prompted our action be appreciated, 
or even understood, and the political consequences 
could hardly fail to be dangerous if not disastrous. 



* Gwalior, Datia, and Samtliar (in Bundelkhand). 



The witness withdrew. 



Brigade- 

Siuiji oii- 

Lieiit.-(]ol. 

D. F. Keegan, 

i\r. !>., 

F.R.C.S. 



Brigade-Surgeon Lieut.-Colonel D.F. Keegan, M.D., F.E.C.S., called in and examined. 
21,875. {Sir William liolerts.) You are Residency 



11,876. What opportunities have you had of studying 
the eHect of opium in the Malwa .States P — I have had 
nearly 28 yean-' Indian service, 25 of -nhich hare been 



passed m Central India ; have Ijeen through Afo'han 
war m medical charge of Central India Horse, in wliioh 
regiment there are a large number of Sikhs and have 
superintended the Charitable Hospital, Indore for 13 
yoar5. The daily averge number of in-patieuts in this 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



91 



hospital, varies betwep.n 160 and 190, the number of 
out-patients is about 150 daily. I have therefore had 
ample opportunities of becoming intimately acquainted 
wi-th the customs of the natives of this part of this 
country, and their prevailing diseases. 

21.877. Have you reason to believe that opium eating 
is common in these districts ? — Opium eaters constitute 
a very considerable percentage of adult males — between 
20 and 30 of the population of Malwa and Central 
India. Amongst the Ifa^jputs opium assumes the 
position in social life and ceremonials accorded to alcohol 
in other countries. 

21.878. For what purpose is the opium habit 
generally commenced P — The purposes for which the 
opium habit is contracted are to alleviate rheumatic 
pains ; to cure chronic dysentery and diarrhoea ; to 
act as a prophylactic against malarial fever ; to cure 
diabetes ; and it is often taken as an aphrodisiac. 

21.879. What is your own personal impression, as to 
the effect of the moderate use of opium P — The 
moderate use of small daily doses of opium, is of 
benefit in the diseases I have mentioned, and enables 
men to undergo prolonged muscular exertion on a 
small allowance of food. Its moderate use is neither 
immoral, degrading nor injurious ; nor does its moderate 
use cause any mental, general or physical deterioration 
of those who consume it. 

21.880. I suppose it is scarcely possible to define in 
figures, what is a moderate iise P — It is extremely 
difficult. 

21.881. Have you had any experience of opium 
smoking in this part of India? — It is very uncommon, 
taking into consideration the vast population. 

21.882. Have you observed that there is much diflS- 
culty in diminishing the quantity of the opium eaters, 
daily allowance or in stopping the use altogether ? — I 
find that the reduction of an opium eater's daily 
allowance is neither diflionlt nor infrequent. I found 
that out from my po.sition as Superintendent of the 
jail at Indore. 

21.883. What have you learnt with regard to the 
giving of opium to infants P — Opium is given to a very 
large percentage of the infant population of the 
province of Malwa and Central India generally. In 
Malwa this practice of giving opium is generally 
begun when the child is 12 or 14 days old ; that 
between 80 and 90 per cent, of the infant population 
of Malwa gets opium soon after birth ; that it is given 
to the children of both rich and poor ; that the dose 
of opium thus administered, is at first about -J of a 
grain, a bit of opium, the size of a mustard seed, twice 
or threi,- times daily ; that the dose is gradually in- 
creased until the child takes about two grains of opium 
daily ; that this practice is continued until the child 
reaches the age of Sg or o years, and that then the 
child is gradually weaned from the use of opium. 
Opium is thus administered to all castes in Malwa, 
with the exception of the children of Bohras, i.e., 
Musalmans of the Shia sect. The parents assert that 
opium thus administered keeps their children happy 
and contented, and prevents them from crying, and 
that it acts as a prophylactic against capillary bron- 
chitis, diarrhcsa, and other infantile disorders. In my 
experience this practice of giving opium to children 
in Malwa exercises no injurious effects on their 
health. 

21,88 1. Do you think it would be practicable to pro- 
hibit the growth of the poppy and the manufacture of 
opinm p — It would, in my oijinion, be quite impractica- 
ble to prohibit the growth of the poppy, and manufacture 
and sale of opium except for medical purposes, among 
Native States, and such prohibition, even if possible, 
would entail great hardshiji and suffering on the 
inhiihitants of Malwa and Central India. 

21,SS5. Have you been h.il to recognise that there is 
a ditlevence of tolerance between the natives of IndiR, 
and ICuropeans with regard to opium ? — I think there 
is a difl'erence, the natives tolerate it better, for 
climatic reopons. 

21.886. You put ' it down to . the climate ? — Not 
only the climate, .but th^ general surroundings, 
clothing, &i:. 

21.887. You have stated that the practice of taking 
opium is almost universal ; has it occurred to you that 
the greater tolerance of the natives of India for opium 
is pailly induced by the giving of opium to infants, 
that an unusual tolerance is caused in that way, and 



that that tolerance survives until they begin to take 
opium again when they are 25, 35 or 40 ? — I do not 
think so, because the child is weaned from the use of 
opium when he is three years of age. 

21.888. You think the taking of opium again has 
nothing to do with having had it when they were 
children ? — No. 

21.889. You do not think there would be any effect 
left on the constitution ." — That would be a very diffi- 
cult question to answer. 

21.890. You have not formed an opinion on that? — 
No. 

21.891. Have you seen any evil results from the 
practice of giving opium to infants ? — No. 

21.892. Not single examples ? — No. 

21.893. Have you seen anything in the nature of an 
accidental dose being given ? — Yes, I have seen children 
poisoned by being given large doses. 

21.894. The mothers gave them too much ? — Very 
likely the mothers left the box containing the opium 
near the children and they got it and ate it. 

21.895. That would be a pure accident ? — Yes. 

21.896. Are the mothers very skilful in the use of 
opiiim ? — Yes. 

21.897. You have not seen any ill effects from the 
practice itself ? — No. 

21.898. You have not seen marasmus caused by the 
practice ? — Isl o. 

21.899. Are you in a position to say that you have a 
sufficiently intimate knowledge of the mothers and 
children in these pai'ts to detect such examples if they 
occurred ? — I think so. I superintend one of the 
largest native hospitals out of Bombay or Calcutta. I 
am at the hospital for many hours during the day, and 
I see native children brought to the hospital every day. 
I have had a very large experience. 

21.900. Is it a fact that the Musalmans of the (Shia 
sect do not take opium p — I do not think any Bohras 
take it. 

21.901. You think opium does act beneficially and 
prophylactically in malarial fever? — Yes. 

21.902. That is a conviction which has grown up in 
your mind ? — Yes. 

21.903. You cannot give us any facts beyond the 
impression? — No, I cannot. 

21.904. Is malaria prevalent in these States ? — Yes. 

21.905. You think the use of opium as a domestic 
remedy is practically universal ? — I'es. 

21.906. You mean that there is a little opium kept in 
every house ? — Yes. 

21.907. {Mr. Fanshawe). You say opium is often 
taken as an aphrodisiac, I suppose that would be among 
the younger men? — Not always, sometimes the older 
men use it for this purpose when their powers are 
failing. 

21.908. Do a large number of consumers take it for 
that purpose ? — No, it is only taken occasionally for 
that, I think. 

21.909. {Sir William Boherts.) Is opium much 
believed in in this part of India as an aphrodisiac ? — 
Yes. 

81.910. There are a great many things taken as 
aphrodisiacs, and opium is one of them ? — Yes. 

21.911. {Mr. Mowbray.) Is there much opium con- 
sumed by women in this part of India ? — Yes, a large 
quantity, not so much, of course, as amongst the males. 

21.912. You say the proportion of adult males who 
take opium is 20 to 30 per cent., can you give any pro- 
portion with regard to the women ? — I should say about 
10 per cent, of the women take it. 

21.913. Do they take it in old age or when ? — About 
35 years of age. 

21.914. Is a woman who takes it regarded as worse 
than any other woman? — No. 

21.915. Do you mean among respectable classes of 
women P — Among all classes, in this part .of Western 
Malwa , especially. 

21.916. "WTieu you speak of the population of Malwa 
what aiea do you include ? — The Western States under 
the Central Indian Agency. 

^' 2 



Brigade- 
Surgeon 
Lieut.-Col. 
D. F. Keegan, 
M:D., 
F.R CS. 

6 Feb. 1894. 



92 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Briyade- 21,917. (Mr Wilson) Yon have referred to opium 

Surgeon being taken as a prophylactic against fever, do you 

Lieut.-Col. believe in it yourself as a prophylactic against fever P — 

D. F. Keegan, I believe in it, and I know the people take it for that 

M.D., reason. 

I» 7> y^ o 

' 21,918. Do you prescribe it for that purpose? — I 

6 Feb. 1894. occasionally do, not very often. 
'■ — 21,919. To Europeans or natives P — Only to natives. 

21.920. You referred to the taking of opium enabling 
men to undergo prolonged exertion on a small allow- 
ance of food, do you mean that is an occasional or an 
habitual thing P — Habitual among the old men. The 
old men take a certain quantity of opium and it enables 
them to do as hard a day's work as their sons. 

21.921. Would you say that the habit of taking opium 
was a desirable one for a young man who was not 
suffering from any disease ? — No, not for a young man 
who had no disease. 

21.922. You do not think the moderate use causes 
any deterioration P — No, so far as I have been able to . 
recognise. 

22.923. Do yon regard it as an insidious drug, 
tending to cause a de.sire to increase the dose ? — No, 
excepting in certain cases. Amongst a certain number 
there will be one or two perhaps who go to excess. 

21.924. You would not say there was any danger of 
it tending to make the consumer increase his dose P — 
No. 

21.925. Under what circumstances do opium eaters 
reduce their daily allowance ? — I referred to compulsory 
reduction when a man is put in jail. 

21.926. You refer particularly to prisoners P — Yes. 

21.927. Taking the case of a man at large is it diffi- 
cult for him, with opium within reach, to give up the 
habit p — I do not think he would like to give up the 
habit. It is very rarely he discontinues the habit 
voluntarily. 

21.928. Do you think the children of the Musalmans 
of the Shia sect sufier in any respect for want of it p — 
As a matter of fact they happen to be the most 
unhealthy children in this part of the country. The 
Bohras as a rule in this part of the country are most 
unhealthy. 

21.929. I refer to children p— The children of the 
Musalmans of the Shia sect are the most unhealthy 
children, whether it is through not taking opium I do 



not know, but as a matter of fact the children of the 
Bohras are very unhealthy. 

21,930. You do not say it is because they do not take 
opium that they are unhealthy p — No. 

21,9.31. Do you have a large number of native 
children come under your notice ? — Yes. 

71.932. In what way ? — At the hospital which I 
superintend ; it is a very large hospital, the daily 
average number of in patients is between 160 and 190 
and there are a large number of out patients. 

21 .933. We have heard frequently of this habit of 
giving opium to children, can you suggest any 
reason why children in England or any other country 
should not be given it as well here? — None, except 
that it is the result of cumulative experience. 
People find out it is a good thing to give their children 
opium ; it is a habit that has descended for many 
hundreds of years. 

21.934. The fact that it stops crying is not always 
considered an advantage. You would not like to see 
it extended in England for that purpose p — I do not 
know, perhaps it would be a good thing if it prevented 
the children from crying so much. 

21,93.5. Do you think it would be a good thing p — I 
would not go so far as that, but I have stated that the 
natives use it for' that purpose. That is only one of 
the reasons. A peasant woman who has to work in the 
fields gives her child some opium and puts him in a 
basket in the corner of the hut, or perhaps she takes 
the child with her to the field, puts him in a small 
basket and gives him a little opium to keep him quiet. 
She also gives the baby opium to ward off certain 
diseases. The natives in this part of the country 
believe it is a prophylactic against capillary bronchitis 
and other diseases. 

21.936. You would not like to see it extended to 
England for that purpose ? — I have not considered 
that. 

21.937. What is your opinion ? — I should say it would 
be a good thing to stop a child crying at any time. 

21.938. {Chairman.) Not by administering opium ? — I 
gathered from an answer to a question put by Mr. Wilson 
that you did not recommend the giving of opium to 
children at home P — I do not think it is necessary to 
give it in Europe. 

21.939. (Sir William BoherU.) You would require to 
be assured that the tolerance for opium would be the 
same as in India, the cases are different?— Yes. 



The witness withdrew. 



Surgeon-Major Dane called in and examined. 



Surgeon- 21,940. {Sir William Roberts.) You are Agency Sur- 

Major Dane, geon at Bhopal p — Yes. 

^"~ 21,941. What service have you had in India? — I have 

nearly 19 years' service, of which 13 have been in Cen- 
tral India. I also served in Afghanistan in 1879 and 
1880, and saw the effects of opium on Sikh and other 
sepoys. 

21.942. What has been your position for the last 10 
years? — For the past 10 years I have been in charge 
of the Bhopal Battalion, which contains about 170 
Sikhs, many of whom take opium daily, without any 
bad effects ; also as agency surgeon I spend some three 
months in the district every year visiting dispensaries 
and inspecting vaccination work, and thus have very 
ample opportunities of conversing with natives of all 
classes. I have always understood that a very large 
percentage of the cultivating classes take daily doses 
of opium without any bad effects ; that all classes use 
it as a prophylactic against fevers and dysentery in the 
rainy season. 

21.943. What impression have you gathered as to the 
effects of opium ? — That opium in small doses acts as a 
powerful stimulant there is no doubt, and under its 
use men are able to bear fatigue, and get through an 
amount of physical exertion they would otherwise 
never accomplish. It also allays the pangs of hunger, 
and some say of thirst. 

21.944. Have you had any experience of opium 
smoking in these districts P — Opium is but little 
smoked by the cultivating classes, but there is no 
doubt that in Bhopal itself, as in other large cities, 
many men do smoke, and also take the drug in othor 



ways in excess ; but these persons are only a smal I 
percentage of the population, and are usually men who 
have commenced to take the drug to allay pain, such 
as they suffer in the tertiary stages of syphilis from 
rheumatism, &c. They are usually the classes which 
correspond to the gin-drinking population of England. 

21.945. In what other way is opium used in the 
Bajput States P — Also opium is used in excess by the 
wealthier Rajputs, whose drink of amal pani or 
Tcasumbha represents the excessive consumption of 
alcohol by the habitual drunkard. Amongst them the 
principal effect that I have observed from the abuse 
of the drug is, that they become sterile, and I have 
had many applications from such men to ask why they 
cannot beget children. This fact many persons, con- 
sidering the over-population of India, would look upon 
as very much in favour of opium consumption . 

21.946. Have you gathered any impression as to the 
feeling of the people with regard to the prohibition of 
the growth of poppy ? — I am at present touring in my 
districts, and on every side the people are in a terrible 
state of mind regarding the idea of the cultiration of 
opium being stopped, as, letting alone the benefits 
that they consider accrue from its consumption, it is 
the crop that pays the cultivator's rent. The land 
where it usually is cultivated is also damp, low-lying 
land, with heavy soil and not suited for the growth of 
other crops. 

21.947. What is your general impression as to the 
good or evil effects of the opium habit in these parts P 
— From what I know of the general use of opium in 
these parts, I can confidently state that any evils which 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



93 



may arise from its abuse are fifty times over compen- 
sated for by the benefits it confers, letting alone the 
disturbing effects that any attempt to interfere with 
its cultivation would have on the temper of the popu- 
lation, and the enormous pecuniary losses they would 
sustain. 

21.948. May I take it that you have had a suffi- 
ciently intimate acquaintance with the opinm habit, 
in regard to children, to enable you to say whether 
it is commonly given to infants? — A.mong the people 
in the Bhopal State it certainly is common. All the 
people except the Bohras give it to their children in 
infancy. 

21.949. Have you observed any ill effects from the 
practice P — I have frequently seen children overdosed, 
and I have also seen children given opinm much in the 
same way as the mothers at home give them gin. Their 
mothers cannot nourish them and they give them ex- 
cessive quantities of opium. 

21.950. Have yon seen the soporific effect of the 
opium habit P — Yes, and marasmus as well. 

21.951. How did you distinguish the cases of maras- 
mus in these children from the marasmus we have 
at home, from indigestion and so forth p— Generally 
by the confession of the mothers themselves. On en- 
quiring from them I found they had been giving larger 
quantities of opium to the children than was the cus- 
tom of the country. 

21.952. You distinguish between the 'post hoc and the 
propter hoc ? — I ask the mothers of the children how 
much opium they give them, whether they give them 
a rati a day, and the answer will probably be that they 
give them three or four ratis. 

21,963. You came to the conclusion that it was from 
taking opium because you found the quantity given 
them was excessive ? — Yes, the mother probably had 
not sufficient milk for the child, and so she gave him 
an extra dose of opium to keep him quiet. 

21.954. Have you found that the diminution or 
cessation of the practice of giving opium causes the 
children to recover P — I cannot say. When we have a 
native child as a patient we only see him once perhaps, 
and after that lose sight of him altogether or at any 
rate do not see him for weeks. 

21.955. So that you are not able to apply a crucial 
test P — No. 

21.956. You have a great many infants pass under 
your notice, almost all of whom have been given opium. 
Can you give me any idea how frequently the cases 
which you considered were marasmus occurred p — One 
or two cases in a month . 

21.957. Do you call that a large proportion? how 
many children would come under your notice within a 
month ? — I am only speaking of sick children brought 
to me for that purpose. 

21,968. You could not say whether they have 
recovered or aot ? — No, because it is not like an 
English dispensary where you see your patients every 
day. Perhaps you might see them a week afterwards, 
perhaps not all. 

21.959. Are these Sikhs very moderate consumers P 
— The Sikh sepoy who takes it, as a rule takes about 
three grains as a dose. He only takes one dose unless 
he has somelhing arduous to do and then he takes two, 
once at morning and once ai night. 

21.960. Are they habitual consumers? — Some of them 
are, but the men I have come across only take it when 
there is an actual need for it. 

21.961. The amal pani of the Eajputs you say is 
used for the purpose of intoxication only on ceremonial 
occasions and in a very small quantity P — My experience 
of the people — I see a great deal of these Eajput chiefs 
— is that they have regular parties to drink the amal 
pani. They meet at each other'.s houses and issue 
invitations to each other. 

21.962. Something like the wine parties at home ? — 
Yes, like a wine party at college. 

21.963. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Do I understand you to say 
that it is common among the wealthier Rajputs to take 
cmial pani to excess p — Yes, among the men I have come 
across. 



21,964. Do you mean the Thakurs P— Yes, large land- 
holders. 



Surgeon- 
Major Dane. 



21,965. You think that the habit of taking amal ~ — 



2Mni to excess is common amongst them ? Yes. My 

experience of the men I have met leads me to that 
conclusion. 

21.966. (Mr. Wilson.) You have used the expression 
" I havo always understood." Do I gather from that 
that it is only your general impression, or have you 

made special inquiries with regard to this method P I 

travel in the districts in the cold weather for three 
months. I know the natives. I converse with them, 
and they have always led me to understand that it is a 
common custom. 

21.967. You have spoken about opium parties. Do 
those parties result in intoxication ?— I do not say the 
whole party becomes intoxicated, but the daily drinker 
of amal pani becomes almost " muzzy " from taking 
it. 

21.968. You would not be surprised to hear that some 

of these guests become unconscious from taking it P 

No, just the same as it happens sometimes with guests 
at home. 

21.969. Do I understand that in the district where 
you have been touring poppy is regarded as a distinctly 
profitable crop P— Yes, certainly it is a crop that pays ; 
it is not very difficult to cultivate, and they get their 
money sooner. 

21.970. Has the acreage under poppy in that district 
fallen off during the last few years P — I do not think so. 
The cultivation all depends on the tanks from which 
they irrigate the land. 

21.971. It depends upon whether there is pleiity of 
water ? — Yes ; if there has been a good rainfall you 
will have an increase of land under poppy. If the 
tanks are full and there is plenty of water to be ootained 
the cultivators will put as much land under poppy as 
they possibly can. 

21.972. On the other hand, if there were no water 
they would not grow poppy?— No. They could not 
grow it without water. 

21.973. Did you say that the Sikh soldiers only took 
a grain or two of opium at the time p — I think three 
grains is the dose. The ordinary small dose is about 
three grains. 

21.974. Did I understand you to say that the mothers 
give their children 3 or 4 ratis? — I said during the day 
those are the cases where the children have shown that 
they have had an excessive quantity. In that case they 
have been given up to 7 or 8 grains in the day. 

21.975. How many infants under 2 or 3 years of age 

would you see at the dispensary during the month p I 

only see one or two. They would be brought simply for 
me to see them. The ordinary routine work of the dis- 
pensary is done by the hospital assistant, and these are 
only cases which he brings to me for consultation. I 
don't see every case that comes to the hospital. It is only 
certain cases that the hospital assistants would bring to 
show me. 

21.976. Do you think the habitual taking of opium is a 
good thing for a man in good health ? — I certainly would 
not take it myself, or recommend any other European to 
take it, but it has grown up here as a custom. The 
ordinary moderate consumption has no evil effect, but 
I would not recommend anybody to commence the habit, 
nor would I commence it myself. 

21.977. You would not recommend either a European 
or a native to take it p — Except in eases where there are 
no other drugs available. 

21.978. I am not speaking of cases of ill health P — As a 
custom I would certaiuly not recommend it. 

21.979. {Mr. Mowbray.) We are sometimes told that 
opium is much worse than alcohol because it is so 
insidious that people cannot resist going to excess with 
it. In youi- opinion is there a greater probability of a 
person going to excess with opium than with alcohol ? 
— I think a weak-minded man who takes alcohol is more 
likely to go to excess in that than a weak-minded man 
who takes opium. 



6 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



M 3 



94 



INDIAN 111 lUM COMMISSION 



Surgeon 

Lieut.-Col. 

M. Caldecott. 

6 Feb. 1894. 



Surgeon-Lieut. -Colonel E. Caldecoit called in and examined. 



21.980. {Sir William Boherts.) Will you tell us your 
present position and what ojiportunities you have had 
of studying the effects of taking opium in these parts ? 
— I have had 24^ years' service, 22 of which have been 
passed in Malwa, the greater part of which time I have 
been in charge of the Cientral India Horse, and the 
Political Agency of Western Malwa. The Central 
India Horse in largely composed of Sikhs, a large pro- 
portion of whom are opium consumers. My civil 
medical duties have brought me in daily contact with 
I he cultivating classes in Malwa, who are all more or 
less opium eaters. I have also acted as Beeidency 
Surgeon at Indore on odd occasions since 1877, in alt 
for about three and a half to four years, and at those 
times held charge of the hospital with its constant 
daily attendance of about 300. 

21.981. What has been the result of your experience 
as to the prevalence of the habit of using opium in these 
parts p — I know very little about it ; of course, I know 
that there are opium eaters . One hears of such a thing 
but it has never come under my notice in any way. It 
is only since I was told I should be called as a witness 
that I have made inquiries about it. 

21.982. How long ago was that ? — About four 
mouths. 

21.983. What have you learnt in that time ? — It is 
very difficult to get auy evidence which coincides ; you 
get different evidence from different people. I have 
found that probably nearly 50 per cent, of the adult 
males of the population eat opium. A very small per- 
centage smoke it ; those who do are mostly fakirs, and 
people about the temples. It is very generally used by 
agriculturists and by all those engaged in trades 
involving exposure. I should say that the average 
daily consumption of a confirmed consumer i.s between 
30 to 40 grains. The price of SO grains is two pice, 
but the poorest of the agriculturist class are able to get 
opium by working in the fields and being paid in kind, 
and they are also allowed to go into the fields after the 
opium has been gathered in the same way as the 
gleaners at home in England. 

21.984. What is a tola in this district P — About three 
drachms. 

21.985. What is the age at which they begin to use 
opium P — I believe that as a, rule the men do not begin 
to use opium until they reach the age of about 3.j or 40. 
My knowledge has only been gained since I have 
been told I should be asked to appear before this 
Commission. 

21.986. The matter had not intruded itself upon 
your notice at all P — Not in any way. It is compara- 
tively rare for young men to use it ; rheumatism is 
often the cause of their commencing to eat opium ; 
and the younger men are not so liable to attacks of 
rheumatism as the older men are. Malaria and 
dysentery are also the cause of men taking opium ; 
there is no doubt that all the natives of these parts 
have a very firm belief in the efficacy of this drug, not 
only as an alleviating remedy during the disease, but 
also as a prophylactic. As .to its power to promote 
endurance of great exertion, I can speak with confi- 
dence from my own observation. This is the only 
thing I can speak of from my personal knowledge. 
During the 22 years of my service in Central India 1 
have known men working as shikaris who have been 
capable of really wonderful feats of endurance, who in 
the hot weather months would go out beating in the 
jungles during all the hottest part of the day, would 
march 15 to 20 miles that night, and do the same thing 
day and night duiing the months of April and May ; 
these men were all confirmed opium eaters ; most of 
these men have lived to a good old age, and, as far as 
I have seen, have been able to work the same as before, 
almost up to the end. I am of opinion that all the 
men who work in the way these do are opium oater.s, 
and that it is by the use of opium alone that they are 
able to do it for years and y(iars as they do. 

21,987. Have yon had any practical experience of 
the kassumba ijiaclice P — None at all, except what 
people have tuld me. I am told that the practice is 
very common, Imt it is not a thing that is taken to any 
excess as far an I can make out. It is a kind of greeting 
cup at receptions, or on arrival of guests. Kasumbha 
is prepared by dissolving about one tolah (three drums) 
of opium in about half an ounce to one ounce of cold 
water ; after dissolving, it is filtered and is generally 



distributed by dipping a piece of cotton into the 
mixture and squeezing it into the palm of the guest's 
hand. 

21.988. What have you been told about the giving of 
opium, to infants ? — It is commonly given by all classes 
except, I believe, the Bohras. It is certainly given by 
the lower classes, but not, so far as I know, by the 
upper classes. It is only those who cannot afford to 
remain with iheir children or to hire anyone to look 
after them. Children are generally given it up to one 
and a half to two grains. About a quarter to a half 
grain is used ordinarily. I do not know of any case where 
deleterious effects have been produced by its use. 
There is no difficulty in weaning the child from the 
use of opium, as a rule. Sometimes it is done 
gradually, but, as a rule, at once. It generally causes 
some diarrhoea, but this only lasts for a few days, and 
after it ceases, no further trouble occurs. 

21.989. It is used externally ; — The only decoction 
made from poppy heads is that made in our own hospitals 
and used combined with camomile as a local application 
to relieve pain. 

21.990. Is it given to animals ? — Certainly not. 
Opium is not k?iowu to be given to horses, camels or 
bullocks in these parts. 

21.991. What is your general view as to the use of 
opium in these parts P— I am perfectly certain opium 
staves off the pangs of hunger, and also that it is largely 
used for this purpose by the poorer classes during their 
constantly recurring periods of scarcity and want. 
Opium eating is said at first to increase the appetite ; 
the opium eater is said to live as well as he can; he 
eats several meals and drinks large f^uantities of milk, 
and generally looks no thinner than others. The 
poorer classes who cannot afford to do so are said to be 
thinner and to have smaller appetites than others ; but 
even amongst that class it is quite impossible to point 
out opium eaters by their appearance. I have no 
reason to think any opium cater dies sooner than any 
one else. I have known many of great age. If required 
to I could bring middle aged habitual moderate eaters 
of opium for inspection. There is one woman who is 
known as Subadar's widow. She lives at Goona and 
she eats from six to eight ounces of opium at one 
time. 

21.992. Do you mean solid opium .' — Tes. 

21.993. She is absolutely insensible to it ? — Absolutely. 
If she had been offered enough of opium to eat on the 
way she would have come before this Commission for 
nothing else. The case of eating six ounces occurred 
in the time of Surgeon-Major Lowdell. I was not 
there at the time. That is only an occasional thing, but 
she takes an enormous quantity. 

21.994. These are only facts of natural history, and 
are not really concerned with the opium habit?— 
No. 

21.995. {Mr.^ Wilson.) With regard to the giving 
of opium to children, why do they stop giving opium to 
them at the age of two or three ?— My acquaintance 
with this matter is not \ cry intimate, but I suppose it 
is because they are old enough to be left. I imao-ine 
the main reason why they give opium to the chikb-enis 
to enable them to go to work and to keep the child 
quiet. The women here are quite as much the bread- 
winners of the family as the men, they work quite 
as much as the men. 

21.996. You say that opium caters are said to live as 
well as they can — do not most people? — Yes, but the 
lower classes do not get much chance in this country. 

21.997. What did you mean liy the phrase ?— They 
take large quantities of milk and fattening thinn-s. 
They are great sugar-eaters. ' " 

21.998. I su]5pose you mean the same as wc have 
heard in other places, that it is highly desirable for an 
opium cater to have plenty of nourishment to prevent 
tl]e effects of opium P — I think so, more or less It 
improves their appetite. 

21.999. You have mentioned that vou could brino- 
opium eaters he-e for our inspection, I'suppose it would 
be quite possible to bring a great many stout opium 
caters ai.d a great many thin ones ?— Yes, but I do not 
think you can ]iick out opium eaters by their apiicar- 
anoe. 1 am speaking of the men of my regiment whom 
I know. 



MlNtJl'MS. Oi' EVIDENCE., 



95 



'^2,000. Itou would not doubt that it is possible to 
pick out thin ones as 'trell as stout ones ? — I do not 
think opium has any effect one way or the other. 

22.001. {Mr. Mowbray.) Have yoa any special infor- 
mation to give us with regard to the men of the Central 
India Horse ; have you made any special inquiries P — 1 
have, but it is exceedingly difficult to find out because 
they tell you what they think you want. 

22.002. What class of m.en form your regiment p — We 
have six troops of Sikhs and four troops of Eangars in 
the two regiments. 

22.003. Where do the Eangars come from p — Prom 
Eohtak and Delhi. They are the converted Eajputs, the 
Eajputs who became Musalmans. We have also two 
troops of border men, Pathans, Tewanas, and men like 
that, and also two troops of Hindus. 



22.004. Have you been able to get any facts which 
you consider worth telling the Commission P— I really 
have not. As a rule the men do not take to opium in 
their early service as far as I can make out. Some of 
the men whom they loll me are confirmed opium-eaters 
are among the best men in their regiments, but there 
are very few men who eat any large quantity. 

22.005. I suppose it is exceptional to have a man in 
the ranks after 40 years of age ? — Yes, 21 years service 
is the length as a rule. 

22.006. Tou never have had any difficulty arising 
fi'om the use of opium ? — Never. If it interfered with 
a man's duty he would be brought up at once. No case 
has ever come before me. 



The witness withdrew. 
Adjourned till to-morrow at 11 o'clock. 



At the Holkar College Hall, Indore. 



SIXTY-FIFTH DAY. 



Wednesday, 7th February 1894. 



(Section A.) 



Surgeon 

Lieut.-Col. 

R. Caldecott. 

6 Feb. 1894, 



PEESENT : 

The Eight Hon. LOED BEASSBY, K.O.B., Chairman, peesiding. 



Sir William Egberts, M.D., F.E.S. 
The Hon. Sir Laohhmeswar Sing-h, Bahadur, K.C.I.B., 
Maharaja of Darbhanga. 



Mr. E. G. C. Mowbray, M.P. 
Mr. A. U. Fanshawe. 
Mr. H. J. Wilson, M.P. 

Mr. J. Pkescott Hewett, C.I.E., Secretary. 



Surgeon-Major Gimlette, M.D., called in and examined. 



22.007. {Sir W. Roherts.) I believe you are tutor to His 
Highness the Maharaja of Eewa and Agency Surgeon 
Baghelkhand p— Yes. 

22.008. Your experience is derived from five years' 
service with native regiments either entirely or partly 
composed of Sikhs and nine years' service in native 
States ? — Yes. 

12.009. What was your experience among the Sikh 
soldiers P — Almost all the Sikhs in infantry regiments, 
and a smaller proportion in cavalry regiments, are 
moderate opium-eaters. I never saw a soldier who 
suffered in the very slightest, either physically or 
morally, from the drug, or know of a case in which the 
dose was gradually increased to the stage of excessive 
consumption. Native soldiers occasionally increase 
their daily dose when called on to undergo any excessive 
exertion or privation, but this increase is never, in my 
experience, permanent, and is discontinued as soon as 
the occasion for it has passed. Sikhs look on opium as 
a harmless and necessary stimulant, a substitute for 
tobacco, which they do not use. In moderation, this is 
what I believe it to be, and nothing else. 

22.010. Is the opium habit widespread amongst the 
population of the native States of Central India? — 
Among the population of the native States of Central 
India opium-eating and smoking is a tolerably wide- 
spread habit. The proportion of people who use opium 
varies greatly in different .districts, being much higher 
in the more malarious and unhealthy parts than in the 
more fortunately situated villages and towns. Thus, 
in the city of Eewa, containing 22,000 inhabitants. 



there are 500 consumers of opium or 2'27 per cent. In 
Sutna, with 6,760 inhabitants, there are 169 or 2'49 per 
cent., while in the low hills and intervening valleys the 
proportion rises to five or six per cent., and higher. In 
one range of hills inhabited by a scanty population, 
composed mainly of Kols and Baigas, known as the 
Maikal Pahar, 90 per cent, of the population are said to 
use opium. 

22.011. How were these different statistics obtained ? 
— The statistics of the population were obtained from 
the last census taken two years ago. 

22.012. How did you ascertain the number of opium- 
eaters p — I ascertained it by getting the persons who 
purchased opium counted daily at the licensed shops 
for a week or ten days at Eewa, Sutna and also in some 
of the larger villages. In other places I was obliged to 
go by hearsay, having no opportunities of counting. 

22.013. I suppose throughout the percentages mean 
the percentages of the adult males P — Yes. 

22.014. What is your impression as to the effect of 
opium on the population ? — For the greater part of the 
year the climate of these regions is a very trying one, 
and diseases due to it, such as malarial fevers, with 
their sequels of enlarged spleens, rheumatic pains and 
chronic headaches, dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, colic 
and disordered digestion, chronic bronchitis and 
emphysema, are the bane of the ill-nourished and 
scantily-olothed inhabitants. While their one available 
antidote ia opium, to deprive them of it would be an 
act of the most cruel inhumanity. The drug is of the 
highest value in the treatment of the above-named 

M 4 



Surg.-Maj, 

Gimlette, 

M.D. 

7 Feb. 1894. 



96 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



diseases: on this point there cannot be the smallest 
possible doubt. 

22.016. From what you have told us opium must be 
regarded as a household medicine P — Yes. 

22,01t>. Have you had any experience of habitual 
consumers of opium ? — I have recently examintd up- 
wards of a hundred habitual consumers of opium, and 
have at hand notes of their cases and appearance. 
These persons are inhabitants of diiferent parts of the 
Rewa State. Nine were prisoners, convicted of theft, 
in the Rewa Gaol, which bad ou the day I made my 
observations a strength of 226 prisoners, a proportion 
of but 3'39 per cent. Of the nine, five only eat opium, 
four smoke it al^o. These prisoners' doses had been 
gradually reduced from the time of their entering the 
gaol, without injury to their health, any ailments from 
which they suffered having been treated in the gaol 
hospital. In a few cases it was found impossible to 
altfigether discontinue the drug, persistent diarrhcea 
resulting from want of it. Excepting the nine prisoners 
the remainder were all well-conducted members of 
society. Of 100 cases 77 eat opium, or swallow it mixed 
with water ; 8 both eat and smoke it ; 15 only smoke it. 
The only persons among them whose appearance led to 
the conclusion that they had suffered physically were a 
very small number of the excessive eaters, and perhaps 
half of the smokers. As regards the rest, with 14 
years' almost daily experience of natives of India as 
hospital patients, 1 could not have recognized them as 
consumers of opium. 

22.017. Do you mean opium-smokers or opium-eaters ? 
—Both. 

22.018. Tou do not distinguish between the effects of 
the two forms ? — I have not made any distinction, it is 
a question of degree. 

l!2,019. How is the habit of opium usine generally 
commenced P — In 81 of the whole number of cases the 
habit was commenced on account of illness, and to 
relieve suffering ; 19 either gave no reason or stated 
that they were led to commence it by the force of 
example. The great majority affirmed that they had 
consumed their present dose for many years ; that they 
were not increasing it. Many declared that they had 
largely diminished their original dose. 

22.020. Have you met with any cases of excessive and 
injurious effects of opium eating ? — I know of a certain 
number of debauched persons belonging to the higher 
classes who consume opium in great excess, with 
lamentable results. I consider, however, their cases 
exceptional and entirely outside the question. 

22.021. Had you intimate knowledge of those persons P 
— Yes, fairly intimate knowledge. 

22.022. What were the results you noted as to the 
effect of excessive consumption of opium amongst these 
higher classes p — The results were both physical and 
mental deterioration, more particularly the latter ; they 
become entirely unfit to carry on their business. These 
cases are few, but the results are very marked. 

22.023. Do they become emaciated P — Yes, thin and 
dried up. 

22.024. Did you notice that there was a somnolence, 
a dulnesB and stupidity about them ? — Yes, marked. 

22.025. Are you aware whether any organic disease 
arose in them ? — -None, as far as I know. 

22.026. Did you see many of these excessive con- 
sumers who were able to throw ofi' the habit and 
reform P — The cases I refer to are quite a small number. 
I have not known of any instance in which they have 
been able to throw off the habit. 

22.027. I presume you would compare those cases to 
the case of drunkards in our own country P — Yes. The 
comparison would not quite apply, because they form 
such a small proportion. 

22.028. Have yon had medical care of cases seeking 
your aid for the ailments produced by the excessive use 
of opium P — I have never had under nay care a person 
suffering from over-indulgence in opium, nor do I 
believe that such excess, although in some cases 
undoubtedly enfeebling to both mind and body, tends 
to shorten life. During the last 10 years the popula- 
tion of Rewa has increased, and during the same period 
the consumption of opium has increased also. The 
State being under superintendence, the census was 
accurately taken. 

22.029. How was the increased consumption of opium 
ascertained F — By the accounts opium is a State monopoly. 



22.030. Was the increase beyond the increase of the 
population ? — I think not ; the total quantity has 
increased. 

22.031. What is your general conclusion with regard 
to the opium habit in thi'j district ? — The general 
conclusion at which I have arrived is that, to the vast 
majority of moderate opium-eaters in India, the drug 
is not only harmless, but, under their circumstances, 
beneficial and necessary. The great variation in the 
degree of toleration that is attained, and in suscep- 
tibility to the influence of the drug in different persons, 
makes it impossible to define arbitrarily what modera- 
tion is. That must be judged by the effect in individual 
cases. 

22.032. Have you come to any conclusion as to the 
difference in tolerance to opium or susceptibility to 
opium between natives of India and the people of 
Western Europe ? — I have not formed any definite 
conclusion. I am inclined to think that the natives of 
India are less sasceptible, but I am not able to substan- 
tiate the opinion ; it is merely an impression. 

22.033. What is your view with regard to opium- 
smoking P — Smokiny I believe to be, as a rule, harmful ; 
partlj' because the average smoker uses much more 
opium than the eater, and partly because the narcotic 
effect is stronger and more immediate from smoking 
than from eating. The smoker moreover idles away a 
considerable portion of his working hours. 

22.034. Have yon noticed the practice of giving 
opium to infants ? — Yes. 

22.035. Is it very prevalent P — Very. 

22.036. Almost universal ? — I would not say that. 

22.037. Is it practised among the better as well as 
among the lower classes p — Yes. 

22.038. What do they give it for? — Simply as an 
English mother gives her child Mrs. Winslow's Sooth- 
ing Syrup. She sees that there is something wrong 
with the child, and gives the only medicine she has at 
hand. 

22.039. What would be the consequence if the 
facilities for obtaiuing opium were curtailed p — The 
question naturally arises in an inquiry of this kind : 
If facilities for obtaining opium were curtailed, would 
the consumption of alcohol proportionately increase P 
There can, among rational people with opportunities 
of judging, bene two opinions on this point; it most 
certainly would. The native consumer of alcohol, 
happily not a common object, in this part of India at 
least, is always a drunkard, alwaj'S belongs to the 
lowest classes, and is always despised as a wortJbless 
person. Deprived of the sedative and stimulant he 
finds necessary and uses as a rule in moderation, the 
opium-consumer would most surely take to alcohol or 
hemp. It is not necessary to dilate on the conse- 
quences to the health and morality of society which 
would certainly follow. 

22.040. {Mr. Wilsnn.) We have had some evidence 
that the various Sikh regiments do use opium in very 
small quantities — evidence that does not bear out your 
statement with regard to almost ail the Sikhs. Can 
you give me the force you particularly refer to ? — The 
14th Sikhs, the Central Indian Horse, the 7th Bengal 
Infantry before the organisation of the regiment was 
altered. At one time they contained a company of 
Sikhs, also troops of the native States. 

22.041. I do not quite understand your reply to Sir 
William Roberts about the pe]--centages referring to 
adults. The population of Rewa is 22,000 ?— Yes. 

22.042. What did you say with regard to adults P — 
That there were 500 adult consumers of opium. 

22.043. In proportion to the total population ? — Yes ; 
there are no means of finding out how many children 
consume opium. 

22 044. You speak of it as a widespread habit P 

Tolerably widespread. 

22.045. Do you call 2i per cent, tolerably wide- 
spread p — That applies to the city of Rewa only. 

22.046. Further on you said five or six per cent. ? 

And higher. 

22.047. You would not call five or six per cent, wide- 
spread P^At the conclusion I quoted 90 per cent. 

22.048. Were you referring generally to these 
populations P — Yes. 

22.049. The figures given hardly bear that outp— 
Taking all the statements together I think they do. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



97 



22.050. What means have you. of knowing how much 
opium the people in an opium-growing State themselves 
consume ? — The only means one has of knowing is to 
count the number of people who purchase it. 

22.051. Do you not think that they keep it them- 
selves ? — I do not think they do. The cultivators belong 
to certain classes called Kumbis and Kaohhis. They 
are people who do not use opium. It is a matter of 
common report and knowledge that they do not use it. 

22.052. You have referred to " cultivators ; " what 
cultivators are they P — The cultivators of opium. 

22.053. Do you refer generally to Central India, or to 
any particular district P — To the district previously 
mentioned — the one through which I had just gone. 

22.054. We have understood generally, that in Cen- 
tral India there is no State monopoly, but there is in 
that State ?--It ia so in the State of Eewa. 

22.055. Tou have referred to debauched persons con- 
suming opium in great excess, and to the lamentable 
results, with deterioration bodily and mental. Do you 
not think that that state of things must tend to shorten 
life ? — One would imagine so, but as a matter of fact, 
these people live to a great age, particularly the ones I 
referred to. I refer particularly to certain Thakurs 
holding landed property ; I know several of them who 
consume enormous quantities of opium, and who are 
tolerably advanced in years. I have known others who 
have died at an advanced age, having consumed opium 
the greater part of their lives. 

22.056. In this debauched manner, with deterioration 
of mind and body ? — Yes. 



22,057. It sounds 
what 1 have seen. 



contradictory p — I can only say 



22.058. What do you mean by the State being under 
superintendence ? — The Maharaja is a minor, the State 
being managed by a superintendent. 

22.059. Do you think that habitually taking opium 
where there is no disease is a good habit P — I suppose 
yon mean in moderation P 

22.060. Yes P — I should not be inclined to say it wn,s 
either a good or a bad habit. I am not preparud^to say 
that it is a good habit. 

22.061. It is a matter of indifference? — Practically, 
yes. I think it does no harm. 

22.062. You do not think it teuds to harm? —No, I 
do not. 

22.063. (Mr. Fanshawe.) With regard to the 14th 
Sikhs, your conclusions, I understand, are founded on 
your general knowledge of the men while serving with 
them P — Yes, I have served with them a very short 
time — 14 years ago. When I first came out to this 
country. 

22.064. [Mr. Mowhray.) We are often told that opium, 
is worse than alcohol, because it is much more insidious, 
and that it is much more difiicult to prevent a person 
going to excess when he once begins the habit. Does 
your opinion concur in that ? — Not as regards the 
natives of India. In the cases which I took some care 
in examining I was very much struck by the fact that 
a large majority of them for many years had not in- 
creased their daily dose. They denied it strongly, and 
many declared that they ha4 decreased their dose very 
much. 



Surg.-Maj. 

Glmlette, 

M.D. 

: Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Lieutenant-Colonel D. Robekison recalled and further examined. 



22.065. (Mr. Mowbray.) I should be glad to know how 
far you hold yourself responsible for the accuracy of 
the figures which are in these* papers P — I should like 
it to be distinctly understood that I appear merely as a 
compiler of information which has reached me from 
the Native States. I in no way guarantee its accuracy. 
Nor does the estimate either of production or of com- 
pensation purport to be more than an approximate 
estimate. 

22.066. With regard to all these figures, I may take 
it that you have, so to say, passed them on to us ? — Yes. 
I should like also to make this explanation. As 
regards the larger Chiefs, I have accepted the figures 
entirely as they reached me. In the case of a few of 
the smaller Chiefs, where the amount of compensation 
appeared to me palpably exaggerated, I took upon 
myself to reduce the estimate, in order that the return 
might not be burdened by figures which were prima 
facie exaggerated. 

22.067. I do not know whether you have expressed 
your own opinion as to the reasonableness of the totals 
which are here presented P — I think upon the whole 
they are reasonable; they certainly are as compared 
with Rajputana. 

22.068. You have referred to annual settlements with 
regard to the opium produced as submitted by the 
State to the Government — what are those statements P 
— I have no copies with me. Every year the Finance 
Department or the Home Department (I forget which) 
require the States to submit a statement of the opium 
produced. These statements are prepared very much 
in the way of routine. Nobody takes much interest in 
them, so far as I understand, in the States ; and I believe 
that their genuine character is open to question. 

22,068a. Therefore if any question arises of variance 
between the figures in those statements and the figures 
presented to us you would regard the figures presented 
to us as unquestionably more trustworthy ? — Certainly. 
This is the first time tbat any attempt has been made 
to obtain from these Native States information in such 
detail regarding opium cultivation and production. 

22.069. When you speak of the poppy as being so 
profitable to the cultivator and by far the most valuable 
crop that could be grown in Malwa, that is your opinion 
oven now with the bad price obtained from the China 
market during the last few years P — Yes, up to the 
present time. My opinion, of course, is merely based 
on what I have heard in the Native States, witnesses 
from which will appear before you. 



22.070. Are yon of opinion that the trade in its pre- 
sent condition is able to bear the present pass duty 
which the British Government exacts ? — I think the 
trade is a very fiuctuating one, but at the present time, 
I think, there is no doubt it is able to bear the pass 
duty, because there is every prospect before the end of 
the present official year of exceeding the estimate of 
the number of chests which pass the scales. 

22.071. That, I presume, depends very much on the 
season P — Chiefly on the prices in China. 

22.072. Also on the amount of rainfall in the year p — 
Not necessarily, because there are more chests now in 
stock than are ordinarily required for a year's export P 
— The out-turn of the present year, for instance, would 
not afiect materially the exports of this year, because 
they rarely send new opium to China. They send it 
when it is one or two years' old. 

22.073. Is the price in the China market better just 
now than it has been ? — I believe it is. 

22.074. Can you tell me the retail price of opium in 
any of the other States* P — I could obtain the informa- 
tion and present a paper showing the rates in the whole 
of Malwa. I can state the retail prices in the State 
of Eewa, in which I am Superintendent. 

22.075. Will you do so ? — The retail price now in 
Eewa is Es. 20 per seer. 

22.076. That is the price which a man pays when he 
goes into the bazaar to buy it for his own use P — Yes. 
In Eewa we have a monopoly in order to keep the price 
up, because we adjoin the British North-Western 
Provinces. 

22.077. And the State is under British superinten- 
dence ? — Yes. 

22.078. Es. 20 per seer I understand is the price at 
which it could be bought at the bazaar ? — Yes ; the 
price we pay to the cultivators is Es. 6 or Es. 8 per 
seer according to the quality of the opium. We retail 
to the contractor at the rate of Es. 16 per seer. The 
difference between the purchase price and the price wo 
sell to the contractor constitutes the State's income. 

22.079. You require all the opium grown in the State 
to be brought to the Government p — Yes. 

22.080. In fact you have the same sort of systsm of 
monopoly as in Bengal P — Eoughly it is the same. But 
we have not any establishment or any factory, because 
it is so easy to make. There is no chemical laboratory 
and so on. 



Lieut. -Cd. 
D. R ibertion. 



See Appendix XI. to thia volume. 



See .Appendix XII. to this volujne. 



O 82588. 



N 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION: 



Lieul. Col. 22,081. Do you think you get all the opium from the 

D , Rcbertson. cultivators or that any is kept hack? — I think none is 

kept back. If we do not get any it is smuggled into 

1 Fet. 1894. the adjoining British districts, where the retail price is 

high. We do our beat to prevent it. The cultivators' 

names are all registered, and if a man sold no opium 
to the State he would be called to account as to what 
he had done with his opium. 

22.082. You have made the price high in Eewa, 
partly because it is so near the British territory that 
you want to stop the inducement to smuggle as much 
as possible P — Yes. I found it necessary two years ago 
to increase the price on that account. We found that 
the consumption was apparently largely increasing, and 
there was no evidence to show that the individual con- 
sumption was increasing, and we found out as a matter 
of fact it was being smuggled into the adjoining British 
districts. 

22.083. So that your action is largely based on the 
interests of the British Government ? — ^ Almost entirely. 

22.084. With reference to smoking, you say that in 
the two principal States, G-vvalior and Indore, it is a 
penal offence ; does that mean that smoking itself is a 
penal offence, or the selling of preparations for smok- 
ing ? — There are no smoking shops allowed, and I have 
no doubt that anjbody found smoking in the public 
places would be prosecuted and punished criminally. 

22.085. I suppose there is no inquisitorial system to 
interfere with private smoking? — The Minister of 
Indore will appear here, and I think he will be a better 
witness on that point. I have no personal knowledge 
of what they do. I only know that smoking is penalised 
both in Indore and in what is called Prant Gwalior, 
and the big city of Gwalior. 

22.086. When you say that there are eight scales at 
convenient centres under Indore, that means under the 
Indore agency ? — Yes. The Agent of the Governor- 
General is the opium agent, and one of his assistants 
is the deputy opium agent. These scales are under 
Indore, in the sense that they send the pass duty they 
collect here, as well as the Ghalans or invoices of opium 
are despatched to Bombay. This is the central ofHoe. 

22.087. It is Indore in the sense of the agency, and 
not of the State P — Yes. 

22.088. The total export through the scales seems 
to be 35,345 chests P — Yea. 

22.089. If I understand the figures correctly, 25,082 
are cheats of Malwa opium passing through the scales 
under Indore P — Yes, passing through the scales not 
only at Indore, but scales under Indore. 

22.090. 5263 chests are really Rajputana opium pass- 
ing through the scales at Udaipur and Chitor, which are 
under the Indore agency p — Yes. I separate them, 
because the opium weighed there is not produced in 
Central India, but in Rajputana but for administrative 
purposes the scale at Chitor is under Indore. 

22.091. In addition to that, you estimate about 5,000 
chests grown in other parts of Rajputana, which also 
come into the scales under Indore P — Yes. 

22.092. And those three things make up the figure 
35,345 ?— Yes. 

22.093. Of course comparing that with the figures 
given by the Prime Minister in his statement, and the 
export 10,902 chests from Indore, he would refer to the 
exports of the State of Indore ? — Yes. 

22.094. You are referring to the exports that pass 
the scales under the agency of Indore ? — When I speak 
of the scales under Indore, I refer to the British opium 
agency. 

22.095. According to your computations, a chest of 
opium now costs in Indore Rs. 492, and the British 
Government pass duty it is Rs. 600, so that the duty 
amounts to about 120 per cent, addition to the cost of 
the article itself? — Yes. 

22.096. The figures you give us under the fourth 
head are all the figures which are in these tables ? — 
Yes. 

22.097. In your estimate of Rs. 70,81,252 for loss of 
direct revenue, you include the losses to the Jagirdars 
as well as the losses to the State? — Yes. 

22.098. With regard to charitable institutions and 
works of public utility, do you refer to works main- 
tained by the British Government in British India F — 



No, in the Native States we have, for instance, a large 
hospital here in which the patients treated are entirely 
from the Native States. It is supported to this extent 
out of this fund. There are also other dispensaries 
in the Native States. The money collected is expended 
for the benefit of the subjects of the Native States. 

22.099. Are these institutions maintained out of the 
pass duty collected here P— In addition to the pass duty 
there is a rate, I think of Rs. i per chest, taken at all 
the scales where opium is weighed except in Indore. 

22.100. Is that taken by the British Government ? — ■ 
It is taken at the time of weighment by the assistant 
opium agent at the scales. 

22.101. On behalf of the British Government ? The 

British Government is in the position of a benevolent 
trustee for this fund. It derives no advantage from it. 
The British Government do not get anything out of it. 
A charitable fund is created which is expended in 
medical relief and education. 

22.102. Is that figure in any column of these tables ? 
— No, but the accounts are regularly submitted to the 
British Accounts Departments. 

22.103. It is money which the British Government 
collects as a, trustee and spends for a specific purpose P 
— Yes. 

22.104. With regard to these losses or grounds for 
compensation is the total which you have given us an 

annual loss or does it contain any capital loss ? It is 

difiicult to say. 

22.105. For instance the loss to merchants can 
hardly be considered entirely an annual recurring loss p 
—I am not prepared to say, nor is any Native State 
prepared to say, what exact annual payment would be 
required. Probably it would not be much less than 
the sum named. An accurate estimate would take 
several months , perhaps a year to prepare. And it would 
probably be found that the total would be quite that. 
With regard to the special arrangements with Gwalior, 
Datia, and Samthar with reference to the export of 
ganja, -^spirits and opium, it came into force in J878-9. 
I have a copy of the treaty dated March 15th, 1879. 

22.106. I understand that there was no new restriction 
imposed upon the State, but hitherto they had been 
barred by a Customs line ; that that Customs line was 
done away with and in lieu of it certain arrangements 
were entered into to prevent exports over where the line 
had previously been?— Yes, I can read you the article 
of the Treaty. ' ' His Highness the Maharaja agrees 
" to prohibit the export from the State of Bhano-, 
" Ganja, spirits, opium or other intoxicating drug or 
' ' preparations by all routes and all directions hith'erto 
" barred by the inland Customs line." 

22.107. It was no new restriction but merely a new 
way of enforcing the old restriction p — Yea. 

22.108. {Mr. Wilson.) You have put in certain tables 
and lists of States, do they, taken collectively, include 
all the States under consideration p — I have grouped the 
States in the order of their importance, and as an Appen- 
dix there are a number of States entered from which 
either unimportant information or no information has 
been received. There are 80 small States and estates 
the majority of which grow no opium at all. 

22.109. Do these tables include all the States P— Yes. 

22.110. I rather gathered from your evidence that 
there was nothing approaching to restriction or mono- 
poly m the States. 1 now understand that in the State 

of Eewa there is such a restriction or monopoly p -Yes. 

I have already explained that as Rewa marches with 
the North- Western Provincea, and as the opium-nrowino- 
tract runs quite close to the border, it was necessary 
both in the interests of the State and also to avoid com- 
plaints from British districts that wc should place 
cutivation under control. 

22.111. Is that the only case in which that kind of 
thing prevails ?— So far as I know I am almost sure it 
is the only one. 

22.112. You say that "No statistics of consumption 
" are available for these tracts of country, but except 
" perhaps, in Gwalior, Samthar, and Rewa, but looking 
" to the moderate revenue which the Chiefs derived 
" the consuinption can hardly be considerable •" that 

implies that in Rewa it is somewhat considerable'? The 

revenue of Rewa is much smaller than that of any of 
these big States ; the total revenue wo derivi-- i<j 
Es.16,000. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



99 



22.113. "We understood from Dr. Gimlette that in his 
opinion the consumption was extremely small, but you 
put it with two others as the largest? — In all those 
three places as compared with the other parts of Central 
India the consumption is not considerable. What I mean 
is that in the districts outside Mlilwa the consumption 
is absolutely inconsiderable. The only exception is that 
of these three States, Gwalior, Samthar, and Rewa 
is where the consumption is hardly considerable, but it 
much more than in the places where there is no opium 
consumed at all. I mean that, as compared with other 
tracts out of Malwa, there is more opium consumed in 
these three places. I divide Central India into two 
parts. One part comprises Malwa and the other part 
comprises the large area which stretches across East 
India and includes Gwalior proper. There the produc- 
tion and consumption of opium are, as compared with 
Malwa, inconsiderable. The only exception being 
Gwalior city, Bewa, and Samthar, where there is a 
little more opium consumed, but it is not exoessiTe. 
The araount of consumption cannot from the revenue 
point of view be considered considerable. 

22.114. [Mr. Mowbray.) Tou draw a distinction be- 
tween Gwalior city and Gwalior territory and the Malwa 
province of Gwalior ? — Yes. 

22.115. (Mr. Wilson.) You suggest that the good 
tiroes are probably gone, never to return. Docs that 
refer to your general view of the prospects of the China 
market P — Yes. What I mean is that the prices at one 
time in China used to bo very high and the profits of 
the cnltivatqrs and everybody connected with the opium 
trade were larger than they are now. 

22.116. With reference to the speculative dealing, 
am I rightly informed that it amounts to a matter 
of very great excitement at certain periods ? — I believe 
so. 

22.117. As bad as anything we have at home P — I am 
no authority as to anything at home, but there is a good 
deal of excitement. 

22.118. With regard to the question of the possi- 
bilities of compensation, has any allowance been made 
throughout for the cost of collection of all this 
revenue P — I think not. The estimates, as I have ex- 
plained, are those that have been received from the 
Native States. It would be very difficult to make any 
allowance in the Native States for the cost of collec- 
tion. They employ officials who are remunerated by 
grants of land, which in many cases they would get 
whether they worked or not. There are many States 
that are obliged to support certain people by graiits of 
laud, and they pay them whether they do their work 
or not. It would be extremely difficult to estimate in 
the out-and- dried way that we do it in British India. 

22.119. With reference to what you said about 
charitable institutions and works of public utility — is 
that a voluntary subscription P — In the case of the mer- 
chants themselves it is voluntary in the sense that they 
all pay it. I do not think any pressure is brought to 
bear upon them. In the case of money expended under 
the guidance of British officers it is paid as a usual 
charge just the same as the pass duty is paid. 

22.120. In the case of merchants is it anything more 
than a voluntary subscription, a voluntary assessment in 
proportion to their business? — It is an assessment to 
which I have never heard any objection. They support 
their private charities in the same way. They pay the 
money to the charities which are worked under Govern- 
ment officers. There is no such thing as realising by 
distress or anything of that sort. 

22.121. With reference to gratuitous medical relief 
that I believe is allowed to the State by the British 
Government? — Yes; there is a dispensary, a large 
hospital here of that nature, and the Residency surgeon 
would treat anyone who came to the dispensary free of 
charge. 

22.122. Is this pass duty ear-marked for this purpose, 
or does this gratuitous medical relief come out of the 
general funds of the British Administration ? — Prom 
these realisations a fund is formed called Dharamsala 
Fund ; it is audited by British accounts officers, and a 
certain proportion is expended under the direction of 
the agent of the Governoi-General on hospitals in the 
Native' States of Central India, and on schools. I be- 
lieve that a big bridge was bailt many years ago out 
of that fund. It has been in existence a great many 
years. 

22.123. Is there a definite proportion of this pass 
duty applied to it? — It is not a portion of the nass 



duty ; it is distinct from it. The pass duty is Es. 600, 
extra to the Dharamsala fund levy, a man has to pay a 
few annas on each cheat. The amount is funded, and 
realizes a certain sum per annum. The Dharamsala 
fund declines of course as the exports decrease. The 
fund is administered under the orders of the Agent of 
the Governor-General in Central India, and is distributed 
in fixed proportions to the objects I have mentioned. 

22.124. (Mr. Mowbray.) I see that you have " charity 
" one rupee" is that the amount? — No, that is the 
charity which the merchant would pay himself before 
coming to the scales. There are institutions which the 
merchants themselves maintain, Hindu temples, insti- 
tutions to provide doles for indigent persons, and so on. 

22.125. [Mr. Fanshawe.) It is not included under 
that ? — No, it is something beyond that. 

22.126. (Mr. Mowbray.) But of the same nature P— 
Yes. The fund;forms no portion of the Imperial revenue. 

22.127. (Mr. Wilson.) Suppose, through the failure of 
the China trade or any other cause the sales of opium 
fell off p — They would have to shut up the dispensaries, 
unless the Native States chose to come forward and 
support them themselves. 

22.128. As far as that fund is concerned P — There is 
no other fund from which the money could bo derived. 

22.129. You gay there are no Treaties or engagements 
in force ? — No. 

22.130. The present rate of pass duty is not the 
subject of Treaty or engagement P — No. 

22.131. If the British authority were to raise or 
lower it one rupee to-morrow, it would not require the 
cancellation of any present engagement P — It would 
merely require an executive order of the British 
Government. 

22.132. You say it is well known even now that 
smuggling does exist even though the Chiefs "may 
wish " to stop it. I gather from that expression that 
some of them are not very anxious to stop it ? — I think 
they would all wish to stop it, because if opium is 
smuggled out of a Chief's territory he loses the rates 
that he takes on the crude opium and on the export. 

22.133. In some of the papers before us there is a 
reference to different kinds of opium, different colours ? 
—Yes. 

22.134. Generally speaking is the export opium 
substantially of the same quality and worth the same in 
the Bombay market P — Yes. 

22.135. Is there a very great difference ? — The 
merchants themselves will tell you that only the best 
opium is exported to China, because it is not worth a 
man's while to pay the whole amount of our pass duty 
on inferior opinm ; he would get a smaller price for it. 

22.136. We have before us a considerable number of 
States and of small manufacturers or merchants or both ; 
is the product tolerably uniform throughout, or does 
the price vary very much according to the manufacture ? 
■ — There are certain parts of Malwa where better opium 
is known to be produced than in others. In the market 
there is a wide distinction between the best class of 
opium and the inferior sorts amongst the merchants. 

22.137. Do they test it in sample, or is it thought that 
certain merchants have a reputation ? — They always 
test it. 

22.138. Do they test each chest ? — I do not know. A 
man would test according as he trusted the person from 
whom he bought. It comes to him in the crude state 
in bags, and I have no doubt that he would test a 
certain proportion of the bags, as we test for weight in 
our scales. 

22.139. It has been explained and shown to us in the 
case of the Patna and Ghazipur factories that very 
great pains are taken by the use of large vats in which 
a great mixture takes place, by analysis and so on, to 
produce as far as possible an article of exactly uniform 
quality ; so that it is believed that, to a large extent, 
the whole out-turn from those factories is uniform ?~- 
Yes. 

22.140. I assnme that there cannot be anything of 
the kind here P — No, I have referred to it in my 
evidence. 

22.141. Under your method there must be a great 
variety of qualities F — It is not sent to China without 
being tested liy the irerchants. It is tested here and I 
think again in Bombay. Asa matter of fact the opiiim 

N :i 



Lieut.-C'ol. 
D. Mobertson. 

1 Feb. 1894. 



100 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Lieut.- Col. sent to China i? believed by the merchants to be the 
D. Bobertson. best. 



Feb. 1894. 



22.142. "Were the questions submitted to the various 
States drawn up by you or furnished to you ?— They 
were drawn up by me. 

22.143. {Mr. Fanshawe.) In raising the price of opium 
in Eewa the interests of the Native States were no doubt 
taken into consideration as well as the wishes of the 
North- West Government in regard to the prevention of 
smuggling P— In raising the price of opium I was 
guided in some measure by the fact that the con- 
sumption appeared to have increased very largely. As 
there appeared to be no reason from an administrative 
point of view to account for it, I was led to believe that 
opium was largely smuggled into British territory, and 
shortly afterwards a case was found in which a large 
quantity was being taken by a third-class passenger. 
AVe then increased the price of opium to Es. 14, then to 
Rs. 15, then to Rs. 16 per seer. 

22.144. Both the financial interests of the State as 
well as the views you held in regard to the prevention 
of smuggling were taken into consideration ? — 
Certainly. 

22.145. Am I correct in understanding that in most 
of the States of Central Ind ia there is a fixed land 
revenue settlement for a term of years^P — In all the 
large States I believe there is. 

22.146. Under that settlement are cash rates paid in 
all cases on irrigated and unirrigated lands P — I am not 
quite sure, but I am almost sure that in all the large 
States nothing except cash is now taken. 

22.147. I understand you to say that the rate on 
irrigated land has been assessed on the direct under- 
standing that poppy has been the most valuable crop 
grown on the land P— Yes, on that supposition. 

22.148. Is poppy grown as a black cotton soil crop in 
Malwa r — Yes, the land is called black soil. 

22.149. In preparing the estimate of the loss of the 
Native States, what crop or crops have generally been 
taken as crops that would have to be grown in the place 
of poppy ? — Wheat, I think, or linseed would be the 
general crop. 

22.150. Can you tell me why the substitution of 
cotton has not been suggested p— Cotton is ii, very 
precarious crop, and in my discussions with the people 
about what crops might be substituted, cotton has been 
put on one side as a very outside probability. 

22.151. On which also the profit derived is probably 
smaller than on wheat or linseed P — I do not think it 
would be mure, and it is a more precarious crop. 

22.152. In staling that the sugar-cane crop requires 
more water than poppy, will you explain what you 
mean ? — I mean that the reserve of water in the wells 
would not be sufficient to water a crop that requires 
to be watered all through the hot weather, such as 
sugar-cane. 

22.153. With regard to tobacco I understand you to 
say that it would in some circumstances be the crop 
which could be well substituted for poppy, provided you 
bad a market and provided the people had acquired a 
BufBoient skill to grow tobacco ?— 5f es. 

22.154. In the absence of these it is not regarded as 
a probable substitute for poppy in this part of the 
coimtry P — No. 



22.155. Dr. Dane told us that the class of Thakurs 
with whom he was acquainted in Bhopal were in the 
habit of taking opium in the form of amal pani in excess. 
Can you state from your own experience whether an 
excessive use of this kind among the Thakurs is 
general P — My knowledge of this matter is negative, 
if they do take it to excess it has never come under my 
observation, and I have a very much larger acquaintance 
with the Rajputs than Dr. Dane. 

22.156. We may take it that you have a larfro 
acquaintance with these Thakur noblemen or gentleman, 
and that an excessive use has never come before your 
attention ? — Not as a general rule. 

22.157. With reference to the sum spent on irrigation 
work by the Indore State, am 1 right in understanding 
that this expenditure would have led to an extension of 
the irrigated area P — I may explain that on this point 
I am somewhat doubtful. Since submitting my evidence 
I discussed the point with the Indore Minister. I have 
no such knowledge of the Indore State as to enable me 
to say whether the irrigable area is capable of extension. 

22,168. This expenditure of Rs. 3, 30,000 must have 
led to an extension of the irrigated area ? — Yes, and 
contributed largely to the revenue devived from opium. 

22.159. Then your argument would bo that the 
prohibition of poppy cultivation would necessitate a 
reduction of the rates on irrigated land, and would 
in that way alter the conditions on which the money 
had been invested, and in fact deprive the State of the 
interest which it contemplated deriving ? — Yes. 

22.160. That was your view P — Yes. 

22.161. {The Maharajah of Barhhanga.) If poppy 
cultivation were prohibited, would not people think, as 
some of the newspapers say, that Grovernment did it 
in order to encourage the trade in imported liquor p — 
I have very good reason for knowing that such a rumour 
was afloat in Central India, and that it gained strength 
by the insertion of a paragraph in the " Pioneer." 
People pointed to that paragraph and said, "We thought 
" this was really the intention of the G-overnment of 
" India." 

22.162. You think for that reason prohibition would 
be likely to cause a certain amount of discontent? — A 
very large amount of discontent. 

25.163. (Mr. Mowhray.) Your last table is said to to be 
a return showing the quantities of opium that passed the 
scales under the Malwa opium agency in each of the 
past 15 years. It is really an average of the whole 15 
years taken together p — Yes. 

22.164. One of the questions referred to this Com- 
mission is the efiect on the finances of India of the 
prohibition of the sale and export of opium, taking into 
consideration, among other things the cost of the 
necessary preventive measures. I do not know whether 
3-ou consider yourself in a position to give us any 
information on that point, or to form anjr estimate P — 
I am afraid I am not. It would require a great deal of 
thought and preparation to devise a scheme for 
protecting the enormous frontier of Central India (I 
think Mr. Crosthwaite has given the extent of the 
frontier). I am not prepared to give any opinion as to 
the extent of the establishment that would be required. 

22.165. You will only say that it would be something 
very large and mischievous P — Yes. 



The witness withdrew. 



Santajikao Sahib Temak called in and examined (through an Interpreter). 



Santajirao 

Sahib Temak. 

( GwalioT 

State.) 



22 166. {Mr. Mowbray.) You are the Revenue Member 
of the Council of Regency, Gwalior ?— Yes. 

22 167. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
cultivation and use of opium in Gwalior, and also with 
rcard to the proposed prohibitory measures ?— I have 
been serving His Highness Maharaja Scindia for the 
last 32 years. During the first 15 years I served in the 
Judicial Branch as Naib-8ubha, Subha, Naib-Diwan 
Pouzdari and Diwani, and the remaining period in the 
Revenue line as Subha, Sir-Subha, Naib-Diwan, and 
iucliarge Diwau. I at present hold the position of the 
Revenue Member of the Council of Regency, Gwalior. 
J served for 10 years as Sir-Subha in Malwa itself, 
which produces good opium, and where it is eaten by 
more than a third of the whole population. I never 



came across a single case in which a man was charged 
with crime committed under the intluenee of opium, 
while, on the other hand, crimes have been committed 
under the influence of liquor, and the persons charged 
have received punishment. Opium is considered a 
blessing in Malwa, Rajputana, Punjab, and other parts 
of India. Opium eating cures the evil efl'ccts of cold 
and heat, as well as cough, asthma, fever, intestinal 
maladies, diarrhoea, rheumatism, dysentery, diabetes, 
iVc. Opium is useful to infants, adults, and old men 
alike. Babies are held dearer than lite by their parents. 
Now thousands of parents give them opium in moderate 
doses to protect them from the evil clfects of heat and 
cold, as well as croup {badal) and derangement of the 
stomach, caused by indigestion of milk taken by them. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



101 



Opium not only serves this purpose, but makes the 
babies healthy and strong by causing milk to be pro- 
perly digested. Had opium been productive of evil 
effects, would these parents have given it to their darling 
babies P Adults likewise are able to labour and culti- 
vate by eating opium, which protects them from the 
evil effects caused by inclemencies of weather, such as 
fever, <fec. In old age man is prone to the attacks of 
rheumatic pains in all parts of his body, which make 
him unlit for physical labour. He, by taking his 
moderate dose of opium, is able to labour and earn the 
livelihood of his families. By eating opium he does 
not feel physical exhaustion, as opium keeps up his 
strength. If the cultivation, export, and use of opium 
be prohibited, the State and cultivators, as well as 
traders, labourers, and others who get their livelihood 
by opium will most heavily suffer. For there is no 
other production so important as opium, which, with a 
limited outlay and labour, yields a rich and valuable 
crop, and enables the cultivator to support himself and 
his family easily after paying the State demand. 
Opium may almost be called the "black-coloured, 
gold " of Malwa. A greater loss besides the above one 
is this : thousands of children and old men and adults 
who keep their health by the use of opium, and who 
maintain themselves and their family by its cultiva- 
tion, will suffer from, and fall victims to various diseases 
caused by the prohibition of opium. This loss is in- 
estimable, and cannot be compensated. People can 
enjoy the advantages of opium by spending a, pice or 
BO. If it be prohibited, the cultivators might take to 
liguors. Now liquor will cost no lesn than two or three 
annas per day. This means starvation to their families. 
The use of opium is not condemned by any Shastra or 
religion. Brahmins, Bauias, Bajpnts, Musalmans, 
Punjabis, Sikhs, &c., all eat opium, and give it to their 



children. In my opinion it is not advisable to stop the 
cultivation, trade, and export of this beneficial article, 
which peculiarly suits the climate of India. 

22.168. Have you had an opportunity of seeing the 

statistics which the other Minister has prepared? 

Yes. 

22.169. Do they in your opinion form a correct basis 
of what you believe the Gwalior State would lose were 
the cultivation and export of poppy prohibited ? — I have 
seen the estimate of the loss which would be incurred 
by the State, and by the merchants and cultivators, 
and I believe them to be correct. 

22.170. {Mr. Fanshmve.) Will you tell us what par- 
ganas are included in the Gwalior Province of Malwa, 
because we have had Malwa used in dili'erent senses 
once or twice ? — Ujjain, Shajapur, Agar, Mundisor, 
Neemuch, and Amjhera. There are six Subats. A 
Subha is the one in charge, and the Subat is the area 
of which he is in charge. These :;ix Subats are under 
a Sir Subha. 

22.171. (Mr. Wilson.) Can you give us any idea of the 
per-centage of adult men in the Gwalior State who 
take opium habitually ? — I have not prepared an 
estimate, but about one-third of the adult men eat 
opium. 

22.172. What would be the probable average con- 
sumption of each habitual consumer per day P — From 
two to five machis is taken, but the normal or modeiate 
dose does exceed three machis. 

22.173. Are you aware that no one has suggested that 
the use of opium, should be denied to those who require 
it for medical purposes, and for their health ? — I am 
not aware. 



Santajirao 

Sahib Temak. 

( Gwalior 

State.) 

7 Eeb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Lieutenant-Colonel Sib Michael Filose called in and examined. 



22.174. {Chairman.) "What post do you hold in the 
Malwa State P — I am the Governor of Malwa. 

22.175. How long have you been connected with the 
Maharaja Scindia's service? — Since I was two years 
old, all my life. 

22.176. Will you give us your opinion on the ques- 
tion of opium, which has been submitted to this Com- 
mission for inquiry ? — During my residence in Malwa 
for the last 14 years, I have had occasion to come in 
contact with every class of people, and have not found 
a single case in which an opium consumer has suffered 
from the bad effects alleged to the use of opium. On 
the contrary, I find most of the consamers enjoy good 
health. The soil and climate of Malwa are extremely 
favourable to the produce of opium. The excessive 
moisture in the air unfortunately creates, particularly 
among the vegetarians, a deal of sickness, such as 
fevers, rheumatism, and diarrhoea, which in bad weather 
easily turns into cholera. Nature seems to have pro- 
vided a remedy at hand for the most prevailing diseises 
of the country. The poorest villager, tens of miles 
away from any hospital, finds a remedy for these 
diseases in opium produced on the spot. I believe 
there is a deal of truth in the general cry throughout 
Malwa that all the young children will die if opium be 
not given them until they attain the third or fourth 
year of their age. Most young men, who manage to 
discontinue the use of opium after their childhood, 
have to take to it again at the decline of their age, 
say, about 45, to maintain their health and strength. 
Most of the inhabitants of Malwa are pure vegetarians, 
and a gi-eat number of them abstain strictly from wiues 
or spirituous liquors. Opium has been used by them 
for centuries, and is looked upon by the people as a 
necessity. Their requirements cannot be disregarded. 
If habit be a second nature, how revolting will it be to 
deny the earnest cravings of a multitude whose customs 
and habits, as well as their food, are defined and sanc- 
tioned by the religion they profess. It will be a heavy 
responsibility for any one to bear ; for it is certain that 
many deaths must occur owing to the prohibition of 
opium in Malwa. The vegetarians m this province are 
not content to observe vegetarianism themselves, but 
try their utmost to force it on others even at the risk of 
causing disturbances. Several cases of riots that have 
occurred testify to the zeal and earnestness with which 
they stick to their time-honoured customs and habits. 
Judging from the character of the people of Malwa, I 



expect to encounter a stubborn resistance to any pro- 
hibition of the produce, export, and consumption of 
opium. A memorandum of the losses of revenue to the 
Gwalior State, the cultivators and traders, amounting 
to about seven millions of rupees per annum, has been 
made over to Colonel Robertson as the proper amount 
of compensation if the prohibition of the produce and 
export of opium be carried out. But the immense loss 
of life and bloodshed this prohibition may cause is 
incalculable. 

22.177. {Mr. Wilson.) Will you tell me why you think 
the young children would die if they did not take 
opium P — In the first place, I have often observed that 
when the women go to work in the fields, they put the 
children in baskets, and give them a little opium to 
keep them quiet. They remain comfortable in the 
baskets, and thus allow their mothers to work. She 
occasionally goes and nurses them. Without the 
opium the child would be very restless, and the mother 
would not be able to work. Sometimes the woman is a 
widow, and if it were not for opium she would not be 
able to support either herself or her child. Then, again, 
in Malwa the climate is so full of moisture that a child 
easily gets dysentery or diarrhoea, and cannot digest 
milk. The people say that if opium is not given to the 
children, they must almost all of them die. 

22.178. The reason generally given to us why it is 
given, is that it is to prevent the children from crying 
— your reason is that it is to preserve their lives ? — To 
preserve their lives and also to help them to digest 
milk. In Malwa it is difficult to digest milk unless 
opium is taken. I have seen many men look really 
robust who take opium and who drink milk. They 
cannot drink milk without taking opium. 

22.179. I am referring now to children. Tour idea 
is that opium is given not as other witnesses have said, 
to prevent them from crying, but to save their lives ? — • 
Exactly. 

22.180. {8i/r William Soherts.) I presume you mean 
that opium is very useful to these children, situated as 
they are, while their mothers are at work, that is to 
say, the opium keeps them quiet when the mother's 
care is away from them. I presume you do not mean 
more than that r — And also that it helps them to digest 
the milk. 

22.181. {Mr. Mowhray.) I believe you prepared the 
figures which Colonel Robertson handed in ? — Yes. 

N 3 



Lieut.-Col. 

Sir M. Filose. 

(Gwalior 

State.) 



102 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION; 



22.182. I see you put down tho probable loss to the 
State if the production of opium were prohibited and 
other crops substituted at Es. 26, 45,000 ? — Yes. 

22.183. Could you give mo any details as to the way 
in which the figure has been arrived at P— They are 
prepared from the actual annual papers and the papers 
which have been got at by the Revenue Survey. I can 
send any detail to you you like. 

22.184. I see that the land revenue derived from the 
cultivation of opium is put down at 28 lakhs, what do 
you estimate would be the land revenue supposing 
opium were put a stop to P — About Es. 2. 8. per bigha 
would be the most that could be got. If you substitute 
wheat for it you will only get about Es. 2J or Es. 3 per 
bigha. 

22.185. What is the present rate P— About Es. 10. 

22.186. You think that the rate of the revised land 
revenue if poppy were prohibited would be about one 
quarter of what it is at present ?— Yes, about a quarter. 
Scindia's bigha- is about half an acre. 

22.187. Altogether the total revenue which the State 
derives from opium under various heads is nearly 33 
lakhs according to the figures I have mentioned ? — 
About 33 lakhs. 

22.188. You estimate you would lose four-fifths, 
about 26-2- lakhs out of 33 lakhs P— Yes, about that. 

22.189. Is this figure of 26 lakhs loss of State Eevenue 
what you would call an annual loss, or is any portion of 
it in your opinion a non-recurring loss ? — It is all 
recurring, an annual loss. 

22.190. {Mr. Fanshawe.) I understand that you belong 
to a family, the members of which for some generations 
have held high positions of trust under the Gwalior 
State, is that so P — Yes. 

22.191. "What are the chief races or castes in Malwa ? 
— Eajputs, Kumbis, Brahmins, Mahomedans, Anjenas, 



and 'a few Jats and Khatis. The Khatis are very good 
cultivators. 

22.192. I understand your view to be that if the culti- 
vation of poppy were prohibited the only crop which, in 
the special circumstances of Malwa, could take its 
place would be wheat P — Just now, under present 
circumstances, we could only substitute wheat to euch 
a large extent. 

22.193. Have you a fixed land revenue settlement in 
Malwa P— Yes. 

22.194. For what term of years is tho settlement 
in force P — The settlement which has just been made 
is a 12 years' settlement. 

22.195. Are the land revenue rates payable in cash 
under that settlement P — Yes, in cash. 

22.196. Will you kindly tell me the present strength 
of the Gwalior State army p — I have been away from 
Gwalior for about 14 years, but I think I know tho 
strength pretty correctly. 

22.197. Will you give it to us in round numbers p — 
8,000 infantry, regular troops, 2,000 regular cavalry, 
4,000 irregular troops, and 6 batteries of artillery. 

22.198. Can you, speaking from your past experience, 
tell us how far the habit of using opium is prevalent 
among the men of the army P— Most of them declare 
they require to take a dose of opium in the decline of 
their age, say after 40. They are able to move about 
better if they take it, and it prevents colds, coughs, and 
rheumatism. I have not seen any man who takes opium 
intoxicate himself. 

22.199. I may take it that this habit is fairly general 
among the older men serving in the Maharaja's army, 
that is what you wish to say ? — Exactly. 

22.200. Are the men of the army at tho present day 
largely Eajputs or do they include Poorbeasp — -Except- 
ing the low class Brahmins and Mahomedans all castes 
represent the army. 



The witness withdrew. 



Eao Bahadur K.C. Bed arkae,' Minister Indore State, called in and examined. 



{The Witness.) My Lord, before you proceed to 
examine me, I have to present, under the direction of 
His Highness the Maharaja Holkar, the following 
KLarita, to your Lordship and the members of the 
Commission : — 

Indore, 6th February 1894. 
The Honorable Members of the Eoyal Commission 
on Opium. 
My Lohd and Gentlemen, 

I AM very glad to welecome you to Indore. 
I have watched with absorbing interest the evidence 
which has been placed before you since the appointment 
of the Commission. 

I am hopeful that the evidence which has been taken, 
and which will be taken hereafter, will be the means of 
dissipating a number of doubts and misconceptions 
which have gathered round the opium question. 

As the head of a State, the population of which 
grows, sells, and consumes opium extensively, and pays 
a considerable revenue into the State treasury, and 
whose interests I have personally watched, I am 
necessarily familiar with the different aspects of this 
question, which is of vital importance to my State. 

Detailed information on the various points connected 
with this question will be supplied to the Commission 
by my Minister and other witnesses, who will appear 
before the Commission. But I think it my duty to 
place before the Commission my convictions on the 
subject. Tney are as follows : — 

(1.) In view of the relations existing between the 
Paramount Power and my State, the former 
would not be justified in requiring me to pro- 
hibit the cultivation of opium in my State, 
except for medical purposes, even. though it 
may itself enforce such pr.ohibition in British 
India. 
(2.) No money compensation can properly or 
adequately compensate the State or the 
various classes aifected by it for the losses 
which they will sustain. 
(3.) The prohibition will bu oppressive to my 

Bubjf'cts. 
(4.) As a rule, the consumption of opium in my State 
is modci\it,o, and that a moderate use of opium 
is not prejudicial in any way. 



(5.) I have always found my subjects peaceful and 

law-abiding, and I apprehend that interference 

with the present state of things will make 

them discontented. 

In conclusion, I beg earnestly that anxious as the 

British Government is to increase the prosperity of the 

Native States in India, the Commission will give tho 

utmost consideration possible towards the solution of 

this question, and be extremely slow to recommend a 

change calculated to mar that prosperity to increase 

which is the anxious care and avowed object of Her 

Majesty the Queen Empress, 

(Signed) Shivaji Eao Hoikak. 

22,201. {Chairman.) You have been Minister of In- 
dore since 1890 P — Yes, I have been Minister of Indore 
since 25th October, 1890. I am a B.A., LL.B., and 
Fellow of the Bombay University. I entered the 
service of the British Government as translator and in- 
terpreter of the Bombay High Court on 25th April, 
1863. I was appointed deputy registrar, sealer, and 
reporter of the High Court on its Appellate side in 
1867. I acted as chief registrar of the High Court on 
several occasions, and acted in this capacity for iie;ii'ly 
two years before my appointment as Judge of the Court 
of Small Causes, at Poona in 1885. The ibllowing are 
the terms of the order of reference made to the Eoyal 
Commission : — 

1. Whether tho growth of the poppy and manufacture 

and sale of opium in British India should be 
prohibited, except for medical purposes, and 
whether such prohibition should be extended to 
the Native States. 

2. The nature of the existing arrangements ■with the 

Native States in respect of the transit of opium 
through British territory, and on what terms, 
if any, these arrangements can be with justice 
terminated. 

3. Tho effect on tho finances of India of the pro- 

hibition of the sale and export of opium, taking 
into oonKid( 'ration {a) the amount of compensa- 
tion payable ; (6) tiio cost of the necessary 
p)n'v(--ntive measures; (c) the loss of revcuue. 

4. AVhethcr any change ishort of total prohibition 

should be made in the .system at jirosent followed 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



108 



for regulating and restricting the opium trade 
and for raising tlie revenue therefrom. 

5. The consumption of opium by the different races 

and in the different districts of India, and the 
effect of such consumption on the moral and 
physical condition of the people. 

6. The disposition of the people of India in regard to 

(a) tho use of opium for non-medical purposes ; 

(6) their willingness to bear in whole or in part 

the costs of prohibitive measures. 
I presume the Commission will confine their inquiries, 
within the scope laid down, in the terrns above set 
forth. It follows that the inquiry of the Eoyal Oom- 
mission will be addressed to the Indore State upon the 
lines specified therein and with special reference to 
the conditions obtaining in the State. I therefore 
propose in this memorandum to discuss what those 
conditions are and their bearing and application on 
the points laid down in the order of reference. The 
first brancJi of inquiry may be stated thus : — If the 
growth of the poppy and manufacture and sale of 
opium should be prohibited, except for medical pur- 
poses in British India, could such prohibition be 
extended to the State of Indore ; and, if so, whether 
it shcndd be extended to it ? For the discussion of the 
first part of this question, the most important thing to 
notice is the relation existing between the Paramount 
Power and this State. The Statute and proclamation 
of 1858, which transferred the Government of India 
to Her Majesty the Queen, declare that all Treaties, 
made by the Honourable East India Company, shall be 
binding on !&er Majesty. Article 8 of the Treaty of 
Peace and Amity between the British Government 
under the Company and Jaswant Eao Holkar, dated 
24th of December 180.5, says: "The British Govern- 
" ment will not interfere in any manner in the con- 
" cerns of Jaswant Bao Holkar." This provision of 
the Treaty has been followed up to this day, and the 
British Government has never interfered with the 
interna] administration of the State and with its fiscal 
policy in particular. The right of the Paramount 
Power to interfere with the internal affairs of the 
State can only arise upon the occurrence of such gross 
misrule as may lead to internal rebellion, and it is 
their, duty to interfere in the case of foreign aggression. 
Save and except these occasions, the Paramount Power 
may advise and persuade, but may go no further. The 
Treaty engagements and the constitutional usage 
which has sprung up preclude the interference of the 
Paramount Power in any matter relating to the raising 
of the State revenue and the I'ules and regulations 
which the State may frame in that behalf. Three 
principal matters may be mentioned in which the 
Paramount Power has brought friendly pressure to 
bear upon the fiscal administration of Native States. 
They are salt, abkari, and transit duties. In each of 
these the agreement of the Native States is the essence 
underlying the adoption of the measures introduced. 
None of these was a coercive measure. And all were 
in the interest of the States and their subjects from a 
general point of view. The Paramount Power did not, 
for one moment, try to assume a dictatorial power and 
say to the Indore State: "You shall do this or that." 
It only said, " It is advisable in the common interests 
" of the British Government as well as yourself to 
" adopt a fiscal policy which will result in the interest 
" of all," and the State gave its assent. Thus neither 
by Treaty engagements nor traditional usage would the 
Paramount Power be justified in forcing the policy of 
opium prohibition upon the Indore State. This point 
of view is not without a precedent. In 1826, the 
British Government desired to assume the exclusive 
right of purchasing opium produced in the Native 
States of Central India, and although they succeeded in 
persuading the States of Indore, Dewas, Eutlam, Jaora, 
Kotah, Sailana, Pertabgarh, Amjhera, and Sitamau 
to enter into engagements with them, their persuasion 
with the Maharaja Soindia failed ; and which failure 
was one of the principal reasons which actuated the 
British Government in giving up the monopoly within 
a very short time. The fact that the Maharaja Scindia 
did not enter into the general scheme, and, secondly, 
the fact that it was necessary to enter into formal 
engagements with Indore and other Native States, 
establishes the proposition that the British Govern- 
ment would not be justified in coercing a Native State 
into adopting a fiscal, commercial, or agricultural 
policy at their pleasure. The political supremacy of 
Parliament or the Government of India would not 
justify the enactment of a measure compelling a 
Native State to join in a policy which they may choose 



to adopt, for reasons of their own. A Native State 
would be perfectly free in the agricultural and com- 
mercial interest of its own subjects, or for the protection 
of its own revenue, or in deference to time-honoured 
custom, or tradition, or habits of its subjects, or 
otherwise, to abstain from joining in the policy. Even 
Mr. Charles Lewis Tupper, with his extreme albeit 
non-official views in Our Indian Protectorate goes no 
farther than to say : "If there were any strong political 
" necessity for the application of a particular terri- 
" torial law in parts of a Native State where juris- 
" diction is not vested in the British Government, the 
" constitutional course would be to induce the Chief 
" to introduce the law on his own authority" (See 
page 353 of his work.) It cannot be said that the 
question of the prohibition of opium, or its extension to 
Native States, is a political necessity in any senne, 
much less is it a strong political necessity such as Mr. 
Thipper speaks of above as a justifying ground for 
friendly interference. The question has arisen wholly 
and solely in consequence of the cry of anti-opium ists 
in the name of morality against the iniquity of poison- 
ing our good Chinese neighbours who refuse to be 
converted to Christianity by "barbarian poisoners." 
These agitators charge the Government with having 
forced opium upon China, and think it iniquitous for a 
Christian Government to derive a revenue from that 
immoral trade, and they advocate the prohibition of 
opium to relieve the national conscience and to remove 
the obstacles in the way of the spread of Christianity 
in China. The whole case clearly rests on so-called 
moral considerations, and has nothing to do with 
politics. It is not necessary for the purposes of the 
present discussion to enter into the question whether 
the grounds put forth by the anti-opiumists are 
tenable. I will assume that they are moral grounds, 
and simply say that the argument that upon any moral 
grounds the Paramount Power, even after prohibiting 
opium within its own territory, can and ought to 
bring pressure upon Native States to act likewise, is a 
non sequitur. Whether opium was forced upon the 
Chinese at the point of the sword, as has been asserted 
by the anti-opiumists, or whether it was voluntarily 
introduced into the tariff by the Chinese themselves, 
as has been asserted by those who ought -to know the 
truth, is not a matter with which the Indore State has 
any concern. It is enough to say that no plea on 
moral ground can possibly justify or entitle the British 
Government in complying with the demand of the 
anti-opiumists in bringing pressure upon the Native 
States and seeking to bring about by that means the 
suppression of the premier crop of Central India. 
Having thus disposed of the part of the question re- 
lating to the right or authority of the Paramount 
Power to prohibit the growth of the poppy in Indore 
State, I turn to the second part of the question whether 
the Paramount Power should do so, even if they had 
the right. 

22,202. Tou have stated what you conceive to be from 
a constitutional point of view the relation between the 
Paramount State and the independent Native State in 
relation to such a matter as that before the Commis- 
sion. The powers having been such as you have 
described them, do you think that it would be ex- 
pedient, if it were rightful to do so, to bring the 
powers of the Paramount State into action in relation 
to this question of the poppy ? — My answer to this 
question is in the negative, and for the following 
reasons : — 

(1.) The State would suffer a loss of about 
lis. 21,000,000 annually, and would gain no 
benefit for a sum of Bs. 33,000,000 sunk on 
wells and tanks. 



nao Bahadur 
K.C. 

Bedarkar. 
(Indore State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



(2.) 

(3.) 
(4.) 

(5.) 



The agriculturists would suffer a loss of 
Bs. 18,66,190 annually, and would get no pro- 
portionate return for a sum of 3 lakhs of 
rupees sunk by them in wells within the last 
few years, and of other large sums spent by 
them in previous years. 

The jagirdars would suffer to the extent of 
Bs. 1,63,500 annually. 

The traders would eufi'er a loss estimated at 
Bs. 8,50,000 annually, and would find no good 
investment for nearly a crore and a half of 
rupees now invested in the opium trade. 

No money compensation can adequately make 
up the loss, and it is impracticable to appor- 
tion such compensation. 



104 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Rao Bahadur 
K.C. 

Bedarhar. 
(^Indore State.) 

7 Feb. !894. 



(6.) The impracticability of carrying out preventive 

measures. 
(7.) There would be a resort to liquor, leading to 
physical deterioration, moral and social degra- 
dation, breach of religious commandment, and 
increase of crime. 
(8.) There would be grave discontent amongst the 

people, amounting to political danger. 
(9.) No object will be gained by making so much 
sacrifice and incurring so much risk, as China 
will continue to grow and consume its own 
inferior opium, in spite of all and everything. 
22,203. I understand you are prepared to support in 
detail each of the points you have dealt with in your 
list ? — Yes. Opium is capable of being produced in 
irrigated land only. The quantity of irrigated land 
inclusive of khasgi and exclusive of jagirdars in the 
State is about 152,000 bighas, each bigha being i of an 
acre. According to the revenue system prevailing in 
the State, no distinction whatever is made in respect of 
assessment between land actually producing opium 
and land capable of producing it. The whole is popu- 
larly known as adan, and is assessed on the sole 
principle as to its capability of producing opium. It is, 
therefore, a matter of extreme difficulty to arrive at 
the number of bighas under actual poppy cultivation. 
In the annual returns S'ilmiitted to the Agency during 
the last seven years, the, quantity of opium land in the 
J ion knasgi mahals hp.g not been included, nor also the 
iand owned by jagirdars. A careful investigation, 
made in connexion with the present Commission, tested 
by the result 'if a similar investigation made by His 
Highness the 'ate Tukoji Bao Maharaja — the ablest 
revenue administrator Mal^^a has ever produced — 
shows the number of bighas under actual poppy culti- 
vation to be about one lakh and ten thousand. A 
bigha of adan pays annually an average assessment of 
Es. 13-14-y ; so that the land revenue of the State by 
by poppy cultivation comes to about Es. 15,35,553 
annually. The State levies a cess of Ss. 2-5-0 per 
dhadi of 5 seers of crude opium, weighed at the State 
scales. The annual revenue derived from it is 
Ks. 2,03,738. The State levies a consolidated export 
duty of Es. 16 per chest of about 14 dhadis or 140 lbs. 
of manufactured opium. This yields Es. 1,83,288 
annually. The State levies a tax called dhadwai at 
the rate of one anna per dhadi upon sales of crude 
opium in the city of Indore — half an anna from the 
seller and the other half from the purchaser. The 
annual revenue thus realised is Es. 45, 896. The State 
has a monopoly of manufacturing rubha opium from 
crude opium, adhering to bags in which it is brought 
from up-country to Indore city. This gives an average 
annual income of Es. 24,449. The vend of retail opium 
takes place under licences granted to farmers. The 
annual revenue so derived is about Es. 13,017. The 
export duty on poppy-seed gives an annual income of 
about Es. 3,902. The total of these figures of income 
is Es. 20,09,843. The total area under actual poppy 
cultivation being 122,000 bighas, inclusive of the 
jagirdars' 12,000, the produce of crude opium therefronr 
would be the same number of dhadis as, roughly 
speaking, one bigha yields one dhadi. This produce 
when converted into manufactured opium will make 
up 7,625 chests ; for 16 dhadis of crude opium or chick 
is equivalent to one chest. The total of the receipts 
from the items of " land rent," Es. 15,35,553, 
"Es. 2-5-0 cess," Es. 2,03,738; "export duty," 
Es. 1,83,288 and dhadwai, &c., Es. 45,896, is 
Es. 19,68,475. This together with the income of the 
jagirdars, Es. 1,87,500, gives the aggregate receipts at 
Es. 21,55,975. Dividing this by the number of chests, 
7,625, we get Es. 283 for the receipts per chest, which 
is very nearly the same that was made out by His 
Highness the late Maharaja. In addition to these 
items of revenue enumerated above, there is one more 
which requires some detailed explanation. The average 
export from Indore every year is 10,902 chests, and the 
average yearlj' exports from towns other than Indore, 
such as Eampura, Garot, Manasa, &c., are 1,000 chests. 
The exports from Indore are made up partly by opium 
produced within the State itself, and partly by opium 
imported into Indore in a crude form from foreign 
territory. The proportion in which these two quantities 
stand in the sayar (customs) returns is 4,628 chests of 
the former and 6,274 chests of the latter. The mofassil 
exports of 1,000 chests may be taken to represent only 
the State-grown opium, as there is little likelihood of 
foreign opium going there. Th? entire produce in the 
State is 7,625 chests, as given above. Deducting 
1,000 chests for mofassil exports, as explained above. 



and, say, 1,000 chests for local consumption, there 
remain 5,625 chests available for being exported from 
Indore city. But the sayar reUirus record the actual 
quantity of State opium received into Indore to be 
4,628 chests only, as shown before. This figure falls 
short of 5,625 by about 1,000 chests, which is, therefore, 
in my opinion, the extent of smuggling. The smug- 
gling is believed to be carried on in two ways. Some 
of it is pure and simple smuggling, that is to say, so 
much chick is brought by stealth from the districts 
to Indore directly, and thus has evaded the Es. 2-5-0 
cess altogether. But in parts close to or bordering 
upon foreign territory of other Native States the 
likelihood is that chick produced within our boundary 
is smuggled into foreign territory, and again brought 
back into the State under cover of foreign opium, 
which at once makes a vast difference in the cess 
charged upon it. The cess on foreign chick is only one 
rupee per bag, which usually contains 15 dhadis. Con- 
sidering the facilities for this latter kind of smuggling, 
600 chestsmay be taken to represent it, leaving 400 chests 
representing pure direct smuggling. If the 600 chests, 
indirectly smuggled, had come in the regular way, it 
would have yielded at Es. 2-5-0 the following revenue : — 
600 X 16 = 9,600 ; 9,600 X Es. 2-5-0 = 22,200, or, 
roughly speaking, 20,000. The above result is arrived 
at synthetically starting from the datum that the area 
under opium cultivation in the State is 122,000. The 
same thing may be put aualytically as follows : — The 
number of dhadis annually taxed at Es. 2-5-0 per 
dhadi on the chick produced and sold in the State as 
shown by the fadnavishi accounts is 90,322. Sixteen 
dhadis of crude opium make one chest of manufactured 
opium. So 90,322 dhadis give 5,645 chests. The sayar 
accounts show that annually 74,034 dhadis of chick 
produced in the State is brought to Indore for being 
manufactured. These dhadis make 4,628 chests. The 
difference between 5,645 and 4,628 is 1,017, or in round 
numbers 1,000. From the information called for from 
the Eampura District, it is known that about a 
thousand chests are annually exported direct without 
coming to Indore. So 90,32-J dhadis annually taxed by 
the State are correctly accounted for. The average 
number of dhadis of chick annually coming to Indore 
from outside as given by the sayar is 99,360. These 
dhadis give 6,210 chests. The number of chests there- 
fore manufactured from opium chick produced in the 
State and from that coming from outside is 5,645 + 
6,210 = 11,855. The average annual export of chests 
from Indore as shown by the Opium Godown Depart- 
ment is 10,909 chests. The number of chests exported 
direct from Eampura is 1,000. So the total number of 
chests exported annually from the State is 11,902. 
Thus the number of chests annually manufactured 
tallies very nearly with the number of chests annually 
exported. The question then arises — Whence comes 
the quantity of opium for consumption in the State ? 
The population of the State is nearly eleven lakhs. 
Taking 25 per cent, as opium consumers, the numljcr 
comes to 2,75,000. The average quantity consumed per 
head daily is about one mashaoTl5 grains. At this rate 
the total amount consumed in the year comes to about 
20,000 dhadis. To these must be added about 12,000 
dhadis which, though really produced in the State, 
come back under cover of foreign chick by smuggling, 
making 32,000. This number of dhadis gives 2,000 
chests, which, together with the 6,645 chests given 
above, makeup 7,645 chests, which is nearly the pro- 
duction of 122,000 bighas at one dhadi per bigha. To 
proceed to account for these 2,000 chests or 32,000 
dhadis. A portion of it is manifestly being retained 
by the cultivators for their own consumption, and 
therefore does not come under the Es. 2-5-0 cess. 
Taking it to be about 750 chests, the remaining 1,260 
only may be presumed to be smuggled into Indore by 
direct and indirect way. This result accords very 
nearly with the result worked out in the other way. 
There is thus every reason to believe that smuggling of 
an indirect kind under cover of foreign chick has been 
going on to the extent above shown, and that it might 
he^ stopped by rigorously cliecking every import of 
chick from foreign territory by requiring parwanas 
under which it lelt the foreign territory. Orders have 
accordingly been issued to that eHect, by which 
Es. 20,000 at least will bo added to the revenue from 
the Es. 2-5-0 cess. Adding this sum of Es. 20,000 to 
the total income given above, gives a grand total of 
Es. 20,29,843, representing the annual revenue to the 
State from opium. I should like to add that I have 
endeavoured, to the best of my power to give an 
estimate of the loBses that would be sustained. It was 



MINUTES OP EVIDENCE. 



lOS 



made witliiB the short time allowed to its, and I have 
reason to believe that if the figures are ■worked out 
more leisurely aud carefully there may be an increase ; 
I do not think there will be any decrease. There is one 
item, for instance, which I have omitted from con- 
sideration — the revision of the assessment. If any pro- 
hibition policy were to come into operation it would, 
I think, be necessary to revise our assessments, and in 
the case of an important State like Indore there might 
be under that head a very large increase — three or four 
lakhs. 

22.204. For the mere re-assessment ?— Yes. These 
figures are only to be taken as approximate estimates. 

22.205. That charge for re-assessment would be an 
expenditure occurring once only P — Yes. 

22.206. The other figures are recurring ? — Yes. 

22.207. In addition to the items making up the total 
of 20 lakhs you have dealt with another item which you 
say requires some detailed explanation — smuggling 
Bs. 20,000. Can you give us the general result of that 
statement? — Indore and, several other States are con- 
terminous, the villages of one State bordering upon 
those of another. Our tax upon opium from tho place 
of production is Es. 2 5a. In order to evade that pro- 
ducers will produce opium in Indore territory, take 
it to a neighbouring \'illage belonging, say, to G-walior 
or Jaora, and then bring it back to Indore as opium not 
belonging to our State, but belonging to either G-walior 
or Jaora. They have an inducement to do that be- 
cause the duty which they have to pay for bringing 
opium to one of our villages where opium is produced 
to Indore is Rs. 2 5a., whereas the tax which we 
levy upon opium for the purpose of being manufactured 
from neighbouring States is Es. 1 per bag containing 
about 25 dhadis of seers each. That is the principle 
upon which the calculation is made. 

22.208. Having explained to us ivhat may be called 
the total income derivable from opium, in order to get 
a net figure, you must deduct something for the 
revenue which may be expected to be realised from the 
croD next best to opium ? — From this must be deducted 
theestimated amount of revenue expected to be realised 
from the crop next best to opium. Having regard to 
the circumstances existing in this State, wheat is con- 
sidered to be this crop, and the average rate expected 
to be realised from it is Es. 2 per bigha, or Es. 2,20,000 
in all. Export duty on grain as at present levied 
should also be added to this probable estimate of the 
substituted revenue. This export duty on grain is 
estimated yearly to be Es. 6,248. So, on the whole, 
the total income will be Es. 2,26,248. Thus annual 
loss to the State from the prohibition of opium would 
bo Es. 20,29,843 minus Es. 2,26,248, or Bs. 18,03,595. 

22.209. You have referred to the expenditure upon 
tanks ; to what extent would there be a loss under that 

liead ? His late Highness Tukoji Eao Maharaja spent 

no less than 33 lakhs of rupees upon tanks and -wells 
with the view expressly of affording facilities for the 
growth of opium within this State. As no other 
irrigated crop can, under the circumstances of the 
State, be profitably raised instead of opium, this large 
sum of money must cease to be remunerative. This 
sum at 4 per cent, per annum would have yielded an 
interest of Bs. 1,32,000, which, therefore, must also be 
added to the above sum of Es. 18,03,595 to arrive at 
the total annual loss to the State, which thus comes to 
Bs. 19,35,595. 

22.210. What figure have you taken for the necessary 
preventive establishment ? — It will be necessary to add 
the cost of preventive measures for the suppression of 
opium. It is ray personal experience, and I believe 
it also to be the experience of every officer connected 
with the administration of the State, that the present 
staff, both at head-quarters and the mufassil, is unable 
to cope with the work which they have at present 
to perform. The old lax system under which a 
patwari, who drew the nominal pay of 14 annas per 
month, was expected to keep the accounts of a village 
yielding a revenue of several thousands of rupees, is 
being replaced by better-paid men. The hereditary 
servants, such as Kangos, Mandlois, and others, are 
being replaced, where practicable, by regular servants 
of the State with the view of promoting general 
efficiency and getting rid of corruption. There is 
therefore a cry for more men and better pay in every 
department of the State, and the cry is undoubtedly 
well founded. Consequently if opium be suppressed, 
extra establishment will have to be maintained, 

O 82588. 



costing about Es. 2,92,950 annually, as will be seen Bao Bahadur 
from the details given later on in the discussion K. C. 

regarding preventive measures. It may be pjjsible Bedarhar. 
to curtail, on the other hand, a part of our present {Indore State.") 

establishment; but it will be quite impossible to reduce 

it to a greater extent than Es. 50,000 a year, which sum ^ ^^^- 1°^*' 

should therel'ore be deducted froin Es. 2,92,950. A 

greater jiart of the preventive establishment will not 
be I'equii'od to be maintained throughout tho year. It 
will therefore be fair to deduct another sum of 
Es. 1,00,000. The preventive measures will thus at 
least cost Es. 1,42,950. Adding this to Bs. 19,35,595 
the total comes to Es. 20,78,545, representing the total 
annual loss to the State, or, in round members, 
21 lakhs. 

22,111. The next question with which you propose to 
deal is the loss to agriculturists? — It is calculated 
with reference to question No. 62 of the series of 
questions sent by the Agency to the Darbar, and 
which, with my answers, are appended to this memo- 
randum, it is found -that a cultivator realises a 
profit of Es. 17 per bigha of opium-growing land. 
In the case of the next best crop his net profit would 
be Rs. 2 per bigha ; deducting 2 from 17, the loss 
to .him per bigha would be Rs. 15. The area of 
land under actual opium cultivation in the State lands 
is 110,546, and the area in jagir lands is 12,000, in all 
122,546. Multiplying by 16, the total loss to the opium 
cultivators, both of the State and jagirs, comes to 
Es. 18,38,190. Besides the loss given above, account 
must be taken of the loss corresponding to the invest- 
ments by the cultivators on their own account in the 
sinking of wells. They have borrowed capital on this 
head both from the Sirkar and sowcars. The State 
accounts show that loans to the amount of Rs. 3,00,000 
have been made to them during the past few years, for 
which they pay interest at varying rates. It is impos. 
sible to ascertain how much the cultivators have 
borrowed from other sources or spent out of their own 
savings. But there is no doubt that their investment 
-would come to a considerable amount. For this sum 
they have been paying interest to their creditors. 
This thej' must continue to pay until the liquidation of 
their liabilities even if poppy cultivation were stopped. 
Leaving out of account the interest on their unascer- 
tained liabilities, that on Rs. 3,00,000, advanced by the 
Sirkar at 6 per cent., gives Rs. 18,000, which, together 
with the loss in their savings given above, makes up 
the sum of Rs. 18,56,190 as the annual loss. 

22.212. What is your estimate of the loss tothejagir- 
dars ? — The irrigated land in jagir villages is 15,000 
bighas, of which about 12,000 is under poppy cultiva- 
tion. Tho average assessment realised by them may 
be taken to be Rs. 15 per bigha, as I think they charge 
a little more than the State. Deducting from it the 
assessment that could be levied by them on the next 
best crop at the rate of Rs. 2 per bigha, the net loss to 
the jagirdars and thakurs would be Es. IS per bigha 
or Rs. 1,56,000 in the aggregate. In addition to their 
own land rent they get some share of the Rs. 2-5-0 
cess levied by the State on the chick produced and 
weighed at their villages. This share varies from 
annas 4 to 16 per dhadi. Taking the average to be 
10 annas, the income to the jagirdars taken together 
from this source is Rs. 7,510. These two items added 
together give the annual loss to jagirdars at Rs. 1,63, .500. 
Besides this actual loss the jagirdars will get no 
adequate return for the cost of construction of wells 
and other improvements made by them in their estates, 
with a special view of facilitating the growth of poppy. 

22.213. What do you estimate to be the loss to the 
class of traders and bankers.? — The opium chick pro- 
duced is generally purchased by the village tipdar or 
middleman on his own account or as agent to the city 
manufacturers. He buys the chick at one or two 
rupees less than the market price from the cultivators, 
for whom he stands security to Revenue officers with 
regard to the payment of assessment. Eoughly speak- 
ing, he makes 1 rupee per dhadi sold. The village 
dalal or broker gets 4 annas per dhadi for his labours 
in travelling- from place to place and collecting juice. 
The village tullawati or weigher gets 2 annas per dhadi 
of the chick weighed and sold. The village tipdar then 
brings the chick to the city manufacturers. First it 
goes to the sayar or Customs office, where it is weighed 
and dhadwai tax levied when sold._ The city sowcar 
gets from the village tipdar commission at 8 annas per 
cent, on the amount of purchase. _ The time inter- 
vening between the coming of the chick to the manu- 
facturer and that of the drying of the balls fit for being 

o 



106 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION; 



10 Bahadur sold in chests is about 18 months. For tLiis period the 
K. C. sowcar calculates interest at 6 per cent, on nis invest- 
Bedarkar. meat. All the sowcars are not manufacturers. Some 
ndore State.) of them get the manufacturing business done through 
others, by paying Ks. 14 for 30 dhadis of chicli manu- 
factured for them. The manufacturers get a net profit 
of Rs. 4 out of the Es. 14. The city dalal and tullawati, 
combined into one, get about Us. 2 per chest. There is 
a class of traders who buy chests locally manufactured, 
and send thom to Bombay. They make B,s. 4 per 
chest. Taking ?Al these items together, the different 



persons concerned get Rs. 72- 
foUows : — 



-10-li in all per chest as 



Rs. a. 


P- 


16 





4 





2 





2 





44 10 


U 


4 





72 17 


li 



Village Tipdar 

Do. Dalai 

Do Tullawati 
City Dalal and Tullawati 
Do. Sowcar - . - . 

Trader who locally buys and exports 

to Bombay 

Total 



The number of chests annually exported is about 11,000- 
Multiplying this number by Es. 72 10a. 5np. the result is 
the annual profit to all the above traders concerned, 
that is, Es. 7,98,875. One chest of manufactured opium 
is worth about Rs. 500. As shown above, a trader gets 
about Es. 72 10a. J Ip. as profit per chest. At this rate 
the total amount of profit for 11,000 chests annually 
exported is Es. 7,98,875. This is obtained from an 
outlay of Es. 46,76,000 at about Es. 425, the cost price 
per chest, and gives a dividend of about Rs. 17 per cent. 
If opium cultivation is suppressed, this annual profit 
will be reduced to Rs. 1,87,00, calculating interest at 
4 per cent, on Rs. 46,76,000. Deducting this sum from 
the present profit of Rs . 7,98,875, the remainder is 
Rs. 6,09,875, representing (he annual loss to the traders 
above named. Besides these, there others who gain 
livelihood in other ways from opium. The ball-makers 
make annually about Rs. 63,000 ; the labourers or 
kamals make Rs. 5,250, and charitable institutions 
receive about Rs. 26,500 as contributions from opium 
merchants. Then, again, the Indore merchants have 
branch firms in Bombay for the purpose of the export 
trade to China. These firms make about Rs. 1,47,000 
annually as commission on the business they transact. 
If opium traffic is suppressed, all these will be deprived 
of their means of subsistence to the extent specified 
above. Thus the sum total of annual loss to the trading 
class and others coming wilhin its pale is about rupees 
eight lakhs and a half. The chests now in stock in 
Indore are estimated at about 21,000. The investment 
per chest is about Rs. 425 ; so a capital of Es. 89,25,000 
is locked up in opium traffic. If opium trafiic be sup- 
pressed this large capital, as well as nearly half a crore 
annually employed in the opium trade, will go abegging 
for profitable investment, which it will scarcely get. 

22,214. Upon this question of compensation, which 
is a very grave one, we shall be glad to hear your 
views P — Closely allied with the question of losses, 
attendant upon the prohibition of opium, is that of 
compensation. It is a very plausible ai'gument that 
if the British Government afforded compensation to 
Native States, the latter should have no objection to 
the proposed change. A little consideration will, how- 
ever, show that the matter is not so simple as might at 
first be supposed. Supposing it was possible for 
Government to aftbrd compensation at cent, per cent, 
of all the actual pecuniary losses of each State, the 
latter would hardly be satisfied with the compromise. 
For it is one thing to be able to grow the crop and 
raise a revenue therefrom, and it is quite another thing 
to receive a certain money compensation annually in 
lieu of it. The former is a matter of right or posses- 
sion of an important landed interest, the latter is a 
matter of so much money allowance. The former is 
fraught with possibilities of development and increased 
profit ; the latter is a stated return, shut up to all 
chance of increase. There is a sort of dignity, great- 
ness, independence, and sovereignty attaching to the 
former ; the latter can be regarded in no better light 
than an annuity or dividend allowed to a member or 
shareholder by a Stock or Insurance Company. n.''erri- 
tory yielding revenue equal to the State loss can alone 
adequately compensate it ; and I fear a demand for any 
such grant would be simply ridiculed. In short, any 
scheme awarding compensation can, at the most, deal 
with the actual pecuniary losses, leaving the injury in 



respect of the pecuniary interest in posse, or to the 
sentimental side of the matter totally uncompensated. 
But the problem of giving compensation for the actual 
pecuniary losses is itself not easy of solution. I have 
shown above how many parties would be involved in los;" 
and what would be their respective losses, and the aggre- 
gate comes to Es. 49,48,235. This amount of compen- 
sation must be forthcoming to make good the sum 
total of thom all. Come it must ; for there will be a 
failure of justice otherwise. Unless all the parties are 
fully compensated, their willing acquiescence in the 
proposal is quite out of the question. Assuming then 
that the fullest compensation is forthcoming, how will 
it be possible to apportion and distribute the same in 
the case of the agriculturists and traders ? The approxi- 
mate amount of their losses is given above in one lump 
sum. But I cannot conceive how the individual losses 
that make it up can be ascertained and the corre- 
sponding compensation distributed to the right indi- 
viduals. The problem is, on the whole, marked by 
extreme difiiculty and complexity, and is one which it 
will be impossible to solve in a way that will satisfy 
the just claims of all the parties. In conclusion, I have 
no hesitation in saying that the extension of the prohibi- 
tion of opium to the Indore State, even if accompanied 
by pecuniary compensation, will dislocate its finances 
and its revenue system hopelessly, and will give a per- 
manent blow to the various classes and interests in it. 
I may in this place consider the kindred question 
whether or not it will be possible to recoup the State's 
loss by the development of other sources of revenue, by 
increase of taxation, and by curtailment of expenditure. 
This is the remedy proposed bj' the advocates of pro- 
hibition to the Government of India for making up 
the void that will be created in the event of prohibition 
in their finances. It must be seen whether that remedy 
is applicable in the case under discussion. In this con- 
nexion, it is important to remember one material and 
essential diff"erence between the Government of India 
and this State. The resources of the former arc vast, 
varied, and elastic. They are developing every year. 
Their sources of revenue other than the land-rent are 
many and considerable. The finances of this State 
depend, for the most part, on land revenue, which is 
fixed. All the other sources put together form but a 
fraction of the total revenue, and are as stationary 
as the land assessment. An order was made only 
last year to grant annual remissions to the tune of 
several lakhs of rupees. The income of the State, cir- 
cumscribed as it is by internal conditions as well as 
by the depression of trade resulting from the increasing 
growth of opium in China and the competition of 
Persia, has not only lost its elasticity, but reached its 
lowest level. Consequently, the State will never be 
able to make up the great deficiency attendant upon 
the prohibition of opium, and restore equilibrium by 
an increased income from other resources. As for the 
expenditure of Indore, it does not admit of retrench- 
ment. On the contrary, it has a tendency to increase, 
and has latterly positively increased, especially in the 
Military Department, owing to the formation and main- 
tenance of the Indore Imperial Service Cavalry, and in 
the Educational Department by the establishment of 
the Holkar College in the new building now nearly 
completed. Vast improvements which must cost a very 
considerable sum of money are under contemplation in 
the Public Works Department. Several roads, bridges, 
and public buildings for the location o f Amin Kucherles^ 
Courts of Justice, and buildings for the accommodation 
of the police, would be in hand but for the want of 
funds which can come from no other source than land 
revenue. Further taxation in 1 ndore is impossible and 
not to be thought of If the Government of India, with 
their vast rich and developing resources and with the 
possibility of efiecting considerable reductions in the 
Home charges, and also, according to some, of effecting 
reductions in the military expenditure, emphatically 
deny that they will ever be able to recoup the loss of 
their revenue from opium prohibition, much less will 
it bo possible for the Indore State to make its two ends 
meet. It will be quite impossible to make adequate 
progress within the State at all commensurate with the 
prcigress going on beyond it. On the contrary, it will 
be impoverished, if not completely ruined. The Akra 
Panch of Indore tell me that they have recoverable 
outstandings in connexion with the opium trade of 
about 3 crores of rupees, and that the prohibition of 
opium will make this recovery almost impossible. The 
State also has outstandings due by cultivators extending 
over seveial crores. How much of this is for opium 
cannot be estimated. But it must come to some crores 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



107 



and there is no doubt the cultivators if prohibited to 
grow opium will never be able to repay it. 

22,215. What do you estimate to be the net cost of 
the necessary preventive measures ? — The wide-spread 
cultivation of the poppy in this State would make it an 
extremely dif&cult task to prohibit its growth, except 
for medical purposes. Nearly every village in the 
Eampnra District, including Bhanpura, grows poppy. 
Few villages in Indore district are without the poppy. 
In Nimad it is sparsely grown, and in Nimawar it is 
rarely grown. To allow the poppy to be grown where 
it is now grown, but to restrict its growth in each place 
to the extent only of the medical requirements, would 
be impracticable, if not absolutely impossible, and 
would require a host of preventive officers at an expense 
quite incommensurate with the object to be attained. 
It will be expedient to select a part of the country and 
allow in it as much opium to be cultivated as would be 
required to meet the medical requirements of the whole 
State. Special rules and regulations will have to be made 
for the cultivation of the plant, for the ascertainment 
of the quality and quantity cf the product in its crude 
state, for its manufacture into a saleable condition, and 
for its distribution to those who may require it. Rules 
and regulations and a large number of preventive 
ofiBcers will be necessary to enforoa the prohibition of 
the growth in the rest of the territory. All this pro- 
ceeding, besides being inquisitorial, will require a 
lare extra establishment, the present one being scarcely 
able to perform, the work which it has to cope with 
now. During the time that the ephemeral Treaty 
negotiated in 1826 lasted, a state of things existed 
which is described in two sentences quoted below from 
Sutbofland's sketches quoted by Aitchison, Yol. III., 
p. 332, first edition, and to which Mr. A. Mackay 
alludes in his introduction to his work on the Chiefs of 
Central India, page lix. and Ix. ' ' They (the British 
" Government) did not know that they had raised up a 
■' cloud of spies and opium seizors, whose hand was in 
" every man's house, and in every man's cait ; that 
" they were teaching the Governments of these 
" countries to lend us their aid to forward views most 
" opposed to the interests of their own subjects, 
" whether agricultural or commercial, or to the extent 
" to which the odium of the whole system fell upon 
" themselves." 

* * * * 

" At last, opium carriers armed to oppose opium 
" seizers, and a sort of civil war had in some places 
" arisen, which is likely to become more extended." It 
is believed that, viewed by the light of the above two 
passages, the establishment detailed below will not be 
found to be more than necessary for the suppression of 
the poppy in this State. There are over 5,000 villages in 
the State, of which I assume 3,000 to be those in which 
the poppy is grown. This estimate is rather under 
than above the mark. There are 40 mahals in the 
State. Upon these facts, I think it will be necessary 
to have one guard in each opium-producing village, 
and one inspector in each mahal, with a sub-inspector 
to assist him in the larger mahals. The inspector 
would lequire a karkun or two, and a few chaprasis. 
The molrassil establishment will be of two kinds, the 
watchmen remaining stationary in each village, and 
the inspectional staff travelling for at least four months, 
and being engaged on duty for six months. The head- 
office at Indore will be full-time workers, but must 
travel for at least four months and superintend the 
operations of the whole department. The establish- 
ment and the cost necessary for this purpose will be as 
follows : — 

Head-Q/uarter Establishment. 



Charges for one year. 



Head preventive ofi&cer at Indore on Eg. 
300 a month - ' - 

One head clerk on Es. 50 a month 

l.st „ „ 30 „ 

2nd ,, ,, 26 

3rd ., ,, 20 

4th „ .. 20 

6 Chaprasis at Es. 5 each ., 
Contingent expenses for one year 

Total 



Es. 

3,600 
600 
360 
300 
240 
240 
360 
150 

5,580 



Mofassil Inspectorial JEstabUshment. 

lib. 

40 Inspectors on Es. 100 per head 
per month including travel- 
ling allowance - . 48,000 

80 Karkuns at two Karkuns 
under one inspector, one on 
Es. 35 and the other on Es. 25 
per mouth - - - 28,800 

160 Chaprasis at four chaprasis 
under one inspector on Es. 5 
per head per month - 9,600 

20 Sub-inspectors for large mahals 
on Rs. 50 per month, includ- 
ing travelling allowance - 12,000 

20 Karkuns at one karkun under 
each Kuo-inspootor on Es. 25 
per month each - 6,000 

40 Chaprasis at two chaprasis for 
each sub-inspector on Es. 5 
per head - - - 2,400 

3,000 Guards at one guard per village 

on Es. 6 per head - - 1,80,000 

Contingencies for inspectors and 

sub-inspectors - - 300 

Total - 2,87,100 

Grand total - 2,92,950 

Having regard to the fact that this establishment 
will not be a whole-time establishment, and that only 
the head office will have to be maintained throughout 
the year, I will in the lump deduct one lakh of rupees 
from the above amount, and I will also deduct a sum of 
half a lakh of rupees which may be saved by a reduc- 
tion from our present administrative establishment. 
These deductions leave Es. 1,42,950 as the least amount 
which will be required to take preventive measures for 
the suppression of the poppy. The preventive measures 
of this State to be effectual must be of a character co- 
operative with the measures which may be adopted by 
the British Government, and the other States of 
Central India, and may require to be modified both as 
regards costs and numbers. 

22,216 The inquiry on which this Commission is 
engaged has been instituted in deference to the wishes 
of those who have a high moral object in view. Those 
who have promoted the inquiry are exceedingly anxious 
that in all countries with which our Government is 
either directly or indirectly concerned the principles 
of moderation and the avoidance of excess in all things 
shall prevail. Supposing a policy of prohibition to be 
established in British India and accepted by the State 
with which you are connected, how do you think thjat 
the diminished use or the cessation of the use of 
opium, would lead to excess in other directions P — I 
^have very great respect for Sir Joseph Pease and his 
philanthropy, and also for Mr. Caine, with whom I have 
had the pleasure of personal acquaintance; but I am 
still of opinion, having considered the matter carefully, 
that so far as this State is concerned a policy of pro- 
hibition in the first place is unnecessary, and, in the 
second place, would produce very grave discontent and 
lead to a resort to liquor. If the cheap and easily 
accessible opium be placed beyond the reach of the 
people, and if the people must have something as a 
luxurious stimulant or comforter after toil, they will 
most probably have recourse to the worst kind of liquor, 
In these parts toddy is not obtainable ; so that the only 
liquor available will be either the country liquor of 
cheap liquors imported from Great Britain and the 
Continent of Europe. The great majority of the people 
of this State are Hindus, and a great portion of them 
belong to castes whom religion forbids the use of 
liquor, but permits that of opium, and consequently 
who consume that drug very generally. Indeed, even 
tobacco-smoking is foibidden by religion to a number of 
castes, both Hindu and non-Hindu, such as the Nagars, 
Bohras, Parsis, Sikhs and others, and is held socially 
not respectable by a host of others, but there is not a 
single class or caste in the whole of India, or, for the 
mattoi- of that, in the whole world, whose religion 
interdicts the use of opium. 'i\> all such, liquor will be 
an inducement to break the commandments of their 
religion. As for the rest, those among them who 
hitherto satisfied their cravings for a stimulant by 
opium will do so by liquor. So that a race of opium- 
eaters will be substituted by a race of liquor-di'inkers. 
Liquor of the sort which they will get, being of bad 

O 2 



Sao Bahadur 

K.C. 

Bedarkar. 

(^Indore State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



108 



INDIAN OPIDM COMMISSION : 



Feb. 1894. 



Rao Bahadur quality, will not prove so harmless as opium has been, 

K. C. but will work destructively on their mental powers and 

Bedarkar. physical constitution, and will also lead to oft'ensive- 

{Indore State.) ness in society, depravity in morals, and criminality in 

their actions. 

22,217. You wish to say something on the question 
of what you call political danger ? — The traditions of 
mythology or the records of history give no instance of 
any portion of humanity who at any period of time did 
not indulge in a stimulant of some sort. On the con- 
trary, mythology and history alike teach us that every 
nation has been in the habit of using one or more sub- 
stances to gratify their innate desire i'or a drug or 
substance which brought on exhilaration or intoxication. 
From a variety of local causes, one nation had one sort 
of a stimulant and another the same or something 
different. For centuries in India opium has been used 
as a stimulant by several classes of people, and in 
Malwa a considerable portion have come to regard it as 
a necessary function of their daily life. "Whether as an 
article of necessity or luxury, as a tonic or as a medicine 
against disease, opium has become a part and parcel 
of their life. The daily administration of opium to 
infants is universal throughout India. Hardly 10 per 
cent, go without it. Opium does no physical harm to 
them, much less to adults, when taken in moderation. 
Even taken in excess it takes years for bad results to 
follow either on the body or on the mind. There are 
some people who take 8 or 10 tolas without being 
seriously injured. I am told there is one man in the 
city who can eat half a ball of opium without injury, 
and I can produce him. At the same time opium may 
of course be abused like anything else, however harm- 
less in itself. It may be used for self destruction or 
murder ; but the above is an exception, and the moderate 
use is the rule in this part of the country. Opium 
consumers for the most part belong to castes which, 
by religion or usage, are forbidden to use liquor, and 
have found in opium a svibstanoe giving energy for their 
daily toil and a solace and comfort after that toil is over. 
The habit of using opium v/hen once formed is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to get rid of. Its use is absolutely 
harmless and leads to no criminality. On the contrary, 
opium cultivation has in this State positively chocked 
the criminal practices of the criminal tribes, such as 
the Moghias, Sondyas, Bhils, Baoris, and others upon 
whom Maharaja Holkar has spent large sums of moneys 
and whom the Darbar has given lands for peaceful 
settlement. These will almost surely resort to their 
forefathers' predatory occupation. The recent report 
by the Actuary of the Oriental Life Assurance Company 
has established that the Company has not had to deal 
with a single death from opium for so many as 20 3'e.ars. 
Mr. Rustomji Pestonji Jehangir, of Bombay, has shown 
in his recent work on ' The Lives of Opium Smokers in 
Bombay ' that, during a period of eight years, he has 
not found a single case of criminality originating in the 
use of opium. There has been within my knowledge 
not a single case of a Government servant being di.^- 
missed for over-indulgence in opium either in this 
State or in British India, whereas cases of dismissals 
for over-indulgence in liquor may be counted by the 
dozen. The preventive mcasuie.s which can be de\'ised 
ibr restricting the growth of the poppy to medical 
purposes, and prohibiting the growth otherwise, would 
be needlessly inquisitorial in tlie highest degree and 
distasteful all round. Under these circumstances the 
least interference with the use of opium is sure to be 
resented by every class of the people on one ground or 
another. Non-users would resent it on the ground 
that if the use of opium is interfered with to-day 
something else might be selected for interference to- 
morrow. Prom the highest to the lowest the inter- 
ference would be resented on the ground of the 
infraction of a right to use any substance in any rational 
way they pleased. Users would resent it on the ground 
of interference with their habits and customs. And 
all would resent it on the ground of the sure probability 
of the substitution of the more dear and (icstruotive 
alcohol imported from the home of the philanthropic 
anti-opiumists and religious bigots blind to all argu- 
ments but their own, notwithstanding the fact that 
some of them may be total abstainers. India is 
essentially a conservative country, and the Indian 
people's predudices, sentiments, and practices being 
Ijleiided more or less with religion, are deep-rooted 
and cxlrcmcly difEoult to eradicate. Indian histoi-y 
furnishes numerous instances ol' serious di.slur])ances 
having arisen li-om a disregard of these eli!U-;iot<'L- 
istic susceptibilities. The rioLs of this yuar in the 
various and distant parts of India are th(j must 



recent illustration of this fact, which may be takeii 
as incontrovertible, and when it is obesrved that 
the proximate causes of these riots have been such 
insignificant tirifles as the ringing of a bell, the parad- 
ing of a tabui, or the sight of an animal legitimately 
slaughtered, it is but reasonable to suppose that the 
ignorant portion of the community will resent any 
interference with their inveterate domestic habits most 
bitterly and most certainly. 'I'he cultivators Avill be 
discontented because their principal product of agri- 
culture will have gone. The mai-tial classes like the 
Sikhs, Rajputs, Eathors, and Poorbeas, who form the 
major portion of the State army, the Police and the 
Shibandi, will resent it because of the loss of their 
favourite stimulant and giver of energy. The merchants 
and traders will resent it because their whole occupa- 
tion will have gone. It is clear, therefore, that the 
proposed measure is certain to result in the gravest 
discontent amounting to serious ])olitical danger such 
as no G-overnment would take the risk of incurring ; 
and this danger would be infinitely enhanced by the 
fact that it has originated in the agitation raised by 
proselitysing missionaries and tenaciously pursued by 
them both in and out of India. It would be unwise, 
impolitic, and impracticable for any Government to 
incur the risk of such a widespread discontent and such 
a serious political danger. It is indeed a pity that 
things should have been allowed to have gone on to the 
extent to which the}' have already proceeded, and it 
would be necessaiy and wise to allay in the best 
possible manner the discontent which has unfortunately 
already been caused, and which I noticed both amongst 
traders and agriculturists during the course of my 
inquiry for the purposes of this Commission. Their 
despairingly defiant tone was shown in a manner for 
which I was not prepared. 

22.218. What have you to say with regard to the 
effects of prohibition on China ?— If the object of the 
proposed prohibition of opium be to put a stop to the 
poisoning of the Chinese on moral or religious grounds, 
then that object will remain as distant from fulfilment 
as ever, because I believe the prepondei-ancc of autho- 
ritative evideiice goes to show that the Chinese will 
grow and consume opium in spite of everything to the 
contrary. 

22.219. Are there any further i-emarks that you desire 
to make ? — For the reasons I have given the British 
Cfovernment would not be justified by right or reason 
to as]^ the Indore State to extend the edict of prohi- 
biting the growth of opium, except for medical pur- 
poses. The points of reference Nos. 2 and '.'>, 4, .5. and 
t). so far as they apply to this State, have been already 
discussed and disposed of above. There exist no special 
arangements with this State in respect of the transit of 
opium through British territory. The practice has 
been for the British Government to charge a reasonable 
duty on each chest of opium exported from the State, 
and for the reasons explained it would be unjust to 
make a substantial change in the practice. His High- 
ness the late Mahai-aja Tukoji Rao over and ovei again 
protested against tho levying of a high export duty," and 
his Highness' protest was always treated with conside- 
ration and listened to. Tho present proposal is quite 
revolutionary in its character, and no protest would be 
too strong against it ; for it is obvious that both the 
pi'ohibition of opium and the raising of duty to a pro- 
hibitive figure can lead to but one result. As to a 
change short of total prohibition, I am of opinion that 
there is no case made out for regulating or restricting 
the opium trade or raising the revenue therefrom in the 
case of this State. The consumption of opium in a 
moderate way, as is the case in the State, is not 
only not deleterious, physically, mentally, morally, or 
socially, but is, on the other hand, positively beneficial, 
as it brightens the intellect, alleviates hunger, assists 
digestion, prevents disease, relic^■cs toil, and satisfies a 
natural cra\-ing. As to the willingness of the people to 
bear the cost of preventive measures it would be askinn- 
them to assist in their own destruction. One might as 
reasonabl}' expect them to alter human nature. 

22,220. (},Ir. Wilson.) You have mentioned throe 
principal matters in which there has been some sugges- 
tion of an alteration in the Native States ; is it the case 
that the British Goverunient has never, in the case of 
this State, gone beyond saying ' ' It is advisable ? " — In 
revenue niiittery I am absohi*-ely certain that it has 
nevei' gouu beyond that. 

22,2:.:J. Y.m do not apply that remark U> other 
matters t'—l have answered the question with leference 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



109 



to reventie ; if yon ■will put a distinct question on any 
other point I sliall bo prepared to answer it. 

22.222. I will not press it if you do not wish to 
answer it. My question was whether in regard to other 
matters the British Government had gone beyond 
saying that it was advisable ? — ^Your question is a very 
comprehensive one, and a vague answer would not be 
satisfactory. If you will put the question in precise 
terms, I will give as precise an answer as I can. 

22.223. I will not press it. You have said that the 
whole case clearly rests on so-called moral considera- 
tions, and has nothing to do with politics P — That is 
what I conceive the case to be. 

22.224. You regard morals and politics as entirely 
separate matters ? — In one sense they are, and in 
another they are not. Morality may be the ground of 
all our considerations, politics included. But dealing 
with politics especially, I make a distinction between 
politics and morality. 

22.225. Will you explain the distinction a little more 
clearly? — I conceive the case to be this. As the noble 
Ohajfmanhas said, this agitation arose in consequence 
of certain conscientious samples entertained by a 
certain class of very venerable people on the ground of 
morality. Morality to a certain extent in that sense 
includes religion. Morality in a practical form may be 
shaped according to the religion upon which each par- 
ticular aspect of it is based. India is an extremely 
conservative country, in the principal affairs of which 
religion has a potent inHuence ; and the above remarks 
specially apply to it. The agitation having originated 
in that way, it has a mixture of the religious and the 
moral aspect. Separating morality altogether from 
politics, I say, that this question has a purely moral 
aspect. The British Government is not supposed to in- 
terfere with our religion. The Queen's proclamation 
forbids it. They can only interfere on other than 
religious grounds. The ground upon which the Com- 
mission has proceeded being professedly a moral 
ground, and a conscientious ground, including religion 
but excluding politics, I say that the question, based as 
it is upon grounds of morality, has nothing whatever 
to do with politics. 

22.226. With regard to the three lakhs sunk on wells 
and tanks, those are not exclusively for poppy, are 
they p — Mostly, because othci' crops do not require the 
water poppy does. Poppy cultivation is distinguished 
from all cultivation in this respect, that it requires the 
shortest possible time, and all the water that is given 
to it has to be given within a certain short space of 
time. In Malwa, and especially in Indore, water lasts 
only for a short time, and unless these special pro- 
visions of wells and tanks are made, the cultivation of 
poppy will not thrive as well as it otherwise would. 

22.227. With reference to the three lakhs sunk by 
agriculturists, that is in addition to the 33 lakhs 
already referred to ? — Tbe 33 lakhs has been spent by 
the State; the three lakhs is what the State has ad- 
vanced to the cultivators themselves. The State has 
helped the agriculturists to build their wells for the 
purpose of poppy cultivation. 

22.228. In reference to smuggling, why do you make 
a difference in the payment, apparently giving pre- 
ference to a neighbouring State as compared with your 
own ? — For the purpose of increasing our export duty — 
that is one reason. Another reason is, that the 
merchants of Indore can alone, as a rule, afford to pay 
the expense of manufacture. 

22.229. You say that orders have been issued for 
making a change P — Yes, but the order has not yet 
been carried into effect. 

22.230. It has not come into full operation ? — It can- 
not, because this is not the time when any poppy milk 
is produced. Orders have been issued, but there will 
not be any poppy juice coming in for some time. 

22.231. It is only quite recently that it has occurred 
to you -to take this means of stopping smuggling P — It 
has occurred to me for some time, but measures have 
been taken quite recently. 

22.232. With reference to these various charges, have 
you in your calculation made allowance for the cost of 
collection P — Yes. I represented to the Agency that 
the course followed by the last Public Service Com- 
mission might be followed in this case, so as to allow 
every witness to bo ready with information on the 
subject. To aid the Commission I thought that if 
certain questions were framed, wo should be better 
able to assist you by placing evidence before you. 



22.233. Is it Hot a fact that there is now a smaller 
quantity of poppy sown than usual? — Decidedly not. 
I do not think so. I not think there has been any 
change in the quantity of poppy sown. 

22.234. Not even in this neighbourhood r — No. I 
think this is rather a good year. We are exceedingly 
hopeful of realising our full revcime this year very 
easily. 

2-, 235. You say that the use of opium is "abso- 
lutely harmless." Of course I understand you to 
speak as the Minister of this State ? — Decidedly not. I 
have endeavoured to frame my answers as if I were on 
oath or affirmation. I have tried to the utmost of my 
ability to be as accurate as the information supplied to 
me will enable me to be. 

22.236. You do not think that the habit of taking 
opium can be in any way regarded as a vice ? — The 
habit is decidedly a vice ; but if anybody has got into 
the habit I see no reason why he should not be allowed 
to indulge in it. I would not go in for opium myself, 
not having been in the habit up to now. 

22.237. You have expressed considerable respectfor Sir 
Joseph Pease and Mr. Caine ; would you class them 
among the "-religious bigots blind to all arguments 
but their own " p — That depends upon their actions. 

22.238. In this case you would ? — I look to the 
actions, not to the men themselves. 

22.239. Was there not in this State an order issued 
a few weeks or months ago with reference to the 
cultivation of opium p — What about ? 

22.240. In reference to diminishing the quantity? — I 
never heard of it up to this moment. If there is any 
foundation for it I should be very glad to know. 

22.241. Are you aware that an impression prevails 
amongst some people th;it such an order was issued P — 
All I can say is that the origin of it must be very 
wicked. No oi'dtr would go except with my signature, 
and none has gone ; none has ever been in contempla- 
tion, to my knowledge, up to this moment. 

22.242. {Mr. Mowhray.) With regard to the amount 
of poppy land under cultivation, I understand that the 
1,10,000 bighas, which you calculate consists of irrigated 
lands, under the State itself, exclusive of the Jagirs p — 
Yes ; 10,000 or 12,000 more for the jagirdars. 

22.243. So that in fact nut of the 1,52,000 bigahs 
110,000 or more than two thirds of the irrigated lann 
are under poppy cultivation ? — Yes, that is my esti- 
mate ; it is only an estimate. 

22.244. With regard to the Treaties with the Native 
States, are there any agreements in force of that nature 
with the Maharaja Hollcar's State P — None, except the 
one mentioned, and that has ceased long ago. 

22.245. There are no arrangements at all now ? — None. 

22.246. The State levies a cess of Es. 2-6 per dhndiof 
5 seers of crude opium weighed at the State scales j. is 
that on what'is consumed locally and what is exp'orted'? 
— No; the Es. 2-5 is a duty that is imposed on opium 
the moment it is removed from the place of pro- 
duction and is generally brought to Indore, or, jierhaps, 
some little part of it goes outside. When it is so 
removed this tax of Rs. 2-5 per 5 seers is paid. 

22.247. Then, of course, if it goes to be exported, the 
export duty is on the chest when it is manufactured ; 
Es. 2-5 is on the crude opium P — The export duty is 
upon the chests which go to the scales. 

22.248. I rather gather that you are anxious that the 
Commission should come to as prompt a decision as 
possible P — That is my humble wish. 

22.249. I do not know whether this uncertainty that 
you refer to is more important at any particular time 
of the year than at any other time ? — No, I do not think 
there is any difference. I have had to collect infor- 
mation from agriculturists and traders in order to assist 
you in your present investigation. The agriculturists 
specially were very bitter ; they all had verj- false 
notions of what was coming. They thought that the 
British Government were going to introduce liquor 
and to prohibit altogether the growth of opium. I 
had considerable trouble in explaining to them what 
the real facts of the case were. Their tone was almost 
unreasonably defiant, and I thought it was my duty to 
place before you what was placed before myself, and 
what I thought of it. 

22.250. (Mr. Fanshawc.) Will you kindly explain 
what is the meaning of the term khasgi ? — It is a sub- 
division of the State which is under the general control 
of the Maharaja Holkar, and espeoially under the 

O 3 



liao Bahadur 
K. C. 

Bedarka'i'. 
{Indore Stale.) 

f Peb. 1894, 



110 



INDIAN OPIDM COMMISSION: 



Jiao Bahadur 

K.C. 

Bedarkir. 

(Jndore State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



control of the Maharani through the Minister of tho 
State. 

22,251. Are the details of the poppy grown upon 
that land included in the returns that you have sub- 
mitted ? — -Ves, they are now. 

22,262. They hare not been hitherto P — Not hitherto, 
nor the jagirdars. 

-■'2,253. Will you tell us what the " Akra Panch" of 
l/idoreis? — It is a body of traders appointed by the 
State from their position and o.xperience to regulate 
certain commercial matters, and they are invested 
with a bankruptcy jurisdiction. They are the repository 
of al' commercial information. They arbitrate privately, 
bring about se'tlementB, and fix prices. They are a very 
useful body of people. 

22.254. {Chairman.) A sort of Chamber of Commerce, 
with jurisdiction in matters of bankruptcy? — Yes, 
they are. 

22.255. (Mr. Fansliawe.) Have you a regular land 
revenue settlement in force in the Indore State ? — We 
have. 

22.256. Under that settlement are the rates fixed in 
cash on irrigated and unirrigated soil ? — They are cash 
rates. Sometimes the revenue is paid in kind, but it 
is realised in cash. All our dealings are in cash. 

22.257. I understand that poppy is your chief crop 
grown on irrigated land ? — It is. 

22.258. If poppy cultivation is prohibited, you con- 
template that tho rate on irrigated land will have 
to be reduced ? — Yes. 

22.259. The throe lakhs for irrigation works is, I 
understand, advanced to the cultivators ? — Yes. 

22.260. Have they repaid part of it ? — It is now being 
repaid. 

22.261. They are going on repaying it at the present 
time ? — Yes, they pay a certain interest and a portion 
of the principal. What would be true now, woi:ld not 
be true eight days hence ; it is constantly changing. 

22.262. On the larger part of the sum, are they still 
paying interest ? — Yes. 



22,263. Then that sum represents capital not yet 
repaid ? — Yos. 

22,264 So that if poppy cultivation were stopped, 
tho security on which you advanced these large sums 
would bo gone ? — Yes. 

22.265. That is why you think it ought to be taken 
into consideration in assessing the amount of loss ?— 
I do. 

22.266. In estimating the loss to agriculturists, what 
IS the next best crop which, in your opinion, can be 
substituted for poppy P— Wheat. There are two crops 
that come near it — cotton and linseed. Our soil in 
Indore is much more adapted to the cultivation of wheat 
than of linseed or cotton. 

22.267. You have stated that " in the case of the next 
best crop " the net profit would be Ks. 2 per bigha ?— Yes. 

22.268. In making that statement you refer to wheat ? 

—Yes. 

22.269. I understand you to say, that moral grounds 
do not justify the actual prohibition of the growth of the 
poppy, or interference with the opium trade, bat not to 
lay down the general proposition that the Government 
could not, in the interests of public morality, address 

a Native State by way of advice or remonstrance P On 

moral grounds they might bring persuasion or pressure 
to bear. 

22.270. I said by way of advice or remonstrance, but 
not beyond that p — Not beyond that. On the ground 
of political necessity, they may perhaps go further. 

22.271. {Sir William Roberts.) You said in answer to 
Mr. Wilson, that you considered tho opium habit a 
vice P — Yes, 

22.272. Do you mean that in the same sense as you 
would call the use of tobacco a vice ? — Yes, but not 
so much as alcohol ; that I would put upon a very 
diiferent ground. Alcohol I would consider a hateful 
vice, but opium eating I should consider a vice like 
smoking tobacco. 

22.273. {Mr. Fanshanve.) You mean a bad habit P— 
Exactly. Merely a bad habit. 



The witness withdrew. 



Chintamanrao 

Vinayak 

Vaidyi\ 

( Gwalior 

. State.) 



Chintamanrao Vinatak Vaibya, M.A., LL.B., called in and examined. 



22.274. {Chairman.) What is your post in Malwa ? — 
I am the Prant Judge of Malwa. 

22.275. In that capacity you have had opportunities 
of coming into close contact with the people of Malwa ? 
—Yes. 

22.276. You have thought it your duty to look care- 
fully into the opium question in connexion with the 
Gwalior State p — Yes. 

22.277. What is your general view in regard to the 
efEects of opium from a physical point of view ? — I have 
nowhere seen any physical degeneriition consequent on 
the use of opium. On the contrary, the people are 
generally healthy and free from disease. Opium (called 
" the Gift of God " to man) may be considered almost 
a necessity (o children and old men, and to many 
agriculturists and labourers, who are thereby protected 
from cold, indigestion, asthma, diarrhoea, and other evil 
effects of the damp climate of Malwa and the adjoining 
provinces. The habitual use of opium in moderate 
doses acts, it has been found, as a great preventive of 
the diseases mentioned above. 

22.278. What proportion of the population of Malwa 
are users of opium p — About one-third. 

22.279. Would you say it was the same proportion in 
Gwalior and also in Esagarh Prants P — Yes. 

22.280. If opium were prohibited, what do you think 
would be the effect with regard to the use of liquors p 
— Agriculturists and labourers in all countries take 
some sort of stimulant. If opium consumption be pro- 
hibited, these and others will take to liquors, which 
are more injurious than opium. 

22.281. You are speaking as a man who has a judicial 
office — has your experience led you to tho conclusion 
that the use of opium induces crime P — Opium intoxi- 
cation does not lead to crime. I had before me five 
cases of culpable homicide, two of highway roljbery, 
and one of an attempt to commit rape, committed under 
the influ'.Mice of liquor, but. none under that of opium. 
Piom statements prepaiedfrom the files of Subordiunto 
CourtK, I find that some cases of theft, hurt, and abusive 
language have occurred under the influence of liquor, 
but nono under that of opium. In a province where 



opium is consumed most and liquor least, that is a 
significant fact. The reason appears plain: the man 
in opium intoxication is engrossed with himself, while 
the brutalising tendency of liquor is notorious. 

22.282. What have you to say with regard to the 
policy of prohibiting the use of opium except for 
medical purposes p— The prohibition of the use of 
opium, except for medical purposes, is impolitic. It is 
a settled principle of politics that the Legislaturc'should 
not punish intoxication as a, crime, but leave it to the 
religious and moral preachers, and the spread of educa- 
tion to remedy tho evil. The habit of intoxication 
like some other vices, if suppressed by coercion of law 
will lead to very great moral and political evils. 

22.283. In the province with which you are connected 
do you think that the consumption of opium mav be 
regarded m any sense as a necessity p— In this pro- 
vince, further, opium consumption is not at all a vice 
but a physical necessity. Its use has grown among 
the Rajputs into a ceremonial custom. They drink 
kasumbha to the health of others as they do wine in 
England, and its use is ordained by custom in betrothal, 
niarriage, &o. To compel bo many men (say 5 lakhs of 
adults in the Gwalior State alone; to give up the habit 
of taking opium— a habit of centuries and not harmful 
—IS exceedingly difficult and dangerous. 

22 284. It has been proposed that the use of opium 
should be prohibited excepting for medical purposes • 
do you think such a regulation would be practicable P 
—it would oe diflicult, in many of the cases of opium 
consumption, to determine whether it is not taken for 
medical purposes. Qualified doctors cannot be sent to 
every village, and even if sent, to every important 
village, their appointment will involve a laro-c expen- 
diture. The prohibition of opium except fo? medical 
use will also, by increasing its value and the cravioGr of 
those who desire opmm, create very dangerous tempta- 
tions to coriiiptinn HI the wny of the Subordinate 
medical service and the growers of opium. 

22.285. (Mr.Wih-on.)Wm you toll me the meaning 
of the word " Prant "P-It means a division of this 
btate, composed of five or six districts. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



Ill 



22,286. Can you tell me whether it is anywhere laid 
down as an authority, as a settled principle of politics, 
that the Legislature shall not punish for intoxication? — 
I have read "Sedgwick's Politics," and it is 8tatod 
therein that so far as politics are concerned with the 
internal afl'airs of a State, they are regulated through 
tte functions of a Legislature, and the business of the 
Legislature should be to manage the conduct of indivi- 
duals, concerning not their own welfare but their 
relations with one another. 

22.287. Are you aware that in most European 
countries intoxication is punisbedP — I do not think it 
is. Of course, if a man is drunk in public, that kind of 
intoxication may be punished, because he is a nuisance 
to others. 

22.288. {The Maharaja of Barbhanga.) By the word 
" intoxication " you simply mean the use of stimulants ? 
— Yes, if a man gets drunk he may be said to be in- 
toxicated, but if he confines hinself to moderation, and 
does not drink to excess, he is not intoxicated. 

22.289. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Is it the case, that you 
anticipate that if the use of opium were prohibited, 
there would be an extension of the use of ulchol? — Yes, 
among those who have no objection to take alcohol. 
Those who are prohibited from taking it by their 
religion, would probably take to datura and the root of 
iowar plant, which it is impossible to prevent people 
from obtaining. 

22.290. Can you tell me from your knowledge, speak- 
ing generally, among what classes in the Malwa rrant 
the use of opium is more common, or is it a general 
practice P — ^It is general amongst almost all classes, 
but the Eajputs use it most — about 80 per cent, of 
them. 



22,290a. You mean that there is a larger proportion 
of persons who use opium among the Rajputs F — Yes. 

The witness withdrew. 



£2,290n. Is it used as a domestic remedy in many 
houses in your part of the country ? — Yes. 

22.291. {Mr. Mowbray.) Is your experience of the 
whole of Iho Q-waliur State, or are you speaking only 
of tbe Malwa part? — I have specially stuaied the opium 
question in connexion with the Gwalior State. 1 was 
appointed to assist Sir Michael Filose in this connexion, 
so that I can speak with regard to the whole State. 

22.292. You spoke of the Gwalior and Esagarh Practa 
— are they situated in the north-east part of the State ? 
—Part of the Esagarh Prants is contiguous to Malwa 
the remaining portion of the Prants is in tbe north-east 
of the Gwalior State. 

22.293. Do you think the same proportion of people 
consume opium in the north-eastern part as in Malwa ? — 
No, perhaps the use is greater in Malwa as far as the 
quantity which is used is concerned. The habit, 
however, is general. 

22.294. You mean to say, that about the same pro- 
portion of people consume it, but that the dose is greater 
in Malwa ? — Yes, the climate is damp, and perhaps they 
use it in larger doses. 

22.295. I do not understand what you mean when 
you say, " In the city population of Lashkar the 
" number of consumers is naturally less, because I 
" think the general evidence has gone to show that the 
" consumption of opium is geater in the cities than in 
" the country districts " ? — It may be so in other parts, 
but in Lashkar there are no agriculturists in the city, 
and these are the men who consume opium most. It 
has been found that in Lashkar tLe consumption of 
opium is less than in Malwa. 

22,296. Your conclusion is that the consumption of 
the bulk of the opium in Malwa takes place in the 
country districts ? — Yes. 



(Jliiiitcmanrao 

Vinayak 

Vaiiliia. 

( Givalior 

Stale.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



Mahakaj Cdani Singh called and examined (through an interpreter). 



22.297. {Chairman.) You are from Amla Barnagar p 
— Tes. 

22.298. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before this Commission ? — I eat opium twice a 
day, about three mashas or one-fourth of a tola. I have 
been eating for 10 years. T took to it because I 
suffered from purging. It has cured my disease. 
Many of my servants and subjects eat opium. If a 
person suffers from fever and has to work, opium is 
given him, and it stops his fever. Prohibition of opium 
will cause much loss of revenue, and cause general dis- 
content amongst the people. The lives of many men 
will be in danger. I myself will have to suffer a loss of 
about Es. 20,000 of revenue. Opium-eating is beneficial. 
It is not against religion. But' the consumption of 
liquor is productive of very bad effects and is sinfal. 

22.299. {Mr. Mowbray.) You state "I myself will 
" have to suffer a loss of Rs. 20,000 of revenue " ; what 



is your interest P — I am a landowner, aitd if the opium 
cultivation is stopped, I shall suffer a loss. 

22.300. How much land do you cultivate ? — About 
1,600 bighas, which is equal to 800 acres — or a little 
more. 

22.301. Do you cultivate 1,600 bigahs of poppy or 
1,600 bighas of irrigated land ? — 1,600 bighas of poppy. 
I do not cultivate myself, but have tenants under me. 

22.302. What rent do you get from your tenants P — 
Rs. 15 per bigha. 

22.303. Supposing poppy cultivation were stopped, 
what do you suppose would be the crop which your 
tenants would cultivate ? — Wheat could be produced, 
but they would net get so much revenue out of it. 

22.304. What revenue would they get from wheat P 
— Rs. 2 per bigha. 



Maharaf 

Cham Siugh. 

QGuialiur 

State.) 



The witness withdrew. 



Sevaram Samantram called in and 

22.305. {Chairman.) What appointment do you fill p 

I am engaged in the money-lending business, with a 

capital of one lakh. I am also a member of the muni- 
cipality and manager of the Opium Godown at Ujjain. 

22.306. Will you kindly explain to us what your 
duties are as manager of the Opium Godown ?-— I com- 
bine my commercial business with my position as 
manager of the Godown, and in some cases I advance 
money. 

22.307. What is the meaning of the word Sahukar ? 
It means money lender. 

22.308. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
questitm before this Commission P — Cultivators in 
Malwa pay the whole revenue demand from opium 
produce. Thev can keep other produce for their use 
and benefit. There are about 210,000 bighas under 
opium in our Maharaja Sahib's Malwa. They produce 
about 15,000 or 16,000 chests of opium. Their value 
is about 76 lakhs of rupees. The land also produces 
opium seed worth about 16 lakhs of rupees. In all 
the produce to the cultivators is worth 91 lakhs. If 
wheat, cotton, or other produce ia grown, the value 
of the produce would be about 25 lakhs. Malwa 
cultivators thus generally are in a good condition. 
Malwa people rarely go to other provinces. Whenever 
there is any scarcity in Marwar and other provinces, 



examined (through an interpreter). 

thousands of people come here, and the people here 
assi.st them. It is not true that the use of opium 
weakens the people. The majority of the cultivators 
eat opium and are strong, and do their work in the 
open air. If immoderately used, it does harm, but 
even liquors do very great harm. If Government has 
not prohibited trade in liquor and other intoxicants, 
why should it prohibit trade in opium, from which s.i 
many people in Malwa derive so great a benefit? 
Children and old men and cultivators cannot pull on 
without opium. There are about 27,000 chests of 
opium in store, and about 135 lakhs of rupees are 
engaged. We sahukars get interest and profito, &c., 
on such a large sum. The value of any other produce 
substituted for opium will be about 25 lakhs of rupees 
only ; and for trade in such a produce, which cannot 
be kept even for a year, much less capital will be 
required. If opium trade be prohibited, the loss of 
the merchants, &c., will be as follows : — 



commission. 

on the manufacture of opium. 

on satta transaction. 

on the sale C)f prude opium. 



Rs. 


a. 


p- 


78,822 








84.822 








31.500 








12.500 








78,822 









Sevaram 

Samantram. 

( Gwalior 

State.) 



4 



112 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



Seoa vain 


Rs. 


n. p. 


Samantram, 


27,313 


(• It 


{Gwalior 


'J 7, 000 


r, 


Stale.} 








(i,:iS,33]. 


5 


7 Feb. 1894. 







Vallabha 
Deva. 

{Gwalior 
State.) 



Oalali on tlio above. 

]-cnt of sUiriiig at one j'lipce 
per rhcsL 

traders' average pvo&t Ijy ex- 
port of opium after deduct-, 
ing interest at the r.ate of 
Ks. 3-8. 
I,r;i2,112 S loss of interest of the sum 
invested in the opium 
stored at Rs. 2-8. 



9,33,611 13 



If opium will not go to China, the Chinese will still 
produce and consume opium. The only resiilt of a 
i)rohibitive measure will be great loss to the British 
Government, our State, and the cultivators and 
consumers. Oil is extraotr;d from opium seed, and is 
used for burning and eating. Oil cakes are given to 
cattle. Opium seed is also otherwise used. If opium 
cultivation and trade be stopped, people and cattle 
will suffer. 

22.309. You have come here more especially to speak 
to us from the point of view of a man engaged in the 
commerce of opium ? — Yes. 

22.310. I notice that you say "There are about 
" 27,000 chests of opium in store and about Es. 
" 135,000,000 are engaged." I suppose you mean that 
the money is looked up in that form P— There are 
about 27,000 chests of opium in store in Maharaja 
Scindia's Malwa possession, and these Es. 135,000,000 
represent approximately the capital engaged in this 
commerce. 

22.311. I further notice that you say that the esti- 
mateti loss to merchants engaged in the trade would 
amcnnt to Es. 9,33,611— would that be an annual loss P 
— The loss would be a yearly one. 

22.312. {l\[r. llovilniij.) I see that you estimate the 
loss on 8;itta truisactiilns at Es. 31.500. I understand 
that Satta trans^ictions are in the nature of time bar- 
gains. How is it that all the merchants make a profit 
on Satta iransactiousP — It is a rate which men levy 
who conduct the sales as distinct from brokerage. 

The witness 



These men are of the nature of "Jobbers" on the 
Stock Exchange. 

22.313. Can you toll me how many firms of merchants 
there are who trade in opium ? — I suppose your remarks 
refer to the whole of Gwalior — to the Malwa possessions. 

22.314. Can you give me any idea ol' the number of 
men there are engaged in the trade P — I cannot give 
you any definite information. There may be two or 
three hundred merchants engaged in the trade. 

22.315. (Chairman.) I suppose some of them are very 
small traders ; there is a great range in the amount of 
business which they do I suppose ? — I can remember 
the names of about ten men who are considerable 
merchants and who do a large business. 

22.316. (Mr. Fanshawe.) Can ^-ou explain to us the 
heading what you mean by ' ' Rent of storing at Es. 1 
per chest — Es. 27,000." Does the opium belong to the 
traders themselves, or how is it that they charge for 
storage ? — They store the opium brought in the crude 
state. Afterwards it is made into balls and put into 
leaf dust and allowed to remain in store for some time. 
I amongst other persons own stores, and the charge is 
made for the storing. 

22.317. Does not the stored opium in any case belong 
to these men P — It mostly belongs to other people. 

22.318. Some allowance ought to be made on that 
account because you charge for the rent of storing for 
the full amount of Es. 27,000. I understand that in 
some cases the opium belongs to the traders themselves, 
and therefore they cannot charge for storing their 
own opium p — I calculate that I have invested a 
certain amount of capital in opium for which I get a 
certain return, and therefore I am entitled to claim 
under this head. 

22.319. You would lose the interest now obtained 
on the sum invested in the stored opium p — Yes, 
Rs. 1,62,112. As regards the Ks. ■-!7,000, I regard it as 
a general rate for storage. It is an advantage to the 
merchants to store the opium, and if prohibition were 
enforced this Rs. 1 per chest would not be realised. I 
do not stop to consider towliom the opium belongs. It 
is one of the advantages of the trade. 

withdrew. 



Vallabha Deva called in and examined (through an interpreter). 



22.320. (Ghairman.) What is your position in 
Gwalior?— I am a Subha of Neemuch, which is a 
military cantonment. > 

22.321. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before the Commission p— Last year I was 
suffering from cold and pain in knee-joints. ^ My father, 
who is alive, told me to take opium mixed with almonds 
and cardamoms, &c. My father himself uses opium, 
and has an experience of its good effects, especially m 
the decline of age. I also consulted Gopah-ao, a doctor 
at Neemuch. He also advised me, and told me that he 
himself took opium from the last seven years. I then 
beo-an taking opium in small pills as prescribed by my 
father. I am free from cough, indigestion, pain in the 
joints, general weakness and slothfulness. I do hard 
work 'from morning to noon, and from two to five in 
the afternoon. I also do urgent work at night. My 
father is a strong old man. I served m the Survey of 
Malwa, and have been a Subha for the last five or six 
years. In these parts opium is consumed by a large 

The witness 



per-centage of the people with benefit. The principal 
source of revenue is also opium, and the people will 
suffer physically and mentally if opium production and 
export were prohibited. The State will also suffer 
heavily. 

22,321a. (Mr. Mowhray.) How old arc you ? — Forty- 
two. 

22.322. How old is j'our father p — Sixty-eight. 

22.323. How many years has your father taken 
opium p — For the last 20 years. 

22.324. (Mr. Fanshawe.) You say that opium is largely 
consumed by the people in the Neemuch district, do 
you wish us to understand that the general use would 
be such as you have described after the ago of 40 
j'ears p — The generality of consumers are more than 
40 years of age, but sometimes a special reason arises 
such as an ailment which necessitates the consumption 
of opium before the age of 40. 

withdrew. 



JVaraijaiiDas 

Jaha:ii'iila. 

(^Gwalior 

State.) 



Nahayan Das .lAirAZWALi called in and examined (through an interpreter] 
(Chairman.) ^A'hat is your position ?— I am 



22 32-.. w....- , 

Saliukar ol'Ujjain; my great-grandfather owned ships 
and traded in opiuni ; that is why 1 am called a 
Jahazwala. 

22 :;2G. Your occupation is that of a banker? — Yes. 

22 327. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
trade in opium in Ujjain p— From my forefathers I have 
been trading in opium, and maintain my family in 
o-ood condition. The sahukars who invest money in 
opiuni get inture-t and commission. They also get 
rent for their Imthas (storehouses). Tradrrs also get 
profits; 'Inlnls (joblicr) also earn a livelihood in assisthig 
in the sale and purchase of opiuni. In short, trade in 
opium is like Ealpa-VriMia, as it benefits all. There 
is no other trade su large and profitable. The British 
Government and our Maharaja Sahib and traders 
like myself, down to labourers and cultivators, are 

The witnoss^withdrew, 



benefited by it. Grain cannot be kept for a long time, 
and engages only a small amount of capital. Cotton, 
if kept for one year, loses in value by one-fourth. It 
is a great merit of opium that it fetches a higher price 
the older it gets. 



22.328. (Mr. Fanshawe.) I understand that you your- 
self are a trader in opium p — Yes. I and my ancestors 
for the last four generations have been engaged in it. 

22.329. You are carrying on the trade now p — Yes. 

22,33ii. What is the meaning o{ " Kalpa-Vrihsha"? 
— It is a beneficial influence under wliich people derive 
benefit. It is the " Tree of desire," which enables any- 
one residing under it to obtain his wish. 



22,331. 
older it 
flavour. 



Why does opium fetch a higher price the 
gets P — Because it gets drier and has more 



MINUTJES OF EVIDENCE. 



113 



SiHSDBHA Sakhabam Mabtand Called in and examined. 



22.333. (Ghairman.) You are a native of this place 
and a Jagirdar ; yon have served the Indore State for 
21 years, first as manager of the State arsenal, then 
colonel in the army, when you had command of three 
batteries and three regiments ; you afterwards became 
lieutenant-general, and you are now the ilevenue 
Minister or Sirsubha of the State P — Yes, that is so. 

22.334. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before this Commission ? — The irrigated area 
in the State is 1,52,000 bighas, of which more than two- 
thirds is under poppy cultivation. ]:f opium were pro- 
hibited, there is no crop which can be raised in its 
place as favourably, easily, and profitably as opium. 
The cultivation of opium is exceedingly popular among 
the people, because they make large profits with smalJ 
labour, outlay, and time. Opium land being Bo-fasU, 
it allows the Indian corn to be grown upon it besides 
opium, which affords additional facilities to the culti- 
vator. The consumption of opium is extensive in the 
State, and is equally indispensable. The ratio of opium 
consumers, in ray opinion, is 50 per cent, of the adult 
population. Opium is very useful in old age and as a 
relief against bodily exertion. The income to the State 
from opium is (1) land-tax, 15^ lakhs ; (2) Customs 
duty, 2 lakhs ; (3) Export duty, about 2 lakhs ; (4) mis- 
cellaneous, 1 lakh. The total loss would be about 21 
lakhs yearly, and there would be a non-recurring loss of 
several croars. The loss to traders, cultivators, and 
Jagirdai'S together would be 30 to 35 lakhs yearly. 
Prohibition would be impracticable to carry out, and 
would throw an additional burden on the State. The 
first thing that calls for suppression is alcohol, and 
if it is stopped India will be saved morally as well as 
financially. My long connexion with and intimate 
knowledge of the State army enables me- to say unhesi- 
tatingly that a moderate dose of opium is an unmixed 
good to the consumers. Opium-eating does not neces- 
sarily lead to immorality or crime. It gives staying 
power under great exertions such as long marches 
and hunting excursiocs. As compared with alcohol 



drinkers, I found opium consumers to be steady, quiet, 
reliable, and obedient soldiers in my time I found 40 
to 50 pi r cent, using opium in the State army. Forcing 
Native States to prohibit cultivation would be a breach 
of Treaty engagements, and it would he almost imprac- 
ticable to compensate satisfactorily all Dhe parties con- 
cerned — agriculturists, tipdars, traders, merchants, 
labourers, Jagirdars, and the States. 

22.335. What is the meaning of Do-fasU ? — It means 
two-crop land. 

22.336. What does "tipdar" mean P — It means 
money-lender. 

22.337. {Mr. Fanshawe.) When you say that 40 to oO 
per cent, of the men in the State army in yoar time 
used opium, do you include those who used it habitually 
and those who used it occasionally P — I mean those who 
used it habitually. 

22.338. You found that the moderate use in no way 
interfered with the discipline or behaviour of the men ? 
—No. 

22.339. Have you any poppy cultivation in your 
Jagir ? — Yes, it yields me Ks, 3,500. 

22.340. Every year P— Yes. 

22.341. What rate per bigha do you charge for the 
land P — The same as G-overnmeut, Es. 14. 

22,3-12. If poppy cultivation were prohibited, what 
crop could your tenants grow on the land? — Sugar- 
cane and other crops ; but they would require a large 
capital, and would have to spend more time on the 
cultivation — it is quite different to the poppy crop. 

22.343. If poppy cultivation were prohibited what 
crop would have to take its place under present con- 
ditions P — There are four or five, but none so good as 
opium. 

22.344. What would be the crop they would have to 
cultivate, and which would not be so profitable as 
poppy p— Wheat. 



Sirsubha 

Sakharam 

Martand. 

{Itidore State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Bakshi Khcjman Sin&h, O.S, 

22.345. (Gliairman.) Your are a Rajput, I believe, by 
caste ? — Yes. 

22.346. What is the meaning of " Bakshi "P— It 
means commander. 

22.347. You were Bakshi of all the cavalry regiments 
of Indore, and you have served the Indore State for 
45 years P — Yes. 

22.348. You became General of the army and lastly 
the Minister ? — Yes. 

22.349. You are now a pensioner ; you visited 
England in 1871 ; you are a jagirdar and have the 
decoration of G.S.I. P — Yes. 

22.350. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before this Commission? — It would be a 
mistake to prohibit the production ol' opium for non- 
medical purposes. No cause whatever exists for any 
such prohibition. Any change in the esisiing ordei' of 
things would be tor the worse. Opium taken in 
moderation is perfectly harmless both physically and 
morally. In opium-eating in India moderation is the 
rule, and abuse an exception. It is largely consumed 
in the Indore State, as elsewhere, without the slightest 
bad efi'ect on the physical or moral condition of the 
people as a whole. It is, of course, harmful in excess 
like anything else. The .suppression of opium by force 
will cause widespread discontent amounting to political 
danger. The measure will touch people's purses as 
well as their bodily comfort and their susceptibilities. 
Opium is a general medicine among the people, and 
adds largely to the State Ilevenue. If prohibition is 



I., called in and examined. 

enforced Malwa will become poor. The extension of pro- 
hibition to the Indore State would be a breach of Treaty 
rights and constitutional usage. It would be a violation 
of the most solemn pledge to the Native Princes con- 
tained in the Proclamation of 1858. The State has a 
right to export opium through British territory just 
as the British Government have a right to tax opium 
so exported. Even an arbitrary enhancement of this 
tax or duty would be irregular. But for the Govern- 
ment to disallow the transit of opium coming from a 
Native State would be against political law or political 
morality. Opium is the life and soul of the income of 
the Darbar, cultivators, traders, and land-holders, and 
jagirdars, and its prohibition would entail the enor- 
mous loss of 55 or 60 lakhs yearly. Besides the large 
capital now invested in the trade and agriculture of 
opium, and the accumulated outstandings of revenue 
against the ryots, amounting to many orores, are staked 
on opium and will be gone, if opium id done away with. 
The State will be impoverished if not utterly ruined. 
Prohibition to be effective will require the creation of a 
large costly establishment, the working of which will 
be vexatious to the people, and make the confusion 
worse confounded. The Indore State cannot be satisfied 
with money compensation. It would insist on its subjects 
being compensated as well. 

22.351. Do yon agree with the opinions the Minister 
has expressed before us? — I quite agree with the 
opinions he has expressed. 

22.352. {Mr. Mowbray.) Do you take opium ? — No, I 
do not eat opium ; but many of the members of my 
family eat it. 



Bakshi 
KhumanSingh, 

C.S.I. 
{Indore State.") 



The witness withdrew. 



Sadashiv Vishwanath Dhurandhae, B.A., LL.B., called in and examined. 



22.353. {Chairman.) You are an advocate of the High 
Court, Bombay, and Chief Justice of the Indore State P 
—Yes. 

22.354. Will you give us your previous experience P 

I am an ex-student of the Elphinstone College, 

Bombay, and a Graduate of the Bombay University, 

O 82588. 



was called to the Bombay Bar m 1876, pi-actised at the 
Bar for eight years and served as the Diwau of the 
Kajpipla State, Keva Kanta, Gujarat, for three years. 
I have been serving as the Second Judge and latterly 
as the Chief Justice of the Indore State for eight 
years. I have travelled both professionally and other- 



Sadashiv 

Vishwanath 

Dhurandhar. 

(^Indore State.) 



114. 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSJtpN : 



Sadashiv 

I ishwanuth 

D/Mrandhar. 

{Indore State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



wise all over the Bombay Presidency and portiora of 
Central India. I have acquired some knowledge of the 
Eevenuo matters relating to parts visited. 

22.355. M'onld you say that the statistics which have 
been put in by the Minister with regard to the growth 
of opium, the revenue derived from the trade and so 
on, substantially represent the facts of the case F — 
They do. 

22.356. Do you desire to say that in your belief the 
use of opium by the people in India is harmless when 
nsed in moderate quantities ? — I think it is. 

22.357. Are there any restrictions as to its use by any 
particular caste and creed? — No. 

The witness 



22,3-i8. {Mr. Fanshawe.) Do agriculturists and others 
who follow trades involving exposure use it ? — 

Yes. 

22,.)59. You consider it is in common use as a pro- 
tection against chills, colds, &c. ? — Yes, it is in common 
use in Malwa. 

22.360. Do you consider there are a large number of 
cases where opium is used to excess ? — The excessive 
cases are very few in comparison to the excessive cases 
of spirit drinking. 

22.361. You are speaking from your own experience 
in both these matters ? — Yes. 

withdrew. 



Patel Soma 
Bin UdaiRam. 
(Indore State.) 



Patel Soma Bin Udai Ram called in and examined (through an interpreter). 



liam Chatidra 

Padya. 
[Indore State.) 



22.362. (Ohairman.) You are 58 years of age, Eodwal 
Brahmin by caste, inhabitant of the village of tlandwasa, 
pargana Harsola, and appear here to represent the 
cultivators ? — Yes, I am a cultivator myself. 

22.363. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before the Commission ? — I am an hereditary 
cultivator, and I have followed that profession since I 
became of age, that is since the last 40 years. I culti- 
vate from 15 to 20 bighas annuaDy, which produce 
opium amounting to 100 seers (200 lbs). There are 
about 50 to 60 cultivators in my village who produce 
opium every year like me. The land under opium 
cultivation in my village is nearly 300 bighas, and 
the produce of opium from that land amounts to 
1,725 seers or 3,450 lbs., which fetched Rs. 11,000 
annually when the prices were high, but, in conse- 
quence of the prices having gone down, the annual 
income from opium is 7,000 to 9,000 rupees at present. 
Opium supplies us with sufficieni; funds to bear the 
expenses on account of marriage and other happy or 
sorrowful occasions, and also enables us to pay off the 
Government demand of the whole of the land we 
cultivate. The grains produced in dry land are used 
in the maintenance of our families and to pay off the 
labour employed in cultivation throaghout the year. 
Opium brings money into our hands and keeps us 
happy and comfortable. We cannot make changes in 
the opium land for two reasons : 1st, land is not avail- 
able ; and 2rd, the opium land requires to be in the 
vicinity of a well. Makai (maize) is grown in opium 
land prior to the cultivation of opium by those culti- 
vators who are in straitened circum.stanocs ; but 
well-to-do cultivators, in the hope of producing good 
quantity of the costly substance of opium, do not sow 
makai ; they sow hemp and urd, an Indian crop, prior 
to opium, and when these two have become old, of 
about two months or so, they crush them by ploughing 
the land, and allow them with their leaves and stems 



to deteriorate with the object of producing a superior 
sort of manure. Sometimes the cultivators retain some 
quantity of hemp for ropes, &c., required in the pro- 
fession. No other produce can bring money so much 
as opium does. We devote all our time and attention 
to the cultivation of opium and submit ourselves to the 
necessary expenditure on that account. Opium and 
its seed are the produce from the opium field. In my 
opium land of 20 bighas I get 60 maunds of seed worth 
Rs. 125 sold at the rate of Rs. 2 or upwards per maund. 
If any cultivator wished to sell leaves of opium plant, 
they are sold at one rupee per maund. We respect the 
opium plant, because it keeps us happy and comforta- 
ble, and we call it " Kalikadevi " (Black Goddess). 
If our merciful monarch prohibits the growth of opium, 
it will be a death-blow to us, and we shall prefer death 
without it. All the members of our family do not eat 
opium ; it is only given to children up to the age of 
three to prevent attacks of any sorts of diseases ; it 
is also gives to men who have become weak by old age 
or other causes. It is a substance which gives strength 
at all times. It is not injurious to health, but, on the 
contrary, it is beneficial. 

22.364. Do you take opium yourself? — Yes, one 
masha in the morning and one in the evening. 

22.365. How long ago did you begin to take opium ? 
— I have been eating opium for six or seven years. 

22.366. Do you take the same dose as when you first 
began to take it ? — Opium was given to me when a 
child, and when I reached the age of 40 I took small 
doses and gradually increased it to the present dose, 
since when I have not increased the quantity. 

22.367. (Mr. Fanshawe.) You say that there are 
nearly 300 bighas under poppy in your village ; what 
is the total number of bighas of irrigated land ? — There 
are about 100 bighas of irrigated land besides the 
irrigated land under poppy. 



The witness withdrew. 



Ram Chandka Padya called in and examined (through an interpreter). 



22.368. (Chairman.) You are Munim to Seth Maluk 
Chand Sheo Baksh of Indore ? — Yes. 

22.369. What does Munim mean ? — Manager. 

22.370. What business do you engage in ? — I am both 
an opium trader and a banker. 

22.371. What have you to tell us with regard to the 
question before this Commission ? — I have been in the 
opium trade for 35 years. I have written a Marwari 
pamphlet on the Malwa opium trade. The bankers and 
traders, manufacturers of opium balls, religious institu- 
tiona, all together will suffer a loss of 184 lakhs of 
rupees if opium be prohibited. I have given full 
particulars on this point in my answers to the Agency 
questions, and can give them to the Commission. The 
total investment in opium is If crores, and three crores 
of recoverable outstanding debts. I'here will be grave 
discontent among all classes by the prohibition. 

22.372. (Mr. Wilson.) Can you tell me whether there 
is a considerable accumulation of opium in the hands 
of the merchants now ? — Yes, there is. 



22.373. How does that arise ? — From the trade being 
slack ; opium not sent to China is necessarily kept in 
stock. 

22.374. Are you expecting a rise in price ? — The rate 
in China has improved, but on account of the deprecia- 
tion in silver our profits are curtailed. 

22.375. Have some traders lost heavily through the 
low price ? — No. 

22.376. (Mr. 2Iowhray.)'Do you think the China trade 
in opium has been much affected by the recent cur- 
rency changes in India ? — Yes, the profits have been 
curtailed. 

22.377. During the last six months ? — ^Yes, during 
the last six months ; they were not afl'ected before. 

22.378. Do you consider the prospects of the trade 
worse now than they were six months ago ? - — It 
depends in groat measure on whether an arrangement 
as made about silver. 



The witness withdrew. 



Mr. R. M. 
Dane. 



Mr. R, M. Dane called in and examined 



22,3'!'. (Chairman.) I understand that there are 
sevcT'al witnesses in attendance whose abstracts of evi- 



dence you desire to be printed in 1 he Report ? The 

following witnesses are in attendance from the Gwalior 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



115 



and Indore States and have furnished abstracts of the 
evidence they desire to give : — 

From Gwalior State. 
Durga Shankar Joshi, of Ujjain ; 
Thakur Danlat Singh, of Barda, Barnagar. 
Ambaram, Nnmberdar, of Bhitaree, Ujjain. 
Bbava Walad Bagwant, Patel of Jalwa, Ujjain. 
Gunpatrao Wahudeo, Snbha of Mandsaur. 
Badridas, Mnnim of Subkaran Pralhaddas, Ujjain. 
Umrao Singh, Munim of Ganeshdas Kishnaji, Ujjain. 
Ganeshram, Mnnim of Taraohand Ghanshamdas, 
Mandsaur. 

Sevaram Parakha, Banker, Mandsaur. 

Raghunath Walad Omkar, Patel of Agar. 

Rajajee Vyas of Ujjain. 

Narayenrao Vithal of Agar. 

Thakur Pralhad Singh of Runija Barnagar. 

Thakur Pattesingh Istamrardar of Tajkhedi Bham- 
gurh. 

Parashram of Nandavada, Mandsaur. 

Lachman Parshad Kamdar Raoji Tonaday, Agar. 



From Indore State. 

Rai Bahadur Nanak Ohand, Deputy Minister. 

Nago Bhikaji Daube, Naib Dewan Khasgi. 

Keshav Gopal Kamb, L. M. & S. Principal Medical 

Officer, Holkar's Army. 
Kcsari Chand. 
General Balmnkand Gayadeeii , commanding the Army 

at Indore. 
Dhanraj Brijlal. 
Harkisan Ramlal Modi. 
Raoji Janardhan Bhide. 
Balkrishna Atn).aram Gupte, Inspector General of 

Police. 
Dayambaksh, Major, Adjutant-General. 

I ask that, if there be no objection, the abstracts* 
ol all these witnesses may be printed in the Appendix 
to the Report. 

{Chairman.) Certainly. 



Mr. R. M. 
Dane. 

7 Feb. liU4. 



Adjourned to to-morrow. 



At the Collector's Office, Ahmedabad. 



SIXTY-FIFTH DAY. 



We(inesday, 7th February 1894. 



(Section B.) 



PKBSENT : 

Sib JAMES B. LYALL, G.O.I.E., K.O.S.I., 



IN THE ChAIK. 



Mr. Abthuu Pease. 



I , Mr. Hakidas Vbhaeidas, Desai. 

Mr. Pemberton, Assistant Secretary. 

Mr. Anant Gangadhab Khoie called in and examined. 

Tou are at present Subha of 



-The collector 



inagis- 



22.380. (Ghairman.) 
Baroda p — Yes. 

22.381. What is the office of Sabha P 
of the district. 

22.382. And magistrate also P — Yes, district 
trate. 

22.383. How long have you been in the service ? — I 
have been 18 years in the Baroda service. 

22.384. Are you a native of Baroda ? — No, I am from 
the Oarnatic. I have worked in the Southern, Central, 
Northern, and Kathiawar districts of His Highness the 
Gaekwar in the capacity of a police magistral e, 
revenue, forest, customs, Abkari, and opium officer. 

22.385. Will you tell us what opportunities you have 
had for becoming acquainted with the opium habit, and 
what opinions have you formed of that habit P — Out of 
the 18 years' service, four years I was solely connected 
with the customs, abkari, and opium administration in 
the Baroda State. Of late, I was entrusted with the 
work of inquiry regarding the use of hemp di'ugs in 
His Highness's territory. During my services of various 
nature, I had ample opportunities of visiting every 
nook and corner of His Highness's dominion whether 
malarious, enervating or bracing, and moving and 
mixing with all the castes and creeds abiding therein. 
I have minutely observed the habits and customs of Ihe 
higher and lower classes and studied their mode of life. 
In fact, I am intimately acquainted with eveiy phiase 
of life of the people living in His Highness's Eaj. As a 
police officer and a magistrate, I can allege, with a great 
amount of safety, whether opium bears any connexion 
with crime and whether its use is degrading the morals 
of the people at large. As a revenue officer, I can 
speak of the opium administration in Baroda State in 
general, the advantage j^nd disadvantage of Govern- 
ment monopoly introduced by the Treaty engagements 
of 1878, both fur the purpose of cultivation and 
manufacture and for the purpose of home consumption 
and exportation. I can also state whether any other 



cultivation can be substituted for poppy with advantage 
to the ryot and the sirkar (StateJ. I can treat of the chief 
classes who greatly indulge in the drug, their habits 
and customs both social and religious, togetVier with the 
use and abuse of the drug in general. As forest officer, 
I can give my experience of the opium consumers as 
well as non-consumers who live in jungles, a notorious 
tract of country for malarious fevers, and tell with 
confidence whether the consumers or non-consumers 
are better able to stave off the evil effects of water and 
climate. As a customs, abkari and opium officer, I can 
assert, with some force, whether it is possible to 
enforce total prohibition of cultivation and sale of 
opium, whether patisfactory preventive agency can be 
organized for the pui-pose of suppressing the cultivation 
or sale and whether with all the facilities for obtaining 
opium, as existing at present. Government has 
succeeded in completely rooting out the evil of 
smuggling. I can also speak of the existing system 
in the Baroda territory for the purpose of retail sale of 
opium and the object of continuing the same. With 
my experience and icnowledge of the country for the 
last 18 years, in the various capacities as above 
indicated, I can authoritatively lay down that the use of 
the drug is non'here,so made as to rouse the sympathy 
of the philanthropists or attract the attention of the 
politicians. The use of the drug is gradually losing 
instead of gaining ground before the advance of 
education and under the seal of social condemnation. 
Of late, we scarcely meet with new opium consumers. 
The tendency of all the classes appears more towards 
liquor than opium. When the educational and social 
forces are already acting against opium and that the 
drug is dying of itself, the necessity for appointing a 
Commission to inquire after the drug on its death-bed 
cannot be made out. A Commission for checking the 
extent of home-made liquor as well as the advent of 
foreign liquors, wines and malts will, under the 
existing circumstances, be a decided gam as the 



Mr. Anant 
Gangadhar 

Khote. 
{Baroda 

State.') 

7 Feb. 1894. 



* See Appendix XIII. to this volume. 



1^ 2 



116 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



Mr. Ananl 

Gangadhar 

Khote. 

{Baroda 

State.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



narcotics are not Buch dire enemies of mankind as the 
alcohol. With these preliminary remarks and before 
touching the main questions pertaining to the drug, I 
beg to lay bare a fundamental fact which, I believe, 
mast convince the most sceptic mind that the fact of 
His Highness countenancing the existing arrangements 
for cultivation, manufacture, and sale of opium in his 
dominions, the most enlightened prince in the whole of 
India who at the introduction of the measure of 
compulsory education, in spite of the great opposition 
to the contrary, happened to remaik rhat for the sake 
of educating his people, he would draw upon his 
private purse, nay, oa en spend his last farthing, a 
prince who spends an equal or perhaps a larger amount 
of revenue than what opium returns to him in feeding 
his poor subjects, who is so much in touch with the 
people, who but last year sent for me and the statement 
of production and sale of opium to realize the true 
state of things, is a convincing proof in itself that the 
present arrangements and restrictions in regard to 
opium are the best safeguards required by the country 
as it 18, at present, situated. Who would ever believe 
that the prince who has made so many sacrifices for 
bettering the condition of his subjects, nay, even 
sacrifioed his own health, for the benefit of which he is 
seeking repose, would like to make money ny 
degrading his people physically, mentally, and i)iorally 
if the use of opium is such a pernicious evil i^ He 
would be the first prince to see his country purged of 
the evil if it be an evil at all ! When such a prince 
countenances the existing arrangements and restrictions 
in respect of opium and its use, is not this a more 
overwhelming evidence to refute the arguments of the 
intolerant body of men and pigeon-hole the cart-load 
of their pamphlets p My observations may look 
strange but they are nevertheless weighty. There 
has, of late, grown a healthy public opinion which is 
now shaping the future of India socially, morally, and 
'politically. There are now princes in India who know 
what is good orliad for their people. There are various 
public bodies striving hard to improve the morals of 
their societies. Notwithstanding all these powerful 
agents being silent, a cry is raised from far off to 
improve India's morals, by those who know very little 
of the country, its social and religious customs and 
the mode of living of its people. A sensational 
description is given before a religious audience, a des- 
cription that nowhere exists but in the imagination of 
the persons describing in order to move their hearts and 
thus bringing pressure upon Government to interfere 
with the accredited customs. Would this tampering, 
this serious interference with individual liberty, be ever 
tolerated ? No. All the people in India will resent it 
with one concordant voice, and tell those people in 
England who ai'e waging war against opium traflSc to 
improve the morals of their own people and wait 
patiently until India looks to them for succour to extri- 
cate them from the clutches of the so-called opium-vice. 
I now turn my attention to the other points of inquiry. 
His Highness's territory consists of four divisions of moj-e 
or less alluvial and sandy formardons, requiring different 
quantities of rain in different divisions for fertilizing ; 
the opium-producing country requiring twenty inches 
of rain on an average. Some parts of the territory 
under forest is abounding in malarious fevers. The 
other parts are also more or less feverish. The spleens 
are very often enlarged. Dysentery and diarrhoea, 
at times, prevail to a very great extent. Bowel and 
lung affections arc not less frequent. All these diseases 
make their ravages, and where there is a i-oom vacant 
it is filled up by diabetes. Here the sovereign remedy, 
the family doctor, the home Void, is opium. People in 
general never frequent public dispensaries till they 
finish the stock of the home-made medicines. If one 
has an attack of cold, his old grandma, who is 
always considered to be a very experienced doctor, 
tells him to apply opium dissolved in milk to his head 
and nose. If he has sore eyes she tells him to apply 
opium dissolved in lemon juice round his eyes. If he 
has dysentery or diarrhwa she advises him to take 
opium in Grol. If he suffers from cough or griping 
jjain in the stomach, she prescribes opium with G-hi. 
Opium is thus prescribed in 20 and odd diseases by 
grandma, and there is always an instantaneous relief. 
In this manner opium is, when medically used, held 
in great esteem. Opium is given to small infants who 
are weak and do not sleep at night or who are subject 
to convulsions. Opium is not gi>0:i in a ci-ude form 
but it is mixed with several spices and made into pills. 
One-half of a. tola goes to make three hundred pills. 
These i»ills are made by the license holders or by parents 



and given to children every morning and evening to 
make them sleep well, digest their food, and prevent 
them from falling a prey to other diseases. Such 
children are easily weaned by gradually reducing the 
daily allowance. Opium is considered a specific for 
checking diabetes. It is so used by several diabetic 
patients and found to give a great relief. The use 
of opium in the country is so very general, — each house 
possessing a, tola or two and the climatic influences 
therein are so enei'vating that I regard its use, not as 
a vice, no, not even luxury, but a bare necessity of life. 
I acted as a police officer in His Highriess's Southern 
and Kathiawar districts and as magistrate in all the 
four districts. I have apprehended various offenders 
and inquired into several cases of petty and heinous 
offences. But I never found that opium was instru- 
mental in the commission of crime. Almost all offences 
can be traced to alcohol but none to opium. There is 
no connexion between opium and crime. It is not the 
fruitful source of either immorality or insanity. The 
reason is obvious. Opium is a sedative drug; so it 
does not stimulate. Its toxic properties are quite 
diH'ereut. No- other intoxicant will ever supply its 
place. The fear that alcohol or ganj a will be substituted 
for opium is more imaginary than real. The opium- 
consumer will have his daily ration in spite of your 
peg or G-anja Chilam. The toxic properties of opium 
are calmative and palliative. They soothe the head 
and invigorate the body. I should say they are the 
peace makers between the mind and the body. Con- 
sequently this pe.ioemaker's help is always sought to 
make up the differences whether social, religious, or 
political. I was Conservator of forests in His Highness's 
teriitory, and as such I had many subordinates under 
me both consumeis and non-consumers of opium. The 
largest number that sutt'ered from the evil effects of 
that tract of country ivere one and all without exception 
non-consumer.'^. The consumers of opium did not look 
bnllcy but were better able to counteract the evil effects 
of water and climate and endure more privations and 
fatigues than the non-consumers. IVom my experience 
of three years in the forests — notoriously unhealthy — it is 
perfectly evident to me that opium acts as preventive 
and febrifuge, and gives very great staying powers 
under severe exertions. That is why our old mail- 
bearers and Jasuds were fortified with opium before 
they were sent on their errands. Even the grooms 
and the ruuneis occasionally take opium when they 
have to run a race with their master's horse. Such 
occasional consuming does not grow into a habit. 
The Baroda State is, strictly speaking, the cultivator, 
manufacturer, and seller of opium. The State under- 
took the business since the introduction of the monopoly 
on the Bengal system, at the instance of the British 
Government, which called upon the State to act up to 
the provision of the Convention of 1820. In spite of 
this convention between the British and His Highness's 
Governments, the practice in vogue was to cultivate 
opium as much as the people liked, manufacture it in 
their private warehouses and export it to foreign 
markets after paying the Darbar and British export 
duty. The cultivator was then contented, because he 
was at liberty to set any value upon his property. The 
money-lenders and capitalists were better able to utilize 
their own capital because the export trade was affording 
them extensive field for circulating the same. In this 
manner, the opium traffic was entirely in the hands of 
the people of the northern division, the other divisions 
producing opium for local consumption only till 1878, 
when for reasons, as it is said, that as opium in large 
quantity was smuggled in the British territory and for 
the protection of British opium revenue, the Convention 
between both Governments was revived and made 
binding. The following are its provisions: — 

(1.) To purchase all the opium produced within the 

territory. 
(2.) To supply the merchants and subjects of the 

territory with the opium required by them. 
(3.) To fix the price of the opium so supphed and 

sold within the territorial limits at the rate 

obtaining in the British districts. 
(i.) To confiscate all opium brought secretly for sale 

into the territory, 
(5.) Not to purchase opium from the Government 

stores until that produced in the territory and 

stored by it is consumed. 
(6.) To be the sole medium of supply of the drug to 

the merchants and subjects. 
(7.) To obtain supplies of opium as required from the 

opium godowns at Kaira, and when such 

cannot be obtained, to procure the same in 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



117 



Malwa and to convey it thence to Baroda free 

of tax subject to the condition set forth under 

heari five. 

This Convention was a mere dead letter till 1878. 

The Baroda Government insisted upon the existing 

practice being contiuued, but the Government of India 

was not prepared to forego the right acquired by the 

British Government under the Convention of 1820. 

Consequently, the Baroda Government had to enter 

into arrangements and establish a State monopoly on 

the basis of what is called the Bengal System. The 

Baroda Government then undertook the monopoly 

under the following conditions : — 

(1.) That poppy cultivation be limited to thesupply 
of the licit demand for home consumption and 
export. 
(2.) That the cultivation of the poppy be restricted 

to the Northern Division. 
(3.) The retail sale prices be assimilated with the 

British price. 
(4.) That no British duty be charged on opium 
imported by the Baroda State from foreign 
territory for home consumption. 
(5.) That Baroda Government indent upon the 
neighbouring collectors or oflBcers in chaiTge of 
opium depots for opium for retail sale to be 
supplied at cost price without any duty or 
profit being charged. 
The Bombay Government accepted the proposal with 
the following conditions ; — 

(1.) That the concession of allowing Baroda to export 
opium will be withdrawn if it is found to be 
abused or to lead to iinanoial loss or incon- 
venience and that the Baroda Government 
will be held responsible for illicit export of 
opium beyond its territory. 
On the recommendation of the Bombay Government, 
the Government of India passed a resolution to the 
following effects. Baroda Parbar has formerly 
acknowledged its willingness to carry out the principal 
provisions of the agreement of 1820, viz., to establish 
State opium monopoly system on the basis of the 
Bengal system and to limit the production of opium to 
the extent of the licit demand, and that the Govern- 
ment of Bombay has decided to continue the following 
concession to the Baroda Government : — 

(1.) To permit the Baroda Government to import an 
amount of opium required for actual licit 
home consumption at cost price and free of 
duty from Malwa or from Government 
Depots. 
(2.) To permit the Baroda administration to export 
opium locally produced to Bombay through the 
scales at Ahmedabad on payment of the full 
British duty. 
These engagements entered into between the Baroda 
and British Governments brought about the total 
extinction of export traffic. The Baroda Government 
lostan annual opium exportrevenueofBs. 2,60,000; the 
poppy plant ceased to lay the golden egg ; the circu- 
lation of the capital was greatly impeded and the 
credit of the poppy cultivator was the thing of the 
past. However, the State monopoly has helped to 
survive the dying trade and sinking credit, to a small 
extent, by giving better rates for the produce of the 
juice, by making advances without interest, by manu- 
facturing purer drug than what can be obtained by 
smuggling, and lastly by better supervision and control 
over the retail sale. The following are the figures of 
the retail sale for the last ten yea.rs : — 





Years, 


Quantity of 
Opium retailed. 






lbs. 07,. 


1883-84 




60,495 3 


1884-85 




62,873 


1885-86 




62,0(16 31 


1886-87 




60,610 9 


1887-88 




59,992 10 


1888-89 


- 


54,265 28 


1889-90 


- 


62,844 8 


1890-91 




66,218 15 


1891-92 


. 


72,008 29 


1892-93 




59,502 32 



The above figures will fully indicate that the sale 
within the last ten years have been almost stationary. 



After the introduction of the State monopoly, Baroda 
tried to enter the market four times for exporting its 
opium but, excepting the last time, it suffered a great 
loss. In order to protect the British revenue another 
understanding was arrived at in 1886 between the 
Baroda and the British Governments in addition to the 
former engagements that opium should not be retailed 
in any portion of the British or Baroda territories at a 
rate lower than Rs. 1-4-0 in advance of the issue rate for 
the time being in force. The above are in short the 
Treaty arrangements regarding opium, binding upon 
the Baroda and the British Governments. They are, 
with a slight variation, in existence for more than half 
a century. By these engagements, the Baroda Govern- 
ment is entitled to import opium from foreign districts 
free of duty, export it to Bombay on payment of the 
British duty, and transport it through British District 
for home consumption. The obligations made incum- 
bent by the Treaty rights on both Governments cannot 
be interfered with. In 1878 when the Baroda Govern- 
ment was unwilling to adopt the Bengal Monopoly 
System for the loss it was destined to entail by ruining 
the export trade in opium, the Government of India 
forced its adoption by pointing out that they would not 
forego the rights acquired by them under the Con- 
vention of 1820. Would it, let me ask, be now fair and 
justifiable to demand of the Baroda Government to 
forego its rights acquired by the same Convention and 
recognized by subsequent engagements because some 
Christian people wage war against opium traffic, and 
its use which, the Baroda Government knows, has in 
no way been degrading the morals of the people, or 
deleterious physically or mentally ? The Treaties entered 
by separate Governments are equally binding upon 
them. One Government for its convenience or other- 
wise cannot recede from the obligations without the 
consent of the other. They must always be regarded 
as very sacred and, on no account, be interfered with. 
Any interference in matters of Treaty-rights will 
certainly mpet with resentment. The strength of 
every Government lies in the fulfilment of the pledges. 
Violate one pledge and the confidence in the Government 
will be lost. Take, for instance, the European Powers 
which are independent of one another. The safety 
of these Powers rests upon the international Treaties. 
Violate one Treaty, the balance of power will be lost. 
All European nations will be at war. It is, therefore, 
why these Treaty engagements are always kept intact. 
What ii hue-and-cry will be raised from one end of 
India to the other if a single provision of the existing 
Treaties be disregarded ? How far will the Government 
of India be hampered in safely steering the ship of 
Indian administration, if pressure were brought by 
irresponsible persons to abrogate Treaty engagements ? 
Apart from the question of Treaty engagements, can 
we make at least a reasonable case for the anti-opiumists 
from out of the figures of production and consumption 
of opium ? Here are the figures from the last five 
years' average. Prom the census of 1891 the population 
of Baroda is 2,410,559. The extent or the Baroda 
territory in square miles is 8,570. The cultivation of 
the Kari district is bighas 15,30,047, out of which the 
poppy cultivation on five years' average is 15,831. 
The consumption of opium on five years' average is 
63,0^5 lbs. by retail sale. There are 428 licensed shops 
in the Baroda territory. There are not the so-called 
"dens " either for eating or smoking opium, as our 
people do not consume opium on the premises. The 
sum and substance of all the above figures can be 
briefiy stated thus. The consumption of opium per 
head of population is tola 1'6 per annum. There is one 
licensed shop for retail sale for 5,632 people and twenty 
square miles. The cultivation of poppy is yJoth of the 
other cultivation in the Kari division. Taking the 
above figures into consideration, one can easily grant 
that the consumption of opium per head of population 
is smaller than what medical practitioners presciibe 
with safety. The extent of territory and the number 
of people per licensed shop can with advantage be 
compared with the extent of country and number of 
people per licensed liquor-shop in Great Britain. The 
result will be most appalhng to those moralists who 
are carrying on crusade against the phantom of Satan 
giving the real Satan freedom to eat the vitals of their 
nation within doors. It will be thus seen that the 
above result obtained from the figures of production 
and sale of opium does not leave a margin for anti- 
opiumists to fight out their cause. I do not, therefore, 
see any practicable usefulness in holding sessions after 
sessions' to go over the same grounds. There is no 
other crop that can be substituted for poppy with 

P 3 



Mr, Anant 

Gangadhar 

Khote. 

(^Baroda 

State.') 

7 Feb. 1894. 



1J8 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION ; 



ecpal advantage. Wbcrit and riipcseed are substituted 
by people ■when the Grovernment notify very low rates. 
Poppy cultivation is not then a very paving occupation 
for I ho ryots. But feaidug ths risks to which the 
other crops are liable, many cling with a great tenacity 

to poppy cultivation, because it is less risky, entirely 

l?eb. 1894. free from the ravages of cattle, more productive in the 

■ long run, and lastly enables thee altivator to strengthen 

his credit with the money-lenders. Having no religious 
objection to the use of the drug all the classes of people 
without an exception consume it. It is chiefly used by 
all the warlike and turbulent classes such as Eajputs, 
Kathis, Kolis, Bhils, Waghers, Mekranis, Mayars, 
Sidis, Charans; Kunbis, iJarotes, Fakirs, and Bawas 
are also its votaries to some extent. Opium is, in large 
cases, used to obtain relief from some malady or other 
or as a restorative, iSuch a use does not grow into 
excess. It is, in a few cases, used as a luxury : such a use 
tends to grow into excess. There is a very inperceptible 
line between the moderate and excessive use of opium, 
as excessive use with nouiishing food is as beneficial 
as che moderate use of it. The general idea is that one 
who consumes opium below 30 grains per diem is a 
moderate consumer. Consumption to that limit is not 
looked doven upon, one exceeding that limit is regarded 
as excessive consumer. The excessive consumer does 
not suffer form social opprobrium so long as he preserves 
his health and the effects of excess are invisible. There 
are ]io statistics to show how many persons consume 
opium cut of the whole population. However, it can 
be safely laid down that there are 5 per cent of moderate 
consumers and one per thousand of excessive consumers. 
Opium is never harmful unless it is consumed without 
a good nourishing food or when it is used as an 
aphrodisiac, in that case, its use stimulates virile 
powers and leads to excessix'e sexual intercourse. 
Opium is consumed on the occasions of birth, marriage, 
death, by all warlike classes as well as Kunbis and 
Barotes. It is either eaten in a crude form or drunk in 
a liquid foi-m called Kasumhha. Among these classes 
opium forms the leading factor in the hospitality to be 
shown to the guests. Its use figures very much in 
making up quarrels and differences between the 
antagonistic parties. Opium is used in anointing the 
Hindu Q-ods. The merits to be secured from anointing 
the deity with opium are considered to be hundred-fold 
more than what can be procured by anointing the 
deity with sugar or milk. To enforce absolute 
prohibition of the production and consumption of 
opium is impossible. It is also undesirable as its use 
is nowhere seen to degrade the morals of the people or 
affect their health. Tlie people who consume opium 
are so numerous and India is abounding in so many 
narcotics that deprivation of one narcotic which people 
for generations have been accustomed to regard as a 
legitimate and harmless luxury, and which has done 
no perceptible injury, will be followed by another 
narcotic more pernicious in its effects. The warlike 
classes, who are the chief consumers of the drug, when 
deprived of the drug miiy create disturbance and the 
peace of the country will be endangered. The use of 
opium on social and religious occasions is regarded 
fissential by numerous classes who will regard piohi- 
bition as unjustified and unnecessary interference with 
their individual liberty. The prohibition will be a 
serions privation to those who are now habituated to 
consume opium. The prohibition will drive the people 
to the medical practitioners for ordinary diseases which 
are now cured or prevented by opium. The grandma's 
business will be extinct and the doctor's bill will swell. 
People thus touched in their pockets and confirmed 
m their belief that Government is forcing down their 
throats spirits mixed with medicines with a view to 
tamper with their religion will be much disaffected. 
Nobody can say that such a state of things will not 
breed discontent. Absolate prohibition seems to me 
an idea beyond the range of practical politics. How 
can such a tremendous agency both preventive and 
protective be organized to enforce complete prohibition, 
and what new source can be traced to amass a large 
amount that will be required to maintain the force 
especially when opium revenue is to cease ? People 
against whose wishes opium revenue is to be sacrificed, 
will n"t benr the imposition of a new tax. Will not 
this create general disali'cction and add fuel to fiire ? 
Besides, notwithstanding the existing facilities for 
obtaining I ipium and thejiiaiutenance of the preventive 
ari'iiugenients, do we not know that a linge quantity is 
slill smuggled into our territory H With this knowledge 
of the country, and its people, the success achieved by 
the preventive agency, we must admit that if absolute 



prohibition and sale of opium be enforced, we shall 
not be able to cope satisfactorily with the smuggling 
which must flow in either from poppy-producing 
countries or patches that v/ill have to be planted with 
poppy for pure medical purposes, however costly and 
strung the preventive agency be. Then there will be 
a difiiculty of protecting the patches planted with popDy 
for medical purposes. How large an army of policemen 
will have to be maintained to guard these fields, and 
how many men will have to be kept to look after the 
yield ? These expenses will render the drug very 
precious and stimulate smuggling. What fine prospects 
will thus open for oppression, corruption, and extortion ? 
With all these difficulties looming in the way of absolute 
prohibition, no responsible Grovernment will ever take 
such ill-advised step and lose not only the revenue but 
endanger the safety of the Eaj. I cannot close the 
subject of prohibition without quoting the words of that 
eminent statesman Eaja Sir T. Madhava Rao, who 
remarked "any measure having for its aim the im- 
mediate or ulterior suppression of the production of 
opium cannot but be as unfair and as unwelcome to this 
INativo State as to any Native States in Malwa." The 
question of compensation does not require any lengthy 
treatment. When we are not prepared to enforce 
absolute prohibition for reasons above alluded to, and 
as there can be no compromise in matters of Treaty- 
rights, the question of compensation falls to the ground. 
Supposing such a contingency is in near future, there 
will even then be a serious difiiculty of estimating 
accurately the amount of compensation. The ten years' 
average of opium net revenue will not be an adequate 
figure of compensation. The reasons are that the 
revenue is gradually rising every year by the substitute 
of duty-paid opium for smuggled opium. Besides if we 
raise the present duty by Rs. 2, the opium revenue will 
increase by almost a lakh of rupees. Then the poppy 
cultivator's loss, more especially the loss of the credit 
with the money-lenders, and the stoppage of circulation 
of the capital and consequent general loss of wealth to 
the country, all these interests will have to be taken 
into account before fixing the amount of compensation. 
But these interests are so much intermingled with 
other agriculturists and mercantile enterprises that 
arriving at an accurate figure of eompensation is a task 
well-nigh impossible. Since the establishment of the 
State monopoly in 1878 till 1889 opium was sold by 
separate license-holders for each shop. The license- 
holder paid a certain sum for the right to open a shop and 
sell the Sirkar's opium, purchased in the depot, at the 
issue rate. The license-holder used to take a small 
quantity of the Sirkar opium to avert suspicion, but made 
his profits by retailing illicit opium. When it was 
found that such illicit dealings could not be stopped, 
the safest course that appeared best under the circum- 
stances was to introduce what has been designated as 
the Minimum Guaranteed Vend System. The right to 
vend opium was given to one person for the whole 
district after fixing the minimum quantity, to be 
retailed, at appointed number of shops and at prices 
fixed by the Government. This system makes it 
incumbent upon the farmer to pay duty on a certain 
minimum quantity even though his actual sales fall 
short of the minimum. This condition was entered 
with the object of checking smuggling so rampant when 
the separate licensed system without guaranteeing the 
sales was in vogue. The condition makes it the interest 
of the farmer to refrain from dealing in contraband 
opium, as he has to dispose of the guaranteed quantity 
of opium himself. The farmer being one for the whole 
district he has increased powers to bring to light the 
illicit dealings. The only fault attributed to the system 
is that the quantity of opium to be disposed of in a 
year being guaranteed, the farmer has to encourage sale 
by hook or crook. But this fault in the system is rather 
imaginary than a real one, in the opium transaction. 
The quantity to be kept in possession and to bp retailed 
being restricted and the minimum and maximum rates 
of sale being fixed, the farmer finds it very difficult to 
dispose of a large quantity by cheap sale. Then there 
is a fear of being detected and the license withdrawn. 
His best interest to extricate himself from this pre- 
dicament, lies in disposing of the quantity at maximum 
price and thus make up the loss accruing from the 
quantity unsold. The following results will better 
illustrate how the system works: — After the intro, 
duotion of the system, in the year 1891-92, the farmers 
guaranteed to vend 74, 2 15 lbs. in one year. They 
actually sold 72,208 lbs. They had, therefore, to pay 
lJ,0o6 Rs. for the quantity fallen short of the minimum. 
The right of vending opium was leased out to them for 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



119 



ttree years. So the farmers had to pay during those 
years not less thau Rs. 1,08,456. After the expiry of the 
first lease, the new farmers guaranteed to vend 62,850 
lbs., that is, 11,366 lbs. less than the outgoing farmers. 
In this way, the quantity goes on falling and the opium 
being sold at maximum price, thn excessive indulgence 
is placed beyond the reach of the masses. We often 
hear that the Minimum Guaranteed Vend System is 
condemned as it is alleged ihat it encourages con- 
sumption. But the actual results prove to the contrary. 
It is the only system which substitutes licit opium for 
illicit. But the persons who condemn the system do 
not devise another which can be substituted in its 
place. As long as another better system cannot be 
suggested, so long the Government should be allowed 
to maintain its own policy. 

22.386. Tou say, " The use of the drug is nowhere so 
" made as to rouse the sympathy of the philanthropist 
" or attract the attention of the politicians " ; I 
suppose there are a considerable number of cases of 
excessive use, are there not P — No. 

22.387. Have you ever seen men incapacitated for 
their profession by the use of opium ? — No. 

22.388. As an officer at the head of large establish- 
ments, have you ever had to reduce a man, or dismiss a 
man, for intemperance in opium P — Never. 

22.389. Tou also say that " The use of the drag is 
" gradually losing instead of gaining ground before the 
" advance of education and under the seal of social 
" condemnation ; of late we scarcely meet with new 
" opium consumers " ; does that apply to the common 
country people or to the educated class P — 'I'o all the 
classes I should say. Among even these cultivators 
we do not see the young people eating opium, although 
the old people generally do so. 

22.390. Do you attribute that to anything else 
besides the " advance of education and the seal of 
" social condemnation"? — Also to the high price of 
opium. 

22.391. Is it more difficult to get than it used to be ? 
— Certainly. 

22.392. Before the opium monopoly was created was 
the sale free in the villages P — It was not exactly free ; 
but there were many shops, and the price of the article 
was very low. 

22.393. Tou have told us that you have never seen 
instances of excessive use ; if there are no instances of 
excessive use why should there be any social condem- 
nation of the habit P — The thing is this, some people 
do go to excess, and the people laugh at them ; but the 
cases are very rare. 

22.394. I suppose the social condemnation is a sort 
of fashion ? — Tes. 

22.395. You say the fashion is tending more towards 
liquor ? — Tes. 

22.396. "What kind of liquor ?— English liquors. We 
see almost all the classes using whisky and brandy 
instead of ganja, bhang, or opium. 

22.397. That surely is among the upper classes, not 
among the lower ? — The lower classes use country 
liquor I think. 

22.398. Do you think that change of the fashion 
towards liquor is a bad thing or a good thing P— It is 
a very bad thing. 

22.399. Tou also say thai, there has of late grown a 
healthy public opinion which is now shaping the future 
of India socially, morally, and politically ; why does 
not that healthy public opinion stop the growth of the 
habit of taking liquor P — It has been doing of late a 
good deal that way. 

22.400. Are there any temperance societies ? — Tes, 
even among the lower classes. 

22.401. Can you give us any description of them P — 
There ia an association at Sinore in the Baroda district 
where the boatmen had formed a society not to touch 
liquor at all. 

22.402. Is that a large association ? — It numbers 
about 2,000. 

22.403. Does it include most of the tribe P— Tes. 

22.404. Are there any other such associations ? — Tes. 
There are also in the Nausari district, the southern 
district of Baroda, people who have formed an 
association. 

22.405. What people ?— Maohis and Kolis. 



22.406. Have they done that entirely of their own 
notion, or has it been suggested to them by people 
above them P — Of their own notion. 

22.407. Has anything similar been started among 
the higher classes ? — There are various associations 
amongst the Brahmins and other people against the 
use of liquor. 

22.408. Do the Machis and Kolis who have formed 
associations against liquor include opium in their vow ? 
— They do not include either bhang or opium. 

22.409. Apparently they think those lesser evils ? — 
Tes. 

22.410. Do you know if these associations among the 
Brahmins and higher classes make a vow against all 
intoxicants P — Tes, against all intoxicants. 

22.411. Is opium included in that? — Tes. 

22.412. Tou say that opium is the sovereign remedy, 
the family doctor, the home Vaid, is that among all 
classes P — It is almost general. 

22.413. Do you yourself think that the custom of 
giving opium pills to children is a good or bad thing P 
— I think it is a good thing. It has done no harm. 1 
v/as given opium for three years when I was a child, 
and I do not suffer from it. 

22.414. Tou say there is no connexion to be traced 
between opium and crime P — No. 

22.415. But it has been generally said that excessive 
opium eaters in some parts of the country take to petty 
thefts P — I have not seen them here. I was police 
oflEicer in all the districts of Baroda for seveD years, and 
I never met with a single case. 

22.416. The Convention between the British Govern- 
ment and the Baroda Darbar of 1820 was made, I think, 
very soon after the war between the British Governmeni. 
and the Maratba-States P — Tes. 

22.417. Do you think the Baroda Darbar agreed to it 
of their own free will p — That 1 cannot say. It was 
forced upon them so far as I know. Even in 1878 it 
was forced upon them also for the interest of the 
British opium reventie. 

22.418. Sir Madhava Rao was not a man who would 
let himself be forced into a thing which he delilierately 
disapproved of ; he was a very independent man p — 
Tes ; he was a very independent man. 

22.419. I see that another witness has mentioned that 
there was also a sort of agreement in 1803 between the 
British Government P — There might have been, but I 
have not seen it. 

22.420. In Qonsidering the agreement of 1878, it must 
be remembered, must it not, that it was a fact that a 
very large quantity of Baroda opium was smuggled 
into British territory P — It is so stated, but we have 
not examples. 

22.421. But do you not know as a fact that it was so ? 
— I do not know that it was. Of course all that kind 
of pressure was brought upon the Baroda Darbar. 

22.422. That was a legitimate reason, so far as it 
existed, for pressure was it not P — Tes. 

22.423. Tou say that by the engagement entered into 
between the British Government and the Baroda 
Darbar, the Barodai Government lost an annual opium 
export revenue of Bs. 2,50,000 ?— That Rs. 2,50,000 is 
calculated at Rs. 135 per chest ; and there were other 
duties also, Chungi and Tolamni. 

22.424. Tou say that the consumption is decreasing, 
and that there are very few new consumers ; but the 
figures of retail sale which you give do not show any 
decrease, as it were P — No, not much decrease; but 
there has been a decrease for the last two years since 
the interruption of the Minimum Guarantee System. 
The farm guaranteed to sell 74,000 lbs. in 1891-92. It 
was a contract for three years. Since the last lease 
they only guaranteed the vend of 62,850 lbs. 

22.425. Tour figures of retail sale show no great 
decrease ?— It was 72,000 lbs. in 1891-92, and it was 
59,000 lbs. in 1892-93, and it was 66,000 lbs. in 1890-91 ; 
so that there is a good deal of decrease. 

22.426. Tou say, "Opium is used in anointing xha 
" Hindu gods. The following is the religious autJho- 
'" rity : " can you give us a translation of tnose lines ? 
— " Milk, curds, butter-milk, honey, sugar, cold water, 
" liquor, water washed from rice, opium, hemp, the 
" poison from dhatura, these are the articles i!3sd for 
" anointing Hindu gods; and anointing by opium is 



Mr. Anant 

(ianyadhar 

A'hote. 

(Baroda 

Slate.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



120 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION : 



" much more meritorious thau anointing with other 
" articles." 

22,4-27. Where does that come from ?— It is from the 

tenets from the Shastras, the persons who worship 

Marahatta* ; they are called Varmamagis.* 

Feb ^894 22,4.28. Is it a frequent practice to anoint gods with 

__^_J__ ■ opium ? — It is a frequent practice on certain days, that 

is on Shivfsrat, Panchmi and Durgapuja. 

22.429. You say, " Notwithstanding the existing 
" facilities for obtaining opium and the maintenance of 
" the preventive arrangements, do we not know that a 
" large quantity is still smuggled into our territory ; 
where does that smuggled opium come from ? — 
Generally from Malwa. 

22.430. And from Central India and Eajputana P — 
Yes. 

22,d.31. How is it smuggled ? — It is brought through 
the jungles ; it is not brought by railway. 

22,431a. How is it concealed? — It is concealed in bags, 
and it is generally carried at night. 

22.432. What preventive establishment is there — the 
police p — Yes ; we have preventive people as well aa 
policemen. 

22.433. You say, "The revenue is gradually rising 
" every year by the substitute of duty-paid opium for 
" smuggled opium"; do you mean that the revenue 
is rising, or that more licit opium is used every year ? 
— I have given the figures. I say the figures are 
going down. 

22.434. What do you mean by saying that the 
revenue is gradually rising ; do you moan that less 
illicit opium is used now ?■ — Yes. 

22.435. And the prevention of smuggling is im- 
proving p — Yes. 

22.436. The minimum guaranteed vend system was 
introduced in 1889 P — Yes, in 1889 in Baroda. 

22.437. It was introduced into British territory and 
Bombay about 1879, was it not p — I do not know 
exactly, but aa far as I remember I think it was in 
1874. 

22.438. Before the minimum guaranteed vend 
system was introduced, is it your opinion that the 
licensed vendors used to smuggle ? — Yes ; we had 
several cases like that on the record. 

22.439. But if they smuggled themselves, they could 
not easily inform against other people who smaggled, 
could they p — No, they could not. 

22.440. If they do not smuggle themselves, and buy 
from the Durbar, then, I suppose, they do inform as 
much as possible P — Yes, exactly. 

22.441. Do the licensed vendors give information 
which enables many smugglers to be caught P — They 
do sometimes. 

22,441a. {Mr. Tease.) Why does the advance of educa- 
tion cause ;), decrease in the consumption of opium p — 
The reason is, because the educated people would not 
advocate the cause of any narcotics. 

22.442. Do your educated people abstain from 
narcotics P — I cannot say, because opium is never con- 
sidered to be a very bad poison. It is sometimes 
necessary. 

22.443. What do you mean by the expression, that 
the drug is gradually losing instead of gaining ground 
before the advance of education ? — Educated people will 
not generally take opium. 

22.444. In what way does the seal of social con- 
demnation against opium show itself? — When a man 
uses opium excessively the people generally deride him. 

22.445. You make allusion to malarious fevers ; do 
you know of any cases of persons taking opium before 
they had been attacked with fever or some other ail- 
ment in order to prevent them from catching the fever p 
—Yes. 

22.446. Is the view that opium is a preventive against 
fever general in this district p— It is general in the 
jungle districts. 

22.447. I suppose that people here take quinine more 
than opium for that purpose p — So far as I know people 
do take quinine in the Baroda and Kari districts, 
whore there is not much malarious poison. 

22, 118. What is the price you give to the cultivators 
for their opium P— We give different rates at dill'erent 

* It has not been found possible to verify these two words. 



times. We give sometimes Es. 3.4 as., sometimes 
Rs. 2.4 as., and sometimes Rs. 2.8 as. It generally de- 
pends upon the stock we have in the depot. If the stock 
runs short we give a high price for a seer of juice. We 
manufacture the opium ; the people do not. 

22.449. Do I understand that your price varies from 
Rs. 2.8 as. to Rs. 8 for juice ? — No ; we give from 
Rs. 2.4 as., to Es. 3.8 as. 

22.450. You say that the State monopoly has helped 
to survive a dying trade and sinking credit ; why do 
you call it a dying trade P — Because at first the people 
were allowed to export, and now the Grovernment has 
taken the monopoly. 

22.451. According to the return you have given us 
in 1891-92 there were 72,000 lbs. sold, and in the suc- 
ceeding year, 1892-93, the quantity came down to 
59,500 lbs., which is a reduction of 20 per cent. In 
what way do you account for that ; do you think it was 
an increase of illicit opium, or a decrease in the con- 
sumption, or that there was some decrease in what 
was held over the year before P — I cannot exactly give 
you the reason. The reason which I would assign is 
that there may have been less marriages and births 
and other ceremonies where opium is very largely 
consumed. 

22.452. Is there any opium smoking in Baroda? — No. 

22.453. Is there any opium smoking in clubs or in 
private houses as far as you know P — No, nowhere. 

22.454. Is it your estimate that a person may be a 
moderate consumer who consumes up to 30 grains a 
day ? — Yes ; even persons taking 30 grains of opinm a 
day are not the worse for it ; they enjoy perfect health. 

22.455. Do you mean persons with specially strong 
constitutions ; there are many people who would suffer 
very much if they took much less quantity, are there 
not? — Yes. 

22.456. And there are many people who have not 
good nourishing food who sufi'er from taking opium ; 
you say it is never harmful unless it is consumed with- 
out good nourishing food P — I mean taken in excess. 
Opium taken in excess without nourishment is very 
harmful. 

22.457. Yon have observed that ? — Yes. 

22.458. In what way is it possible to force down the 
throats of people medicines mixed with spirits ? — 
People regard all tinctures as being mixed with spirits ; 
so whatever liquid is given to the people they regard it 
as spirit. 

22.459. In what way is there any compulsion to take 
tinctures? — What will they take if opium is taken 
away from them ? 

22.460. Can you tell me the amount of revenue 
derived by the .State from opium P^The net revenue 
is about Rs. 5,00,000 retail sale. 

22.461. Do you not think that your system of requir- 
ing a minimum guarantee is almost equivalent to 
saying to the licensed vendor, " After you have sold a 
" certain amount of Government opium, then you may 
" sell illicit opinm"? — I do not think that is the 
meaning we attach to it. It is not that. 

22.462. The object of a minimum guarantee is to 
prevent the licensed vendor from selling illicit opium 
until he has sold the Government quantity p — Yes ; but 
he can take an extra quantity if he likes when the 
minimum is finished. 

22.463. (Mr. Haridas Vehandas.) You say that there 
is no other crop which can be substituted for poppy 
with equal advantage. I believe before the present 
system there were other parts in the Baroda territory 
where opium was grown ? — Certainly. 

22,404. And the cultivation was put a slop to ? 

Yes. 

22.465. The cultivators were obliged to discontinue 
the poppy cultivation which was very beneficial to 
them; have the Government of Baroda made any 
siixangements with the cultivators in the way of com- 
pensation p— No, the Government has not made any 
arrangements to give compensation, but the cultivators 
deserve it, I suppose. 

22.466. You say that the cultivation of poppy is one 
hundredth of the other cultivation in the Kari division. 
Have you compared the condition of the cultivators 
who grow poppy with those who do not ? — I could give 
you the amount of the yield and all the expenses for a 
bigha. 



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. 



121 



22.467. I want to know whether the poppy cultivators 
are much better off than those who grow other crops ? 
— They aie much better off according to my own 
experience. The people of TJnja are much better off. 

22.468. Have you any applications from cultivator.s 
to grow more poppy than you require for your 
purposes P — Tes. 

22.469. And do you ever refuse those applications P — 
Once in 1891 I restricted the cultivation to a few 
Talukdars. There was a great clamour. They sent 
m a lot of petitions to Baroda asking permission to 
extend the sphere of cultivation, and we granted it. 

22.470. The cultivators themselves did not reduce 
the area of cultivation, but you refused to allow them 
to cultivate ? — When we do not want much juice we 
give less rates. 

22.471. So that you do not consult the convenience and 
desire of the cultivators as regards poppy cultivation, 
but you have to consult your own needs P — Exactly ; 
because we have got the monopoly. 

22.472. You have said that you were a police officer. 
I believe you had the authority to fill up vacancies ? — 
Yes. 

22.473. In case there was a vacancy in the ranks of 
the police, and two candidates appeared, in other 
respects equal, but one took opium and the other did 
not, on whom would your choice fall ? — I should make 
no distinction provided the opium eater was healthy. 

22.474. You would not mind whether he took more 
or less opium so long as he was healthy P — It depends 
upon the health of the person. 

22.475. The habit of taking opium would not come in 
the way of an efficient performance of duty would it P — 
So long as the habit did not come in the way of a man 
efficiently performing his duty it would make no diffe- 
rence with me. 

22.476. {Chairman.) You have said that the Durbar 
pays from Es. 2. 4 as. to Es. 3. 8 as. per seer for the 
opium juice P — Yes. 

22.477. In Rajputana we heard that the Sahukars and 
Bohras pay from Es. 4 to Rs. 6 or even more than that 
per seer ? — Yes ; but we do not. 



22.478. Ill Bengal the British Government pays Es. 
5 per seer. Cnn you explain why the Durbar rates 
soem so low P— I do not know why that is, because when 
we manufacture opium it comes up to Es. 6. The 
issuing rate is Es. 10. I do not think the rates are very 
low. 

22.479. Can you tell me what the ball of opium for 
export costs per seer ? — Es. 5 almost. 

"22,480. No more than that f— No. 

22,481. You are not in charge of that Department, 
are you, and perhaps you do not quite know P — No ; I 
do not exactly know. 

22,-182. Probably the Excise superintendent will be 
able to answer that question P — Yes. 

22.483. You have said that no compensation was 
given to the cultivators in those parts of Baroda where 
cultivation was stopped. Can you tell me in what part 
the cultivation was stopped, and in what part it was 
allowed P — It was stopped in Petlad and the Amreli 
districts. 

22.484. Anywhere else P— It was also stopped at 
Dhegaum. 

22.485. Is that a Taluka or district P— A Taluka. 

22.486. In the rest of the territory it was allowed P — 
There are four districts in Baroda: Nausari, where 
poppy was not grown at all ; Baroda, where poppy was 
grown ; in Petlad it was stopped ; and poppy was 
grown in some of the Talukas of the Amreli district : 
that was stopped ; and it was stopped at Dhegaum and 
Attursumba, which are in the Kari district. 

22.487. Was there much poppy cultivation in Petlad P 
— I have not got the figures but there was, as far as I 
know. 

22.488. Was the poppy cultivation in the Talukas of 
Amreli much or slight ? — I think it was slight there. 

22.489. I suppose it was stopped where it was difficult 
to look after or where it was slight p — It was stopped 
for two reasons — it was very difficult to lock after, and 
the yield was very small. 



Mr. Avant 
Gangadhar 

Khote. 

{Baroda 

Stale.) 

7 Feb. 1894. 



The witness withdrew. 



Mr. Ealph Keeshaw called in and examined. 



22.490. (Chairman.) You are opium superintendent of 
the Baroda State ? — Yes. 

22.491. How long have you been in the Durbar's 
employ ? — About 16 years — since 1878. 

22.492. Have you all along been in your present 
appointment P — Chiefly in my present appointment. I 
have been assistant in the Dewan's office, but most of 
the time I have been superintendent. 

22.493. If the production and use of opium for non- 
medical purposes are prohibited throughout British 
India, could such prohibition be extended to the Baroda 
State ? — Such prohibition can not be extended to the 
Baroda State. " The production and use of opium " m 
Baroda are a matter of treaty rights. The right of 
producing opium for export and local consumption has 
been granted to Baroda under the treaty of 1878 ; and 
the transit of its exportable opium is guaranteed also, 
provided it passes through the British scales at Ahme- 
dabad and the full British duty is paid. [Eeferenoes ; — 
Raja Sir T. Madhav Rao's letter No. 2562 dated 9th 
March 1878 : Aitohison's Treaties, New edition. Vol. 
YI ; Resolution of the G-overnment of Bombay dated 
6th April 1878, No. 1771 ; Paras. 3 to 6 of a letter 
No, 4020 dated 9th November 1878, from the Govern- 
ment of India to the Government of Bombay.] Under 
this treaty His Highness' Government undertook two 
monopolies; flrst.that of the production of opium; second, 
that of retail sale. The British Government on their 
part agreed " (1) To permit the Baroda Administration 
" to import an amount of opium required for actual 
" licit consumption within the Baroda State at cost 
" price and free of duty from Malwa or from the 
" Government Depots. (2) To permit the Baroda 
" administration to export opium locally produced to 
" Bombay through the scales at Ahmedabad on payment 
" of the full British duty." Vide Para. 3 of a letter of 
the Government of India to the Government of Bombay 
dated 9th November 1878, No. 4023. The principal 
obligations which the treaty enjoins on the Baroda 

O 82.588. 



Government are first, that the cultivation of the poppy 
in the Baroda territories should be restricted to the 
Kari Division of those territories alone ; second, that the 
cultivation should be limited to licit demand for home 
consumption and for export ; third, that the cultivation 
should be by license ; fourth, that the State should buy 
all the juice and convert it into opium; fifth, that the 
opium for export should be in charge of the State till it 
has paid British duty at Ahmedabad ; sixth, that the 
retail sale should be carried out under a complete 
Sirkar Monopoly, analogous to that prevailing in British 
provinces, the prices being assimilated, and seventh, that 
the Baroda Government should give the strictest and 
most loyal adherence to, and enforcement of the 
arrangements, and exert its utmost efforts to carry 
them out faithfully and cordially. The obligations 
which the treaty enjoins on the British Government, as 
noted above, are first. That they should permit transit of 
Baroda exportable opium, taken to the scales at Ahme- 
dabad, on payment of the full British duty and second, 
allow opium required for consumption within the 
Baroda State at cost price and free of duty from Malwa 
or Government depots. • As long as the Baroda 
Government continues its " strictest and most loyal 
" adherence to and enforcement of the arrangements, 
" and also its utmost efforts against the prevention of 
" the illicit export of opium beyond its territories," 
there can be no withdrawal from, or interference with, 
the tieaty. Any attempt at prohibition in regard to 
the production or use of opium would, under the 
circumstances, be obviously unjustifiable. It may be 
added that the Baroda Administration was most re- 
luctant to adopt the arrangements proposed in the new 
treaty, and did so only " yielding to the pressure of the 
situation " and in protection of the British Opium 
Eevenue. In undertaking the monopoly of production 
the Baroda Government had, much against its wish 
and conviction, to interfere in respect of "a cultivation 
" which had been going on from former times and 
" which had attained a considerable magnitude under 

Q 



Mr.B. 
Kershaw, 
(Baroda 

Slate.) 



122 



INDIAN OPIUM COMMISSION 



Mr.Ii. " influences similar to those which had operated to 
Kershaw. " increase the production in the Native States of 

" Central India. Very large interests had grown up 

" in progress of time " and these had to be summarily 
swept away. Furthai the Baroda (Torernment heavily 
sufiered in its export Revenue to the extent of abouu 2 
to 3 lacs and the prosperity of the trade of the Division 
where opium was being cultivated was tQaterially 
affected. The capitalists as well as the village money- 
lenders received such a severe shock from the unex- 
pected, and the sudden introduction of the measure 
that the trade has not yet recovered from its effects. 
Fifteen years have passed since, still the trade of the 
Division remains dormant, and the traders, in every 
grievance relating to their condition prominently put 
forward the introduction of the State Monopoly as the 
chief cause. The opium growing ryot suffered also, 
and suffered considerably. The credit he had then 
and the easy interest he had to pay are now the things 
of the past. He grew his ojjium for a private trader — 
his own money-lender — with whom he had transactions 
on all occasions whether for the settlement of Govern- 
ment demands, or marriages, births or deaths as his 
fathers had before him. He drew on this bank liberally 
and the bank honoured his orders. But things have 
altered since. The condition of the opium grower is 
far from being the same. He grows opium now for the 
Sirkar who certainly gives him advances, but only to 
meet the expenses of his cultivation ; in all other 
respects he is still dependent upon the money-lenders, 
deeper in debt and worried much and oft. He finds 
credit simply because he still cultivates the only 
precious crop in the parts where it is grown. In 
carrying out the retail sale monopoly the Grovernment 
had to buy up, and often at a loss, all the old opium in 
the territories and also imported from Malwa. It hap- 
pened to be in a year when the Malwa crop having 
suffered the price of opium had risen nnprecedentedly 
high. ' ' The most extraordinary excitement in trade " 
says the Baroda Q-azettcer " sprang up in the Division 
" (Kari) during late years from speculation in opium. 
'' The intensity of the desire to deal iu opium reached 
' ' a climax in the very year when the State made the 
" manufacture and sale of opium a State monopoly, 
" that is, on and after the 1st October 1878. Every 
" class of people even those who were ignorant of the 
" meaning of trade or the qualities of good and bad 
" opivim rushed headlong into the speculation and 
" suffered proportionately." The Baroda Grovernment 
under the obligation of the treaty arrangements had to 
enter the market and buy up the whole produce of the 
Division. It can easily bo imagined how distasteful 
was the action of Grovernment with the trader and the 
cultivator, how gi'eat the commotion and the clamour 
of dissatisfaction. I was an eyewitness to the whole 
and as opium superintendent a worker in the field . I 
do not even now, after the lapse of so many years, 
forget the difBoulties and disagreeableness of the work. 
"Any measure" says Eaja Sir T. Madhava Eao 
" having for its aim the immediate or ulterior sup- 
" pression of the production of opium here, cannot but 
" be as unfair and as unwelcome to this native State 
" as to any native State of Malwa." Sir Madhava 
Bao wrote this previous to the framing of the present 
treaty. How much more unfair and unwelcome it 
would be now when the State at a great sacrifice and 
loss of revenue accepted the treaty, and has been most 
strictly and most loyally fulfilling its obligations. 
' ' Yielding to the pressure of the situation '' may be all 
well and fair, in the interest of the fiscal measures, of 
the paramount power and in the protection of its 
revenue, when by illicit measures that revenue suffered, 
but not so, when the state of things is different, and 
the Baroda Grovernment puts forth as agreed to, its 
utmost efforts towards the prevention of the illicit 
export of opium beyond its teriitory. 

22,494. What is the nature of the existing arrange- 
ments with the native States in respect of the transit of 
opium through British ten'itory ; could those arrange- 
ments be with justice terminated P — This question has 
to a great extent been dealt with in the previous answer. 
The existing arrangements with the Baroda State in 
respect of the transit of opium through British territory 
form the subject <:il' one and the same treaty as those in 
regard to the production and use of opium. The Baroda 
Government in having agreed to estaljlish a State 
monopoly had in rfturn certain concessions granted, 
or, to quote the words of the Government of India : — 

" His Excellency in Council notices that the Baroda 
'' Durbar has formally acknowledged its willingness to 



" carry out the principal provisions of the Agreement of 
" 1820, viz., to establish State opium monopoly system, 
" on the basis oi: the Bengal system and to limit the 
" production of opium to the extent of the licit demand 
" and that the Government of Bombay has decided to 
" continue the following concessions to His Highness 
" the Giaikwar's Government." One of these conces- 
sions being, to quote again the words of the Government 
of India : — 

(2.) " To permit the Baroda Administration to export 
" opium locally produced to Bombay through 
" the scales at Ahmedabad on payment of the 
" full British duty. 

"These concessions have been granted on 
" the understanding that His Highness the 
" Gaikwar's Government will not import and 
" export opium other than those thus defined 
" iu toor from the British territories and loyally 
" carry out all the other terms of the Agree- 
" ment. 

" His Excellency the Governor-General in 
" Council fully approves the arrangement 
'■ made with the Baroda State as detailed in 
" the Eesolution of the Government of Bombay 
" dated 6th A.pril 1878. No. 1,771." 

Let it be plainly stated with all respect, that under 
this treaty of 1878, so clearly ratified by the Govern- 
ment of India, the British Government would have to 
pass Baroda grown opium to Bombay provided, first 
that it is presented in its own charge at the scales at 
Ahmedabad and secondly the full British duty is paid 
there, even were there to be a complete prohibition 
against all export of opium from British territory. 
Under the same treaty arrangements the British 
Government have to pass through their intervening 
territories opium conveyed from one part of the Baroda 
territory to another for licit consumption. Let it be 
noted that these are not all new rights obtained under 
the present treaty. Even under the Convention of 
1820 (taking it in the sense in which the British 
Government demanded it to be observed after over 
half a century) Baroda was entitled to produce opium 
for use iu its territories, and in case the stock ran out 
to obtain the required quantity free of duty from the 
British depots or from Malwa. But the Convention of 
1820 had never been observed. Its provisions remained 
a dead letter. No State monopoly of retail sale as 
therein provided for had been created. The State 
never purchased up all the opium produced in its terri- 
tory. The cultivator was left free to grow opium 
according to the demand of the market, the trader to 
buy the produce of the field, cake it, and export it or 
sell it in the territcjry. Being the highest and most 
paying crop the cultivation grew and multiplied. 
Export trade increased rapidly commencing with 1867, 
the occasion being the- establishment of the scales at 
Ahmedabad. In 1862 over 3,900 chests passed through 
scales at Ahmedabad for export to Bombay paying 



tb 



pass-fee there ; still the British Government"' did" nol 
object to the action of the Baroda Government. Every 
year a large number of chests continued to be conveyed 
to the scales by private merchants, and the British 
Government went on passing the chests and collecting 
their duty. Between 1862 and 1N77 over 32,150 chests 
had passed through the scales and paid British duty. 
Large agricultural and mercantile interests thus grew 
up in course of time. Pi'actices sprang up which had 
obtained the strength of prescriptive rights. Neither 
the cultivator nor the merchant knew anything about 
the Convention of ls20, nor about the question raised 
m regard to it. Over a generation the cultivation and 
trade had existed, and it never entered into their calcu- 
lation that there was anything so destructive of their 
prosperity as the State monopoly, looming so near. 
The Malwa crop failed, the price rose to a tempting 
height, and all without distinction of sex or condition 
rushed into the speculation hastening to be rich. In 
the same year the convention of 1820 which existed 
only in name was set aside and the present monopoly 
introduced. It was a rude awakening for all parties. 
^ 2J,49.'.. ^rhat comiion'^ation ivould Native States be 
fairly entitled to iu case of measures of prohibition 
being adopted P —There can be no question of com- 
pensation in a, case of treaty rights like the one above 
noted. Can such prohibition be extended with justice 
is the second question. It has been shown in answer 
that it cannot be done so with "justice.'' The 
question, therefore, of compensation calls " for no 
answer. It is only in the case of the Baroda Govern- 
ment agreeing with the British Government to come 



Minutes of evidence. 



123 



to a compromise on the subject matter of the treaty, 
that the question of compensation could be brought on 
the board. But I am certain that His Highness' 
Government have no -wish, even were the highest com- 
pensation made, to accede to an act which would be 
ruinous to the agricultural interests of the State, and 
the little trade that remains in the Kari division ; 
that would interfere without cause with the individual 
and social liberty of its subjects, that would drive out 
one imaginary evil spirit to make room for seven in the 
shape of some other drug, that would create dissatis- 
faction and disturbance among its subjects ; in short 
what would be a serious political blunder as will be 
shown further on in detail. Besides in a ri)atter like 
this it is impossible to ascertain the amount of com- 
pensation. It is not only a case where a certain fixed 
revenue is concerned where one may take the figure 
of average profit. In the present case, there are the 
agricultural interests involved and there is the fear of 
impoverishing the ryots by prohibiting one of the 
richest crops, and the only rich crop ir, the parts where 
opium is grown. It is a question of land revenue. 
There may arise difficulties, and I declare there will, 
as to the collection of the assessment, because by the 
prohibition of the poppy cultivation, the cultivator will 
not only be deprived of his best and most paying crop, 
but of that which gives him credit with his money- 
lender and what poor ryot is without his Sahukar 
or money-lender P It is hard to ascertain precisely 
how the revenue will suffer in this matter. In case of 
difficulty of collection there will have to be used the 
harassing process of distraining which will drive away 
the Ryot, and necessitate the writing ofi" of ai-rears, or 
the reduction of land assessment. Again, when a state 
unjustly deprives a cultivator of his right of cultiva- 
ting a crop on which he chiefly depends for meeting 
the dues of the Sirkar may he not fairly expect a com- 
pensation in some way or other. How can such a 
compensation be settled at once ? Further, a total 
prohibition of cultivation is one thing, but when a. 
partial cultivation is kept up only for medical purposes 
there wiU be required a most expensive preventive 
force. It is hard to imagine just yet what the strength 
of such an establishment would be. The prohibition 
is bound to raise the price of opium to a speculative 
height which will open a way to extensive smuggling. 
In fact the greatest difficulty will be to settle the area 
and the district for a cultivation of the drug purely 
for medical purposes, and if such a thing is sold by 
auction there can be no question of its fetching a high 
amount. And what guarantee is there that there will 
not be illicit cultivation notwithstanding an extensive 
preventive establishment. Every field will have to be 
watched, and even if the area is kept under control 
and supervision there is the question of collection 
of the juice. There will be every reason for the 
cultivator to keep back as much of juice as he can. 
Of course, there will be one of the members of the 
preventive department there, but will not the tempta- 
tion prove too much for a peon on five, a havaldar on 
ten, or oven a mehta on Rs. 20 a month. Then there 
come.s the caking process. For though the trade to 
China may cease and the use of opium locally may be 
prohibited and made penal, still the opium will have 
to be caked, or if not caked, dried in some shape or 
other, before being used for medical purposes. This 
will have to be constantly watched, and the cakers will 
have to be highly paid ; and yet it is hard to say 
whether the temptation to steal or smuggle opium will 
not prove too much for their poor strength. I can go 
on dealing with the diflTerent processes in this manner 
until the opium goes into the custody of the medical 
man, for medical use, and even there difficulties will 
arise and a watching will be required. It is not 
possible, therefore, to come to any definite conclusion 
as to the strength and expense of a detective force. 
Without all these particulars no amount can be deter- 
mined as to compensation. But taking the above facts 
into consideration together with the resulting loss of 
export trade the amount may be roughly estimated at 
twelve lacs of rupei'S a year. 

22,496. Have you ,any general observations to make 
with reference to the eiJects which the prohibition of 
the cultivation and use of opium is likely to have ?— 
As I propose to express my opinion in regard to the 
efi'ects which the prohibition of the cultivation and use 
of opium is likely to have, in case of the former on the 
aigricultural and money-lending classes, and in case of 
the latter on individuals and the society in general ; as 
I shall liave in the course of my remarks to compare 
the efl'ccts of opium with those of alcohol, as they have 



come under my personal notice, and also to speak of the 
feelings and fears of the people in regard to the present 
movement and to make observations of a similar 
nature, and as I propose to give evidence on these 
points in addition to those noted above, it is but fair 
that 1 should indicate here what opportunities I have 
had to obtain information regarding these matters. I 
have been in His Highness the G-aekwar's service for 
over 15 years, that is since the establishment of 
State opium monopoly in the Baroda State, to carry 
out which I was appointed by the Baroda Government 
as superintendent of the Opium Department. I am 
also superintendent of Customs and Abkari in the 
Kari Division. My position as opium superintendent 
constantly brings me in contact with the Ryots in 
general and the opium-growing Ryots in particular, 
and with the trading and money-lending classes ; and 
hence I have had many opportunities to inform myself 
on the subjects I'egarding which I shall speak here. I 
have also been with more than one Christian missions 
and churches in the capacity of educational teacher or 
preacher, in Bombay, Poena, and Gujarat ; and from 
the knowledge I gained in these and other capacities, 
I am enabled to form my opinion as to the comparative 
effects of opium and alcohol on individuals, on society, 
on crime, and on morality and religion. What I shall 
say will be only in regard to the practical view of the 
question, the physiological being left to experts. With 
these remarks, which I feel were due under the circum- 
stance, I shall proceed to the subject and be as brief as 
possible on each point, leaving the subject to bo ex- 
panded as the questions arise. Independent of the 
matter of treaty rights and monetary gain or loss, the 
Baroda Government has also to take into account the 
efi'ects that the prohibition of the production and use 
of opium would be likely to have in its territory. I 
shall first address myself to the subject of the prohibi- 
tion of the production of opium : — 

{a.) It would be ruinous to the opium-cultivating 
Ryots of the Kari Division where the poppy is 
grown. 

"Any measure," says Eaja Sir T. Madhava 
Rao, "having the eifects of sooner oi' later 
■' destroying the production of opium in 
" Baroda territories would not only prove 
'• ruinous to the agricultural districts and 
" comnierioial industries therewith connected, 
" and to the revenues therefrom derived by 
" this State, but would also, I submit, be 
" prejudicial to British interests. 

" Again, with the suppression of opium pro- 
'' duction in Baroda territories the revenue 
" derived therefrom mvist disappear." 

Sir Madhava Rao wrote this when he was fighting his 
ground, inch by inch, against the introduction of the 
State monopoly in the Baroda State. But still the 
monopoly gained in the field and is now in full posses- 
sion. With the establishment of the monopoly " the 
" commercial enterprises connected with the produc- 
" tion of opium " ceased to exist. The agi'icultural in- 
terests suffered also. But if the cultivation is completely- 
prohibited it would create great agrioviltural distress in 
the parts where opium is grown. It would in fact be 
altogether ruinous to the ryot. The reason is obvious. 
In the parts where opium is grown there is no crop of 
equal value or anything near it that the cultivator 
would go in for in case of the prohibition. The soil is 
light and sandy and rejects such valuable crops as 
sugarcane, cotton, &c. In fact as these opium ryots 
have told me they cannot even grow chillies instead, if 
opium was stopped. It is a soil good enough for food 
grains and cereals of some kinds, l)ut not for such crops 
that would equal opium or replace it. It is well known 
what lifelong and intimate transactions — transactions 
which come down from sire to son — exist between the 
ryot and the money-lender. In these transactions 
opium holds the chief place. The opium-grower is 
readily trusted by the Sahukar who comes to his help 
on all occasions, whether of marriage, birth, or death, 
or Govornment dues, or other monetary difficulties, 
because the Sahukar is comparatively sure of not losing 
his money. I have known many oases in which Sahu- 
kars have refused to lend money to ryots on account 
of their failing to grow opium one year, unless they 
promise to do so next year. The crop yields on an 
average 15 lbs. of opium juice and seven and a half 
maunds (three hundred pounds) of poppy-seed per acre. 
Taking the former at the avcrag.j low rate of three 
rupees a pound and the latter at two rupees a maund, 
the total amount comes to Rs. 60 an acre. Besides, in 

<4 2 



Mr.R. 

Kershaw. 

7 Feb. 1894. 



124 



INDIAN OPIUM. COMMISSION! 



Mr.n. 

Kershaw. 

7 Feb. 1894. 



some sub.divisions it is usual to take » crop of lajrci 
before utilizing the land for the poppy ; and though the 
yield of opium juice is a little less va svich cases yet the 
margin of protic loft upon the whole is larger. The 
cultivator is also benefited in his land, as a iield grown 
with poppy gives in the succeeding year a better yield 
of wheat or other cereals that may be sown in it. Not- 
withstanding the bad years and less return of food 
grains and foddei- on one side and the State keeping 
down the cultivation by giving low prices on account 
of the market in Bombay being against the export of 
opium due to low prices on the other, on an average 
over 8,000 licenses a year are issued. It must be 
remembered that though the licensee may be one lie 
has not unfrequenlly i)eki' Ihagias (co-sharers) and 
especially so in a crop like Ihat of opium, which, being 
valuable, requires much care, labour, and attention. 
Tiie cultivation is not confined to any particular class, 
it is popular with all classes. The largest number of 
cultivators are kanbis. But the Dher and even the 
Bhangi grows opium. The families of the opium 
growers arc during the season engaged in the field. 
The labouring classes of the village find work during 
the weeding and the juice collecting season. Stop a 
cultivation so profitable and helpful without any other 
to replace it, and it goes without saying that the coii- 
Bequences will be serious. Agricultural distress and 
general discontent must follo-\v. Impoverished ryots 
must throw Government dues into arrears. Distrain- 
ing processes will drive away the defaulters, and, in 
the long run, the result all round will be e.x.ceedingly 
undesirable impoverishment to the people and loss to 
the revenue. The prohibition will also afl'ect the 
money-lending classes. The village money-lenders arc 
not capitalists. They themselves are generally bor- 
rowers of money. They take loans from the capitalists 
at a certidn interest and lend out money to the culti- 
vator on a higher interest. Since the establishment of 
the State monopoly the interest has ris